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department for Lutheran and Catholic affairs. War was at Frederick William II. was twice married: (i) in 1765 to once declared on what-to use a later term-we may call Elizabeth of Brunswick (d. 1841), by whom he had a daughter, the “ modernists." The king, so long as Wöllner was content Frederika, afterwards duchess of York, and from whom he was to condone his immorality (which Bischoffswerder, to do him divorced in 1769; (2) in 1769 to Frederika Louisa of Hesse. justice, condemned), was eager to help the orthodox crusade. Darmstadt, by whom he had four sons, Frederick William III., On the oth of July was issued the famous rcligious edict, which Louis (d. 1796), Henry and William, and two daughters, Wilhel-, forbade Evangelical ministers to teach anything not contained mina, wife of William of Orange, afterwards William I., king of in the letter of their official books, proclaimed the necessity of the Netherlands, and Augusta, wife of William II., elector of protecting the Christian religion against the “ enlighteners" Hesse. Besides his relations with his maitresse en litre, the (Aufklärer), and placed educational establishments under the countess Lichtenau, the king-who was a frank polygamist--, supervision of the orthodox clergy. On the 18th of December contracted two“ marriages of the left hand ” with Fräulein von a new censorship law was issued, to secure the orthodoxy of all Voss and the countess Dönhoff. published books, and finally, in 1791, a sort of Protestant See article by von Hartmann in Allgem. deutsche Biog. (Leipzig, Inquisition was established at Berlin (Immediat-Examinations. 1878): Stadelmann, Preussens Könige in ihrer Tätigkeit für die commission) 'to watch over all ecclesiastical and scholastic Friedrich Wilhelm II., sein Privatleben u. seine Regierung (Frankfurt

Landeskultur, vol. iti. "Friedrich Wilhelm II."(Leipzig, 1885); Paulig, appointments. In his zeal for orthodoxy, indeed, Frederick an-der-Oder, 1896). William outstripped his minister, he even blamed Wöllner's FREDERICK WILLIAM III. (1770-1840), king of Prussia, "idleness and vanity" for the inevitable failure of the attempt | eldest son of King Frederick William II., was born at Potsdam to regulate opinion from above, and in 1794 deprived him of one on the 3rd of August 1770. His father, then prince of Prussia, of his secular offices in order that he might have more time was out of favour with Frederick the Great and entirely under the "to devote himself to the things of God"; in ediet after edict influence of his mistress; and the boy, handed over to tutors the king continued to the end of his reign to make regulations appointed by the king, lived a solitary and repressed life which " in order to maintain in his states a true and active Christianity, tended to increase the innate weakness of his character. But, as the path to genuine fear of God."

though his natural defects of intellect and will-power were not The effects of this policy of blind obscurantism farout weighed improved by the pedantic tutoring to which he was submitted, any good that resulted from the king's well-meant efforts at he grew up pious, honest and well-meaning; and had fate cast economic and financial reform, and even this reform was but him in any but the most stormy times of his country's history spasmodic and partial, and awoke ultimately more discontent he might well have left the reputation of a model king. As a than it allayed . But far more fateful for Prussia was the king's soldier he received the usual training of a Prussian prince, attitude towards the army and foreign policy. The army was obtained his lieutenancy in 1784, became a colonel commanding the very foundation of the Prussian state, a truth which both in 1790, and took part in the campaigns of 1792-94. In 1793 Frederick William I. and the great Frederick had fully realized; he married Louise, daughter of Prince Charles of Mecklenburgthe army had been their first care, and its efficiency had been Strelitz, whom he had met and fallen in love with at Frankfort maintained by their constant personal supervision. Frederick (sce Louise, queen of Prussia). He succecded to the throne on William, who had no laste for military matters, put his authority 'the 16th of November 1797 and at once gave earnest of his good as “ War-Lord " into commission under a supreme college of intentions by cutting down the expenses of the royal establish-, war (Oberkriegs-Collegium) under the duke of Brunswick and ment, dismissing his father's ministers, and reforming the most General von Möllendorf. It was the beginning of the process oppressive abuses of the late reign. Unfortunately, however, that ended in 1806 at Jena.

he had all the Hohenzollern tenacity of personal power without In the circumstances Frederick William's intervention in the Hohenzollern genius-for using it. Too distrusisul to delegate European affairs was not likely to prove of benefit to Prussia. his responsibility to his ministers, he was too infirm of will to The Dutch campaign of 1787, entered on for purely family strike out and follow a consistent course for himself. reasons, was indeed successful, but Prussia received not even The results of this infirmity of purpose are written large on the the cost of her intervention An attempt to intervene in the war history of Prussia from the treaty of Lunéville in 1801 to the , of Russia and Austria against Turkey failed of its object, Prussia downfall that followed the campaign of Jena in 1806. By the did not succeed in obtaining any concessions of territory from treaty of Tilsit (July 9th, 1807) Frederick William had to the alerms of the Allies, and the dismissal of Hertzberg in surrender half his dominions, and what remained to him was 1791 marked the final abandonment of the anti-Austrian tradi- exhausted by French exactions and liable at any moment to tion of Frederick the Great, For, meanwhile, the French Revolu- be crushed out of existence by some new whim of Napoleon. tion had entered upon alarming phases, and in August 1791 In the dark years that followed it was the indomitable courage Frederick William, at the meeting at Pillnitz, arranged with the of Queen Louise that helped the weak king not to despair of the emperor Leopold to join in supporting the cause of Louis XVI. state, She seconded the reforming efforts of Stein and the work But neither the king's character, nor the consusion of the Prussian of Scharnhorst and Gneisenau in reorganizing the army, by which finances due to his extravagance, gave promise of any effective the resurrection of Prussia became a possibility. When Stein action. A formal alliance was indeed signed on the 7th of was dismissed at the instance of Napoleon, Hardenberg succeeded February 1792, and Frederick William took part personally in him as chancellor (June 1810). In the following month Queen the campaigns of 1792 and 1793. He was hampered, however, Louise died, and the king was left alone to deal with circumby want of funds, and his counsels were distracted by the affairs stances of ever-increasing difficulty. He was forced to join of Poland, which promised a richer booty than was likely to be Napoleon in the war against Russia; and even when the gained by the anti-revolutionary crusade into France. A subsidy disastrous campaign of 1812 had for the time broken the French treaty with the sea powers (April 19, 1794) filled his coffers, but power, it was not his own resolution, but the loyal disloyalty the insurrection in Poland that followed the partition of 1793, of General York in concluding with Russia the convention of and the threat of the isolated intervention of Russia, hurried Tauroggen that forced him into line with the patriotic servour him into the separate treaty of Basel with the French Republic of his people. (Apr 5, 1795), which was regarded by the great monarchies as Once committed to the Russian alliance, however, he became a betrayal, and left Prussia morally isolated in Europe on the the faithful henchman of the emperor Alexander, whose fascinateve of the titanic struggle between the monarchical principle ing personality exercised over him to the last a singular power, and the new political creed of the Revolution. Prussia had paid and began that influence of Russia at the court of Berlin which a heavy price for the territories acquired at the expense of Poland was to last till Frederick William IV.'s supposed Liberalism was in 1793 and 1795, and when, on the 16th of November 1797, to shatter the cordiality of the entenle. That during and after the Frederiek William died, he left the state in bankruptcy and settlement of 1815 Frederick William played a very secondary Tonfusion, the army decayed and the monarchy discredited part in European affairs is explicable as well by his character as

by the absorbing character of the internal problems of Prussia. I in the terrible years after 1806, and his frst expenence of active He was one of the original co-signatories of the Holy Alliance, soldiering was in the campaigns that ended in the occupation of though, in common with most, he signed it with reluctance; Paris by the Allies in 1814. In action his reckless bravery had and in the counsels of the Grand Alliance he allowed himself to earned him rebuke, and in Paris he was remarked for the exact be practically subordinated to Alexander and later to Metternich. performance of his military duties, though he found time to whet In a ruler of his character it is not surprising that the Revolution his appetite for art in the matchless collections gathered by and its devclopments had produced an unconquerable suspicion Napoleon as the spoil of all Europe. On his return to Berlin of constitutional principles and methods, which the Liberal he studied art under the sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch and agitations in Germany tended to increase. At the various the painter and architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel (1781-1841), congresses, from Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) to Verona (1822), there- proving himself in the end a good draughtsman, a born architect fore, he showed himself heartily in sympathy with the repressive and an excellent landscape gardener. At the same time he was policy formulated in the Troppau Protocol. The promise of a being tutored in law by Savigny and in finance by a series of constitution, which in the excitement of the War of Liberation distinguished masters. In 1823 he married the princess Elizabeth he had made to his people, remained unfulfilled partly owing to of Bavaria, who adopted the Lutheran creed. The union, this mental attitude, partly, however, to the all but insuperable though childless, was very happy. A long tour in Italy in 1828 difficulties in the way of its execution. But though reluctant was the beginning of his intimacy with Bunsen and did much to to play the part of a constitutional king, Frederick William develop his knowledge of art and love of antiquity. maintained to the full the traditional character of“ first servant On his accession to the throne in 1840 much was espected of the state.” Though he chastised Liberal professors and of a prince so variously gifted and of so amiable a temper, and turbulent students, it was in the spirit of a benevolent Landes- his first acts did not belie popular hopes. He reversed the vater; and he laboured assiduously at the enormous task of unfortunate ecclesiastical policy of his father, allowing a wide administrative reconstruction necessitated by the problem of liberty of dissent, and releasing the imprisoned archbishop of welding the heterogeneous elements of the new Prussian kingdom Cologne; he modified the strictness of the press censorship; into a united whole. He was sincerely religious; but his well above all he undertook, in the presence of the deputations of the meant efforts to unite the Lutheran and Reformed Churches, provincial diets assembled to greet him on his accession, to carry in celebration of the tercentenary of the Reformation (1817), out the long-deferred project of creating a central constitution, revealed the limits of his paternal power; eleven years passed which he admitted to be required alike by the royal promises, in vain attempts to devise common formulae; a stubborn the needs of the country and the temper of the times. The Lutheran minority had to be coerced by military force, the con- story of the evolution of the Prussian parliament belongs to the fiscation of their churches and the imprisonment or exile of their history of Prussia. Here it must suffice to notice frederick pastors; not till 1834 was outward union secured on the basis of William's personal share in the question, which was determined common worship but separate symbols, the opponents of the by his general attitude of mind. He was an idealist; but his measure being forbidden to form communities of their own. idealism was of a type the exact reverse of that which the With the Roman Church, too, the king came into conflict on Revolution in arms had sought to impose upon Europe. The the vexed question of "mixed marriages,” a conflict in which idea of the sovereignty of the people was to him utterly abhorrent, the Vatican gained an easy victory (see BUNSEN, C.C.J., BARON and even any delegation of sovereign power on his own part would VON).

have seemed a betrayal of a God-given trust. “I will never," The revolutions of 1830 strengthened Frederick William in his he declared, “ allow to come between Almighty God and this reactionary tendencies; the question of the constitution was country a blotted parchment, to rule us with paragraphs, and to indefinitely shelved; and in 1831 Prussian troops concentrated replace the ancient, sacred bond of loyalty." His vision of the on the frontier helped the task of the Russians in reducing the ideal state was that of a patriarchial monarchy, surrounded and military rising in Poland. Yet, in spite of all, Frederick William advised by the traditional estates of the realm-nobles, peasants, was beloved by his subjects, who valued him for the simplicity burghers-and cemented by the bonds of evangelical religion, of his manners, the goodness of his heart and the memories of but in which there should be no question of the sovereign power the dark days after 1806. He died on the 7th of June 1840. being vested in any other hands than those of the king by divine In 1824 he had contracted a morganatic marriage with the right. In Prussia, with its traditional loyalty and its old-world countess Auguste von Harrach, whom he created Princess von caste divisions, he believed that such a conception could be Liegnitz. He wrote Luther in Bezug auf die Kirchenagende realized, and he took up an attitude half-way between those who von 1822 und 1823 (Berlin, 1827), Rominiszenzen aus der would have rejected the proposal for a central diet altogether as a Kampagne 1792 in Frankreich, and Journal meiner Brigade in dangerous “thin end of the wedge,” and those who would have der Kampagne am Rhein 1793.

approximated it more to the modern conception of a parliament. The correspondence (Briefwechsel) of King Frederick William III. With a charter, or a representative system based on population, and Queen Louise with the emperor Alexander I. has been published he would have nothing to do. The united dict which was opened (Leipzig, 1900) and also that between the king and queen (ib. 1903), on the 3rd of February 1847 was no more than a congregation both edited by P. Bailleu. See W. Hahn, Friedrich Wilhelm III. und Luise (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1877); M. W. Duncker, Aus der Zeit Frie- of the diets instituted by Frederick William III. in the eight drichs des Grossen und Friedrich Wilhelms 111. (Leipzig, 1876); provinces of Prussia. Unrepresentative though it was for the Bishop R. F. Eylert, Charakterzüge aus dem Leben des Königs von industrial working-classes had no share in it-it at once gave Preussen Friedrich Wilhelm III. (3 vols., Magdeburg, 1843-1846). voice to the demand for a constitutional system.

FREDERICK WILLIAM IV. (1795-1861), king of Prussia, This demand gained overwhelmingly in force with the revolueldest son of Frederick William III., was born on the 15th of tionary outbreaks of 1848. To Frederick William these came October 1795. From his first tutor, Johann Delbrück, heimbibed as a complete surprise, and, rudely awakened from his medieval a love of culture and art, and possibly also the dash of Liberalism dreamings, he even allowed himself to be carried away for a while which formed an element of his complex habit of mind. But after by the popular tide. The loyalty of the Prussian army remained a time Delbrück, suspected of inspiring his charge with a dislike inviolate; but the king was too tender-hearted to use military of the Prussian military caste and even of belonging to a political force against his " beloved Berliners," and when the victory of secret society, was dismissed, his place being taken by the pastor the populace was thus assured his impressionable temper yielded and historian Friedrich Ancillon, while a military governor was to the general enthusiasm. He paraded the streets of Berlin also appointed. By Ancillon he was grounded in religion, in wrapped in a scarf of the German black and gold, symbol of his history and political science, his natural taste for the antique intention to be the leader of the united Germany; and he even and the picturesque making it easy for his tutor to impress upon wrote to the indignant tsar in praise of “the glorious German him his own hatred of the Revolution and its principles. This revolution." The change of sentiment was, however, apparent hatred was confirmed by the sufferings of his country and family I rather than real. The shadow of vencrable institutions, past or

passing, still darkened his counsels. The united Germany which Berliner Märarevolution (Halle, 1901); H. von Paschinger (ed.), he was prepared to champion was not the democratic state which

Unter Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Denkwürdigkeiten des Ministers Otto che theorists of the Frankfort national parliament were evolving Preussens Guswärtige Politik, 1850-1858 (3 vols., 6., 1902).


Frhr. von Monteuffel, 1848-1858 (3 vols., Berlin, 1900-1901); and on paper with interminable debate, but the old Holy Roman ments selected from those left by Manteuffel; E. Friedberg, Die Empire, the heritage of the house of Habsburg, of which he was Grundlagen der preussischen Kirchenpolitik unler Friedrich Wilhelm prepared to constitute himself the guardian so long as its lawful IV. (Leipzig, 1882). possessors should not have mastered the forces of disorder by

FREDERICK WILLIAM (1620-1688), elector of Brandenburg, which they were held captive. Finally, when Austria had been usually called the “Great Elector," was born in Berlin on the excluded from the new empire, he replied to the parliamentary 16th of February 1620. His father was the elector George deputation that came to offer him the imperial crown that he William, and his mother was Elizabeth Charlotte, daughter of might have accepted it had it been freely offered to him by the Frederick IV., elector palatine of the Rhine. Owing to the disGerman princes, but that he would never stoop " to pick up a orders which were prevalent in Brandenburg he passed part of crown out of the gutter."

his youth in the Netherlands, studying at the university of Whatever may be thought of the manner of this refusal, or Leiden, and learning something of war and statecraft under of its immediate motives, it was in itself

wise, for the German Frederick Henry, prince of Orange. During his boyhood a empire would have lost immeasurably had it been the cause marriage had been suggested between him and Christina, afterrather than the result of the inevitable struggle with Austria, wards queen of Sweden; but although the idea was revived and Bismarck was probably right when he said that, to weld during the peace negotiations between Sweden and Brandenburg, the heterogeneous elements of Germany into a united whole, what it came to nothing, and in 1646 be married Louise Henriette was needed was, not speeches and resolutions, but a policy of (d. 1667), daughter of Frederick Henry of Orange, a lady whose " blood and iron.” În any case Frederick William, uneasy counsel was very helpful to him and who seconded his efforts for enough as a constitutional king, would have been impossible as the welfare of his country, a constitutional emperor. As it was, his refusal to play this


become ruler of Brandenburg and Prussia by his father's part gave the deathblow to the parliament and to all hope of death in December 1640, Frederick William set to work at once the immediate creation of a united Germany. For Frederick to repair the extensive damage wrought during the Thirty Years' William the position of leader of Germany now meant the employ. War, still in progress. After some difficulty he secured his ment of the military force of Prussia to crush the scattered investiture as duke of Prussia from Wladislaus, king of Poland, elements of revolution that survived the collapse of the national in October 1641, but was not equally successful in crushing the movement. His establishment of the northern confederacy was independent tendencies of the estates of Cleves. It was in a reversion to the traditional policy of Prussia in opposition Brandenburg, however, that he showed his supreme skill as a to Austria, which, after the emperor Nicholas had crushed the diplomatist and administrator. His disorderly troops were insurrection in Hungary, was once more free to assert her claims replaced by an efficient and disciplined force; his patience and to dominance in Germany. But Prussia was not ripe for a perseverance freed his dominions from the Swedish soldiers; struggle with Austria, even had Frederick William found it in his and the restoration of law and order was followed by a revival conscience to turn his arms against his ancient ally, and the result of trade and an increase of material prosperity. After a tedious was the humiliating convention of Olmütz (November 29th, struggle he succeeded in centralizing the administration, and 1830), by which Prussia agreed to surrender her separatist controlling and increasing the revenue, while no department of plans and to restore the old constitution of the confederation. public life escaped his sedulous care (see BRANDENBURO). The Yet Frederick William had so far profited by the lessons of 1848 area of his dominions was largely increased at the peace of that he consented to establish (1850) a national parliament, Westphalia in 1648, and this treaty and the treaty of Oliva in though with a restricted franchise and limited powers. The 1660 alike added to his power and prestige. By a clever but House of Lords (Herrenhaus) justified the king's insistence in unscrupulous use of his intermediate position between Sweden calling it into being by its support of Bismarck against the more Prussia from both powers, and eventually succeeded in crushing

and Poland he procured his recognition as independent duke of popular House during the next reign. In religious matters Frederick

William was also largely swayed the stubborn and lengthened opposition which was offered to his by his love for the ancient and picturesque. In concert with his authority by the estates of the duchy (see PRUSSIA). After two friend Bunsen he laboured to bring about a rapprochement checks he made his position respected in Cleves, and in 1666 his between the Lutheran and Anglican Churches, the first-fruits of title to Cleves, Jülich and Ravensberg was definitely recognized. which was the establishment

of the Jerusalem bishopric under His efforts, however, to annex the western part of the duchy the joint patronage of Great Britain and Prussia; but the only of Pomerania, which he had conquered from the Swedes, failed result of his efforts was to precipitate the secession of J. H. owing to the insistence of Louis XIV. at the treaty of St GermainNewman and his followers to the Church of Rome. In general en-Laye in 1679, and he was unable to obtain the Silesian duchies it may be said that Frederick William, in spite of his talents and of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau from the emperor Leopold I. his wide knowledge, lived in a dream-land of hisown, out of touch after they had been left without a ruler in 1675. with actuality. The style of his letters reveals a mindenthusiastic

Frederick William played an important part in European and ill-balanced. In the summer of 1857 he had a stroke of politics. Although found once or twice on the side of France, paralysis, and a second in October. From this time, with the he was generally loyal to the interests of the empire and the exception of brief intervals, his mind was completely clouded, Habsburgs, probably because his politicalacumen scented danger and the duties of government were undertaken by his brother to Brandenburg from the aggressive policy of Louis XIV. William (afterwards emperor), who on the 7th of October

1858 He was a Protestant in religion, but he supported Protestant was formally recognized as regent. Frederiek William died on interests abroad on political rather than on religious grounds, the 2nd of January 1861,

and sought, but without much success, to strengthen BrandenSelections from the correspondence (Briefwechsel) of Frederick burg by allaying the fierce hostility between Lutherans and William IV. and Bunsen were edited by Ranke (Leipzig, 1873); Calvinists. His success in founding and organizing the army his proclamations, speeches, &c.,

from the 6th of March 1848 to the. of Brandenburg-Prussia was amply demonstrated by the great 31st of May 185! have been published (Berlin, 1851); also his victory which he gained over the Swedes at Fehrbellin in June Friedrich Wilhelm IV., ungedruckle Briefe und Aktenstücke, ed. L. 1675, and by the eagerness with which foreign.powers sought his Geiger (Frankfort-on-Main, 1902). See L. von Ranke, Friedrich support. He was also the founder of the Prussian navy. The Wilhelm IV., König von Preussen (works 51, 52 also in Allgem. elector assisted trade in every possible way. He made the canal deutsche Biog. vol. vii.), especially for the king's education and the which still bears his name between the oder and the Spree; inner history of the debates leading up to the united diet of 1843 established a trading company; and founded colonies on the west F. Rachfahl, Deutschland. König Friedrich Wilhelm IV. und die coast of Africa. Heencouraged Flemings to settle in Brandenburg,

and both before and after the revocation of the edict of | navigation, about 60 m. N. of Richmond and about 55 m. S.S.W Nantes in 1685 welcomed large numbers of Huguenots, who of Washington. Pop. (1890) 4528; (1900) 5068 (1621 negroes), added greatly to the welfare of the country. Education was not (1910) 5874. It is served by the Potomac, Fredericksburg & neglected, and is in this direction some of his plans were abortive, Piedmont, and the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac it was from lack of means and opportunity rather than effort railways, and by several coasting steamship lines. The city is and inclination. It is difficult to overestimate the services of the built on a series of terraces between the river and hills of con. great elector to Brandenburg and Prussia. They can only be siderable height. The river is here spanned by iron bridges, properly appreciated by those who compare the condition of his and just above the city is a dam 900 ít long and 18 st. high. country in 1640 with its condition in 1688. Both actually and By means of this dam and a canal good water-power is furnished, relatively its importance had increased enormously; poverty and the city's manufactures include flour, leather, shoes, woollens, had given place to comparative wealth, and anarchy to a silks, wagons, agricultural implements and excelsior (fine wood system of government which afterwards made Prussia the most shavings for packing or stuffing). The water-works, gas and centralized state in Europe. He had scant sympathy with local electric-lighting plants are owned and operated by the municiprivileges, and in fighting them his conduct was doubtless pality. At Fredericksburg are Fredericksburg College (founded despotic. His aim was to make himself an absolute ruler, as he in 1893; co-educational), which includes the Kenmore school regarded this as the best guarantee for the internal and external for girls and the Saunders memorial school for boys (both welfare of the state.

preparatory); a Confederate and a National cemetery (the The great elector died at Potsdam from dropsy on the oth of latter on Marye’s Heights), a monument (erected in 1906) to May 1688, and was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, General Hugli Mercer (c. 1720-1777), whose home for several Frederick. His personal appearance was imposing, and although years was here and who fell in the battle of Princeton, and a he was absolutely without scruples when working for the interests monument to the memory of Washington's mother, who died here of Brandenburg, he did not lack a sense of justice and generosity. in 1789 and whose home is still standing. Other buildings of At all events he deserves the eulogy passed upon him by Frederick interest are the old Rising Sun Hotel, a popular resort during the Great, “ Messicurs; celui-ci a fait de grandes choses." His Washington's time, and “Kenmore," the home of Colonel second wife, whom he married in 1668, was Dorothea (d. 1689), Fielding Lewis, who married a sister of Washington. The city daughter of Philip, duke of Holstein-Glücksburg, and widow was named in honour of Frederick, father of George III., and of Christian Louis, duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg; she borc was incorporated in 1727, long after its first settlement; in 1871 him four sons and three daughters. His concluding years were it was re-chartered by act of the General Assembly of Virginia. troubled by differences between his wife and her step-son, The battle of Fredericksburg in the American Civil War was Frederick; and influenced by Dorothea he bequeathed portions fought on the 13th of December 1862 between the Union forces of Brandenburg to her four sons, a bequest which was annulled (Army of the Potomac) under, Major-General A. E. Burnside under his successor.

and the Confederates (Army of Northern Virginia)under General See S. de Pufendorf, De rebus gestis Friderici Wilhelmi Magni R. E. Lee. In the middle of November, Burnside, newly ap: (Leipzig and Berlin, 1733): L. von Orlich, Friedrich Wilhelm der pointed to command the Army of the Potomac, had maneuvred grosse Kurfürst (Berlin, 1836); K. H. S. Rödenbeck, Zur Geschichte from the neighbourhood of Warrenton with a view to beginning Friedrich Wilhelms des grossen Kurfürsten (Berlin, 1851); B. Erdmannsdörffer, Der grosse Kurfürst (Leipzig, 1879); J. G.

an offensive move from Fredericksburg and, as a preliminary, Proysen, Geschichte der preussischen Politik (Berlin, 1855-1886); to seizing a foothold beyond the Rappahannock at or near that M. Philippson, Der grosse Kurfürst (Berlin, 1897-1903); E. Heyck, place. On arriving near Falmouth, however, he found that the Der grosse Kurfürst (Bielefeld, 1902): Spahn, Der grosse Kurfürst means of crossing that he had asked for had not been forwarded (Mainz, 1902): H. Landwehr, Die Kirchenpolitik des grossen Kur, from Washington, and he sat down to wait for them, while, Fursten (Berlin, 1894); H. Prutz, Aus des grossen Kurfürsten letzten Jahren (Berlin, 1897). Also Urkunden und Aktenstücke zur Geschichte on the other side, the Confederate army gradually assembled des Kurfürsten Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg (Berlin, 1864- south of the Rappahannock in a strong position with the left 1902); T. Carlyle, History of Frederick the Greal, vol

. i., (London, 1858); and A Waddington, Le Grand Électeur cl Louis XIV (Paris, Crossing on the Richmond railway. On the roth of December

on the river above Fredericksburg and the right near Hamilton's 1905).

Burnside, having by now received his pontoons, prepared to FRÉDÉRICK-LEMAÎTRE, ANTOINE LOUIS PROSPER (1800-cross the river and to attack the Confederate entrenched position 1876) French actor, the son of an architect, was born at Havre on the heights beyond the town. The respective forces were on the 28th of July 1800. He spent two years at the Con Union 122,000, Confederate 79,000. Major-General E. V. servatoire, and made his first appearance at a variety performance Sumner, commanding the Federal right wing (II. and IX. in one of the basement restaurants at the Palais Royal. At corps), was to cross at Fredericksburg, Major-General W. B. the Ambigu on the 12th of July 1823 he played the part of Robert Franklin with the left (I. and VI. corps) some miles below, while Macaire in L'Auberge des Adréls. The melodrama was played the centre (III. and V. corps) under Major-General Joseph seriously on the first night and was received with little favour, Hooker was to connect the two attacks and to reinforce either but it was changed on the second night to burlesque, and thanks at need. The Union artillery took position along the heights of to him had a great success. AU Paris came to see it, and from the north bank to cover the crossing, and no opposition was that day he was famous. He created a number of parts that encountered opposite Franklin's command, which formed up on added to his popularity, especially Cardillac, Cagliostro and the other side during the ith and 12th. Opposite Sumner, Cartouche. His success in the last led to an engagement at the however, the Confederate riflemen, hidden in the gardens and Porle St Martin, where in 1827 he produced Trente ans, ou la houses of Fredericksburg, caused much trouble and considerable vie d'un joueur, in which his vivid acting made a profound losses to the Union pioneers, and a forlorn hope of volunteers impression. Afterwards at the Odéon and other theatres he from the infantry had to be rowed across under fire before the passed from one success to another, until he put the final touch enemy's skirmishers could be dislodged. Sumner's two corps io his reputation as an artist by creating the part of Ruy Blas crossed on the 12th. The battle took place next morning. in Victor Hugo's play. On his return to the Porte St Martin he Controversy has raged round Burnside's plan of action and created the title-rôle in Balzac's Vaulrin, which was forbidden in particular round his orders to Franklin, as to which it can only a second presentation, on account, it is said, of the resemblance be said that whatever chance of success there was in so formidable of the actor's wig to the well-known loupel worn by Louis an undertaking as attacking the well-posted enemy was thrown Philippe. His last appearance was at this theatre in 1873 as the away through misunderstandings and that nothing but misunderold Jew in Marie Tudor, and he died at Paris on the 26th of standings could be expected from the vague and bewildering January 1876.

orders issued by the general in command. The actual battle can FREDERICKSBURG, a city of Spottsylvania county, Virginia, be described in a few words. Jackson held the right of Lee's U.S.A., on the Rappahannock river, at the head of tide-water I line, Longstreet the left, both entrenched. Franklin, tied by

his instructions, attacked with one division only, which a little village limits in 1858. About 1905 natural gas was again obtained fater he supported by two more (I. corps, Major-General J. F. by deep drilling near Fredonia and came into general use for Reynolds) out of eight or nine available. His left lank was heat, light and power. In the Fredonia Baptist church on the harassed by the Confederate horse artillery under the young and 14th of December 1873 a Woman's Temperance Union was brilliant Captain John Pelham, and after breaking the first line organized, and from this is sometimes dated the beginning of the of Stonewall Jackson's corps the assailants were in the end Woman's Christian Temperance Union movement. driven back with heavy losses. On the other flank, where part FREDRIKSHALD (FREDERIKSHALD, FRIEDRICHSHALL), a of Longstreet's corps held the low ridge opposite Fredericksburg seaport and garrison town of Norway, in Smaalenene, aml called Marye's Heights, Burnside ordered in the II. corps under(county), 85 m. by rail S. by E. of Christiania. Pop. (1900) Major-General D. N. Couch about 11 A.m., and thenceforward 11,948. It is picturesquely situated on both banks of the Tistedal division after division, on a front of little more than 800 yds., river at its outflow to the Ide fjord, surrounded by several was sent forward to assault with the bayonet. The “Stone Wall” rocky eminences. The chief of these is occupied by the famous along the foot of Marye's waslined with every rifleof Longstreet's fortress Fredriksten, protected on three sides by precipices, corps that could find-room to fire, and above them the Confederate founded by Frederick III. (1661), and mainly showing, in its guns fired heavily on the assailants, whose artillery, on the height present form, the works of Frederick V. (1766) and Christian beyond the river, was too far off to assist them. Not a man of VII. (1808). Between it and the smaller Gyldenlöve fort a the Federals reached the wall, though the bravest were killed monument marks the spot where Charles XII. was shot in the a few paces from it, and Sumner's and most of Hooker's brigades trenches while besieging the town (1718). The siege, which was were broken one after the other as often as they tried to assault. then raised, is further commemorated by a monument to the At night the wrecks of the right wing were withdrawn. Burnside brave defence of the brothers Peter and Hans Kolbjörnsen. proposed next day to lead the IX. corps, which he had formerly Fredrikshald is close to the Swedish frontier, and had previously commanded, in one mass to the assault of the Stone Wall, but his (1660) withstood invasion, after which its name was changed subordinates dissuaded him, and on the night of the 15th the from Halden to the present form in 1665 in honour of Frederick Army of the Potomac withdrew to its camps about Falmouth. III. The town was almost totally destroyed by fire in 1759 The losses of the Federals were 12,650 men, those of the Con- and 1826. The castle surrendered to the Swedish crown prince federates 4200, little more than a third of which fell on Long. Bernadotte in 1814; and its capture was speedily followed by the street's corps:

conquest of the kingdom and its union with Sweden. FredriksSee F. W. Palfrey, Antiekam and Fredericksburg (New York, 1881); hald is one of the principal ports of the kingdom for the export G. W. Redway, Fredericksburg (London, 1906); and G. F. R. of timber. Marble of very fine quality and grain is extensively Henderson, Fredericksburg (London, 1889).

quarried and exported for architectural ornamentation and for FREDERICTON, a city and port of entry of New Brunswick, furniture-making. Wood-pulp is also exported. The industries Canada, capital of the province, situated on the St John river, embrace granite quarries, wood-pulp factories, and factories for 84 m. from its mouth, and on the Canadian Pacific railway, sugar, tobacco, curtains, travelling-bags, boots, &c. There It stands on a plain bounded on one side by the river, which is are railway communications with Gothenburg and all parts of here m. broad, and on the other by a range of hills which almost Sweden and regular coastal and steamer services. encircle the town. It is regularly built with long and straight FREDRIKSTAD (FREDERIKSTAD), a seaport and manufacturstreets, and contains the parliament buildings, government ing town of Norway in Smaalenene amt (county), 58 m. S. by E. house, the Anglican cathedral, the provincial university and of Christiania by the Christiania-Gothenburg railway. Pop. several other educational establishments. Fredericton is the (1900) 14,553. It lies at the mouth and on the eastern shore of chief commercial centre in the interior of the province, and has Christiania fjord, occupying both banks of the great river also a large trade in lumber. Its industries include canneries, Glommen, which, descending from the richly-wooded district of tanneries and wooden ware factories. The river is navigable Österdal, floats down vast quantities of timber. The new town for large steamers up to the city, and above it by vessels of lighter on the right bank is therefore a centre of the timber export trade, draught. Two bridges, passenger and railway, unite the city this place being the principal port in Norway for the export of with the towns of St Marye's and Gibson on the east side of the pit-props, planed boards, and other varieties of timber. There river, at its junction with the Nashwaak. The city was founded is also a great industry in the making of red bricks, owing to the in 1785 by Sir Guy Carleton, and made the capital of the province, expansion of Christiania, Gothenburg and other towns. Granite in spite of the jealousy of St John, on account of its superior is quarried and exported. Besides the large number of saw and strategical position. Pop. (1901) 7117.

planing mills, there are shipbuilding yards, engine and boiler FREDONIA, a village of Chautauqua county, New York, works, cotton and woollen mills, and factories for acetic acid and U.S.A., about 45 m. S.W. of Buffalo, and 3 m. from Lake Erie naphtha. The harbour, which can be entered by vessels drawing Pop. (1900) 4127; (1905, state census) 5148; (1910 census) 5285. 14 ft., is kept open in winter by an ice-breaker. In the vicinity Fredonia is served by the Dunkirk, Allegheny Valley & Pittsburg is the island Hankö, the most fashionable Norwegian seaside railway, which connects at Dunkirk, 3 the N., with the Erie, resort. The old town on the left bank was founded by Frederick the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, the New York, Chicago & 11. in 1567. It was for a long time strongly fortified, and in St Louis, and the Pennsylvania railways; and by electric 1716 Charles XIL of Sweden made a vain attempt to capture it. railway to Erie, Buffalo and Dunkirk. It is the seat of a State PREB BAPTISTS, formerly called (but no longer officially) Normal School. The Darwin R. Barker public library contained FREEWILL BAPTISTS, an American denomination holding anti9700 volumes in 1908. Fredonia is situated in the grape-growing paedobaptist and anti-Calvinistic doctrines, and practically region of western New York, is an important shipping point for identical in creed with the General Baptists of Great Britain. grapes, and has large grape-vine and general nurseries. The Many of the early Baptist churches in Rhode Island and throughmaking of wine and of unfermented grape-juice are important out the South were believers in “ general redemption " (hence industries of the village. Among other manufactures are canned called “ general " Baptists); and there was a largely attended goods, coal dealers' supplies, and patent medicines. The first conference of this Arminian branch of the church at Newport in settlement here was made in 1804, and the place was called 1729. But the denomination known as “ Frec-willers " had its Canandaway until 1817, when the present name was adopted. rise in 1779-1780, when anti-Calvinists in Loudon, Barrington The village was incorporated in 1829. Fredonia was one of the and Canterbury, New Hampshire, seceded and were organized first places in the United States, if not the first, to make use of by Benjamin Randall (1749–1808), a native of New Hampshire. natural gas for public purposes. Within the village limits, near Randall was an itinerant missionary, who had been preaching a creek, whose waters showed the presence of gas, a well was sunk for two years before his ordination in 1780; in the same year in 1821, and the supply of gas thus tapped was sufficient to light he was censured for "heterodox” teaching. The work of the the streets of the village. Another well was sunk within the church suffered a relapse after his death, and a movement to joio

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