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dissenting minority at once claimed to be the Free Church. They.camps on confiscated Southern property, where they were cared met outside the Free Assembly Hall on the 31st of October, and, for alternately by the war department and by the treasury failing to gain admission to it, withdrew to another hall, where department until the organization of the Freedmen's Bureau. they elected Mr Colin Bannatyne their moderator and held the At the head of the bureau was a commissioner, General 0. O. remaining sittings of the Assembly. It was reported that between Howard, and under him in each Southern state was an assistant 16,000 and 17,000 names had been received of persons adhering to commissioner with a corps of local superintendents, agents the anti-unionist principle. At the Assembly of 1901 it was and inspectors. The officials had the broadest possible authority stated that the Free Church had twenty-five ministers and at in all matters that concerned the blacks. The work of the bureau least sixty-three congregations. The character of the church is may be classified as follows: (1) distributing rations and medical indicated by the fact that its office-bearers were the faithful supplies among the blacks; (2) establishing schools for them and survivors of the decreasing minority of the Old Free Church, aiding benevolent societies to establish schools and churches; which bad protested against the disestablishment resolutions, (3) regulating labour and contracts; (4) taking charge of con. against the relaxation of subscription, against toleration of the fiscated lands; and (5) administering justice in cases in which teaching of the Glasgow professors, and against the use in worship blacks were concerned. For several years the ex-slaves were of organs or of human hymns. Her congregations were mostly under the almost absolute control of the bureau. Whether this in the Gaelic-speaking districts of Scotland. She was confronted control had a good or bad effect is still disputed, the Southern with a very arduous undertaking; her congregations grew in whites and many Northerners holding that the results of the number, but were far from each other and there were not nearly bureau's work were distinctly bad, while others hold that much enough ministers. The Highlands were filled, by the Union, good resulted from its work. There is now no doubt, however, with exasperation and dispeace which could not soon subside. that while most of the higher officials of the bureau were good The church met with no sympathy or assistance at the hands men, the subordinate agents were generally without character of the United Free Church, and her work was conducted at first or judgment and that their interference between the races caused under considerable hardships, nor was her position one to appeal permanent discord. Much necessary relief work was done, to the general popular sentiment of Scotland. But the little but demoralization was also caused by it, and later the institution church continued her course with indomitable courage and was used by its officials as a means of securing negro votes. without any compromise of principle. The Declaratory Act of In educating the blacks the bureau made some progress, but the 1892 was repealed after a consultation of presbyteries, and the old instruction imparted by the missionary teachers resulted in principles as to worship were declared. A professor was obliged giving the ex-slaves notions of liberty and racial equality that led to withdraw a book he had written, in which the results of to much trouble, finally resulting in the hostility of the whites to criticism, with regard to the Synoptic Gospels, had been accepted negro education. The secession of the blacks from the white and applied. The desire of the Church of Scotland to obtain churches was aided and encouraged by the bureau. The whole relaxation of her formula was declared to make union with her field of labour and contracts was covered by minute regulations, impossible. Along with this unbending attitude, signs of material which, good in theory, were absurd in practice, and which failed growth were not wanting. The revenue of the church increased; altogether, but not until labour had been disorganized for seve.al the grant from the sustentation fund was in 19or only £75, but years. The administration of justice by the bureau agents from 1903 onwards it was £167.

amounted simply to a ceaseless persecution of the whites who had The decision of the House of Lords in 1904 did not bring the dealings with the blacks, and bloody conflicts sometimes resulted. trials of the Free Church to an end. In the absence of any The law creating the bureau provided for the division of the arrangement with the United Free Church, she could only gain confiscated property among the negroes, and though carried possession of the property declared to belong to her by an out only in parts of South Carolina, Florida and Georgia, it caused application in each particular case to the Court of Session, and a the negroes to believe that they were to be cared for at the series of law-suits began which were trying to all parties. In expense of their former masters. This belief made them subject the year 1905 the Free Church Assembly met in the historic to swindling schemes perpetrated by certain bureau agents and Free Church Assembly Hall, but it did not meet there again. others who promised to secure lands for them. When negro Having been left by the awards of the commission without any suffrage was imposed by Congress upon the Southern States, the station in the foreign mission field, the Free Church resolved to bureau aided the Union League (7.0.) in organizing the blacks into start a foreign mission of her own. The urgent task confronting a political party opposed to the whites. A large majority of the the church was that of supplying ordinances to her congregations. bureau officials secured office through their control of the blacks. The latter numbered 200 in 1907, and the church had as yet only The failure of the bureau system and its discontinuance in the 74 ordained ministers, so that many of the manses allocated to midst of reconstruction without harm to the blacks, and the her by the commissioners were not yet occupied, and catechists intense hostility of the Southern whites to the institution caused and elders were called to conduct services where possible. The by the irritating conduct of bureau officials, are indications that gallant stand this little church had made for principles which the institution was not well conceived nor wisely administered. were no longer represented by any Presbyterian church outside See P. S. Pierce, The Freedmen's Bureau (Iowa City, 1904): the establishment attracted to her much interest and many

Report of the Joint Commillee on Reconstruction (Washington, 1866);

W. L. Fleming (ed.), Documents relating to Reconstruction (Cleveland, hopes that she might be successful in her endeavours to do some- o., 1906): W. L. Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama thing for the religious life of Scotland.

(New York, 1905); and James W. Garner, Reconstruction in MissisSee SCOTLAND, CHURCH OF, for bibliography and statistics.(A.M.“) sippi (New York, 1901).

(W. L, F.) FREEDMEN'S BUREAU (officially the BUREAU OF FREEDMEN, FREEHOLD, a town and the county-seat of Monmouth county, REFUGEES AND ABANDONED LANDS), a bureau created in the New Jersey, U.S.A., in the township of Freehold, about 25 m. United States war department by an act of Congress, 3rd of March E. by N. of Trenton. Pop. (1890) 2932; (1900) 2934, of whom 1865, to last one year, but continued until 1872 by later acts 215 were foreign-born and 126 were negroes; (1905) 3064; (1910) passed over the president's veto. Its establishment was due 3233. . Freehold is served by the Pennsylvania and the Central partly to the fear entertained by the North that the Southerners of New Jersey railways. It is the trade centre of one of the most if left to deal with the blacks would attempt to re-establish productive agricultural districts of the state and has various some form of slavery, partly to the necessity for extending relief manufactures, including carriages, carpets and rugs, files, shirts, to needy negroes and whites in the lately conquered South, underwear, and canned beans and peas. The town is the seat and partly to the need of creating some commission, or bureau of two boarding schools for boys: the Freehold Military School to take charge of lands confiscated in the South. During the and the New Jersey Military Academy (chartered, 1900; Civil War a million negroes fell into the hands of the Federals founded in 1844 as the Freehold Institute). One of the resiand had to be cared for. Able-bodied blacks were enlisted in the dences in the town dates from 1755. A settlement was made army, and the women, children and old men were settled in large l in the township about 1650, and the township was incorporated

in 1693. In 1715 the town was founded and was made the county-sense freehold is distinguished from copyhold, which is a tenure seat; it was long commonly known (from the county) as Mon- having its origin in the relation of lord and villein (see COPYHOLD). mouth Court-House, but akterwards took (from the township) Freehold is also distinguished from leasehold, which is an estate the name Freehold, and in 1869 it was incorporated as the Town for a fixed number of years only. By analogy the interest of a of Freehold. An important battle of the War of Independence, person who holds an office for life is sometimes said to be a freehold known as the battle of Monmouth, was fought near the court interest. The term customary freeholds is applied to a kind of house on the 28th of June 1778. A short distance N.W. of the copyhold tenure in the north of England, viz. tenure by copy court-house is a park in which there is a monument, unveiled of court-roll, but not, as in other cases, expressed to be at the on the 13th of November 1884 in commemoration of the battle; will of the lord. the base is of Quincy granite and the shaft is of Concord granite. FREELAND, a borough of Luzerne county, Pennsylvania; Surmounting the shaft is a statue representing “Liberty U.S.A., about 20 m. S. of Wilkes-Barre, in the E. part of the state, Triumphant” (the height to the top of which is about 100 ft.). Pop. (1890) 1730; (1900) 5254 (1339 foreign-born, many being The monument is adorned with five bronze reliefs, designed and Slavs); (1910) 6197. Freeland is served by the Lehigh modelled by James E. Kelly (b. 1855); one of these reliefs Valley railway and by electric railway to Upper Lehigh (1 m. represents " Molly Pitcher" (d. 1832), a national heroine, who, distant, served by the Central Railroad of New Jersey) and when her husband (John C. Hays), an artillerist, was rendered to other neighbouring places. The borough is built on Broad insensible during the battle, served the gun in his place and Mountain, nearly 2000 ft. above sea-level, and the chief industry prevented its capture by the British.' Joel Parker (1816- is the mining of coal at the numerous surrounding collieries. 1888), governor of New Jersey in 1863-1866 and 1872-1875, was Freeland is the seat of the Mining and Mechanical Institute long a resident of Freehold, and the erection of the monument of the Anthracite Region, chartered in 1894, modelled after the was largely due to his efforts. A bronze tablet on a boulder German Sleigerschulen, with elementary and secondary departin front of the present court-house, commemorating the old court-ments and a night school for workmen. The borough has house, used as a hospital in the battle of Monmouth, was unveiled foundries and machine shops of considerable importance, in 1907. Freehold was the birthplace and home of Dr Thomas and manufactures silk, overalls, beer and hames. Freeland Henderson (1743–1824), a Whig or Patriot leader in New Jersey, was first settled about 1842, was laid out in 1870, and was in officer in the War of Independence, and a member of the incorporated in 1876. Continental Congress in 1779-1780 and of the national House of FREEMAN, EDWARD AUGUSTUS (1823-1892), English Representatives in 1795-1797.

historian, was born at Harborne, Staffordshire, on the end of The name Freehold was first used of a Presbyterian church August 1823. He lost both his parents in infancy, was brought established about 1692 by Scottish exiles who came to East up by a grandmother, and was educated at private schools and Jersey in 1682–1685 and built what was called the “Old by a private tutor. He was a studious and precocious boy, more Scots' Church " near the present railway station of Wickatunk interested in religious matters, history and foreign politics than in Marlboro' township, Monmouth county. In this church, in in boyish things. He obtained a scholarship at Trinity College, December 1706, John Boyd (d. 1709) was ordained--the first Oxford, and a second class in the degree examination, and was recorded Presbyterian ordination in America. The church was elected fellow of his college (1845). While at Oxford he was much the first regularly constituted Presbyterian church. No trace influenced by the High Church movement, and thought seriously of the building now remains in the burying-ground where of taking orders, but abandoned the idea. He married a daughter Boyd was interred, and where the Presbyterian Synod of New of his former tutor, the Rev. R. Gutch, in 1847, and entered Jersey in 1900 raised a granite monument to his memory; his on a life of study. Ecclesiastical architecture attracted him tombstone is preserved by the Presbyterian Historical Society in strongly. He visited many churches and began a practice, Philadelphia. John Tennent (1706–1732) became pastor of the which he pursued throughout his life, of making drawings of Freehold church in 1730, when a new church was built by the buildings on the spot and afterwards tracing them over in ink. Old Scots congregation on White Hill in the present township of His first book, save for his share in a volume of English verse, Manalapan (then a part of Freehold township), near the railway was a History of Architecture (1849). Though he had not then station and village called Tennent; bis brother William (1705- seen any buildings outside England, it contains a good sketch 1777), whose trance, in which he thought he saw the glories of of the development of the art. It is full of youthful enthusiasm heaven, was a matter of much discussion in his time, was pastor and is written in florid language. After some changes of residence in 1733-1777. In 1751-1753 the present “Old Tennent Church,” he bought a house called Somerleaze, near Wells, Somerset, and then called the Frechold Church, was erected on (or near) the settled there in 1860. same site as the building of 1730; in it Whitefield preached and Freeman's life was one of strenuous literary work. He wrote in the older building David Brainerd and his Indian converts met. many books, and countless articles for reviews, newspapers and In 1859 this church (whose corporate name is “ The First Presby- other publications, and was a constant contributor to the terian Church of the County of Monmouth") adopted the name Saturday Review until 1878, when he ceased to write for it for of Tennent, partly to distinguish it from the Presbyterian church political reasons. His Saturday Review articles corrected many organized at Monmouth Court-House (now Freehold) in 1838. errors and raised the level of historical knowledge among the

See Frank R. Symmes, History of the Old Tennent Church (2nd educated classes, but as a reviewer he was apt to forget that a ed., Cranbury, New Jersey, 1904).

FREEHOLD, in the English law of real property, an estate in book may have blemishes and yet be praiseworthy. For some land, not being less than an estate for life. An estate for a term interested in politics, was a follower of Mr Gladstone, and

years he was an active county magistrate. He was deeply of years, no matter how long, was considered inferior in dignity to an estate for life, and unworthy of a freeman (sce ESTATE). approved the Home Rule Bill of 1886, but objected to the later "Some time before the reign of Henry II., but apparently not proposal to retain the Irish members at Westminster. To be so early as Domesday, the expression liberum tenementum was

returned to Parliament was one of his few ambitions, and in 1868 introduced to designate land held by a freeman by a free tenure. he unsuccessfully contested Mid-Somerset. Foreign rather than Thus freehold tenure is the sum of the rights and duties which domestic politics had the first place with him. Historical and constitute the relation of a free tenant to his lord.". In this religious sentiment combined with his desteslation of all that was Her maiden name was Mary Ludwig. "Molly Pitcher

tyrannical to inspire him with hatred of the Turk and sympathy a nickname given to her by the soldiers in reference to her carrying with the smaller and subject nationalities of eastern Europe. water to soldiers overcome by heat in the battle of Monmouth. She He took a prominent part in the agitation which followed married Hays in 1769; Hays died soon after the war, and later she “the Bulgarian atrocities"; his speeches were intemperate, married one George McCauley. She lived for more than forty and he was accused of uttering the words “ Perish India!" years at Carlisle, Penn., where a monument was erected to her memory in 1876.

at a public meeting in 1876. This, however, was a misrepreDigby's History of the Low of Real Property.

sentation of his words. He was made a knight commander

was

of the order of the Saviour by the king of Greece, and also in successive sentences of much the same import. While this received an order from the prince of Montenegro.

habit was doubtless aggravated by the amount of his journalistic Freeman advanced the study of history in England in two work, it seems originally to have sprung from what may be called special directions, by insistence on the unity of history, and by a professorial spirit, which occasionally appears in the tone of teaching the importance and right use of original authorities. his remarks. He was anxious to make sure that his readers would History is not, he urges, to be divided " by a middle wall of understand his exact meaning, and to guard them against all partition,” into ancient and modern, nor broken into fragments possible misconceptions. His lengthy explanations are the more as though the history of each nation stood apart. It is more grievous because he insists on the same points in several of his than a collection of narratives; it is a science, " the science of books. His prolixity was increased by his unwillingness, when man in his political character.” The historical student, then, writing without prescribed limits, to leave out any detail, cannot afford to be indifferent to any part of the record of man's however unimportant. His passion for details not only swelled political being; but as his abilities for study are limited, he will, his volumes to a portentous size, but was fatal to artistic conwhile reckoning all history to be within his range, have his own struction. The length of his books has hindered their usefulness, special range within which he will master every detail (Rede They were written for the public at large, but few save professed Lecture). Freeman's range included Greek, Roman and the students, who can admire and value bis exhaustiveness, will read earlier part of English history, together with some portions of the many hundreds of pages which he devotes to a short period foreign medieval history, and he had a scholarly though general of history. In some of his smaller books, however, he shows knowledge of the rest of the history of the European world. great powers of condensation and arrangement, and writes He regarded the abiding life of Rome as “the central truth of tersely enough. His style is correct, lucid and virile, but generEuropean history," the bond of its unity, and he undertook his ally nothing more, and his endeavour to use as far as possible History of Sicily (1891-1894) partly because it illustrated this only words of Teutonic origin limited his vocabulary and makes unity. Further, he urges that all historical study is valueless his sentences somewhat monotonous. While Froude often which does not take in a knowledge of original authorities, and strayed away from his authorities, Freeman kept his authorities he teaches both by example and precept what authorities should always before his eyes, and his narrative is here and there little be thus described, and how they are to be weighed and used. more than a translation of their words. Accordingly, while it has He did not use manuscript authorities, and for most of his work nothing of Froude's carelessness and inaccuracy, it has nothing he had no need to do so. The authorities which he needed were of his charm of style. Yet now and again he rises to the level already in print, and his books would not have been better if of some heroic event, and parts of his chapter on the “ Campaign he had disinterred a few more facts from unprinted sources. of Hastings” and of his record of the wars of Syracuse and

His reputation as a historian will chiefly rest on his History of Athens, his reflections on the visit of Basil the Second to the the Norman Conquest (1867-1876), his longest completed book.church of the Virgin on the Acropolis, and some other passages In common with his works generally, it is distinguished by in his books, are fine pieces of eloquent writing. exhaustiveness of treatment and research, critical ability, The high quality of Freeman's work was acknowledged by a remarkable degree of accuracy, and a certain insight into the all competent judges. He was made D.C.L. of Oxford and LL.D. past which he gained from his practical experience of men and of Cambridge honoris causa, and when he visited the United institutions. He is almost exclusively a political historian. States on a lecturing tour was warmly received at various places His saying that “history is past politics and politics are present of learning. He served on the royal commission on ecclesiastical history” is significant of this limitation of his work, which left courts appointed in 1881. In 1884 he was appointed regius on one side subjects of the deepest interest in a nation's life. professor of modern history at Oxford. His lectures were thinly In dealing with constitutional matters he sometimes attaches attended, for he did not care to adapt them to the requirements too much weight to words and formal aspects. This gives certain of the university examinations, and he was not perhaps well of his arguments an air of pedantry, and seems to lead him to fitted to teach young men. But he exercised a wholesome in. find evidences of continuity in institutions which in reality and Auence over the more earnest students of history among the spirit were different from what they once had been. As a rule resident graduates. From 1886 he was forced by ill-health to his estimates of character are remarkably able. It is true that spend much of his time abroad, and he died of smallpox at he is sometimes swayed by prejudice, but this is the common lot Alicante on the 16th of March 1892, while on a tour in Spain. of great historians; they cannot altogether avoid sharing in Freeman had a strongly marked personality. Though impatient the feelings of the past, for they live in it, and Freeman did so to in temper and occasionally rude, he was tender-hearted and an extraordinary degree. Yet if he judges too favourably the generous. His rudeness to strangers was partly caused by shy, leaders of the national party in England on the eve of the ness and partly by a childlike inability to conceal his feelings. Norman Conquest, that is a small matter to set against the insight Eminently truthful, he could not understand that some verbal which he exhibits in writing of Aratus, Sulla, Nicias, William insincerities are necessary to social life. He had a peculiar the Conqueror, Thomas of Canterbury, Frederick the Second faculty for friendship, and his friends always found him symand many more. In width of view, thoroughness of investiga- pathetic and affectionata in their society he would talk well tion and honesty of purpose is unsurpassed by any historian. and showed a keen sense of humour. He considered it his duty He never conceals nor wilfully misrepresents anything, and he to expose careless and ignorant writers, and certainly enjoyed reckoned no labour too great which might help him to draw a doing so. He worked hard and methodically, often had several truthful picture of the past. When a place had any important pieces of work in hand, and kept a daily record of the time wbich connexion with his work he invariably visited it. He travelled he devoted to each of them. His tastes were curiously limited. much, always to gain knowledge, and generally to complete his No art interested him except architecture, which he studied historical equipment. His collected articles and essays on places throughout his life; and he cared little for literature which was of historical interest are perhaps the most pleasing of his writings, not either historical or political. In later life he ceased to hola but they deal exclusively with historical associations and the theological opinions of his youth, but remained a devout architectural features. The quantity of work which he turned churchman. out is enormous, for the fifteen large volumes which contain his

See W. R. W. Stephens, Life and Letlers of E. A. Freeman (London, Normon Conquest, his unfinished History of Sicily, his William 1895); Frederic Harrison, Tennyson, Ruskin, Mill and other Lilerary Rufus (1882), and his Essays (1872-1879), and the crowd of his Estimates (London, 1899); James Bryce, “E. A. Freeman," Eng. smaller books, are matched in amount by his uncollected con

Hist. Rev., July 1892.

(W. Hu.) tributions to periodicals. In respect of matter his historical FREEMAN, primarily one who is free, as opposed to a slave or work is uniformly excellent. In respect of form and style the serf (see FEUDALISM; SLAVERY). The term is more specifically case is different. Though his sentences ihemselves are not wordy, applied to one who possesses the freedom of a city, borough or he is extremely diffuse in treatment, habitually repeating an idea company. Before the passing of the Municipal Corporations

Act 1835, each English borough admitted freemen according to favourable to the body), who cannot fail to accept the claims its own peculiar custom and by-laws. The rights and privileges made as to its great antiquity and continuity, as the lineal of a freeman, though varying in different boroughs, generally descendant of those craftsmen who raised the cathedrals and other included the right to vote at a parliamentary election of the great English buildings during the middle ages. borough, and exemption from all tolls and dues. The act of It is only needful to refer to the old works on freemasonry, and 1835 respected existing usages, and every person who was then to compare them with the accepted histories of the present time, an admitted freeman remained one, retaining at the same time

to be assured that such strictures as above are more than justified. all his former rights and privileges. The admission of freemen The premier work on the subject was published in London in 1723. is now regulated by the Municipal Corporations Act 1882. By introductory to the first “ Book of Constitutions" of the original section 201 of that act the term “freeman " includes any person Grand Lodge of England. Dr Anderson gravely states that " Grand of the class whose rights and interests were reserved by the Master Moses often marshalled the Israelites into a regular and act of 1835 under the name either of freemen or of burgesses. Grand Master of the lodge at Jerusalem.'. Nebuchadnezzar became By section 202 no person can be admitted a freeman by gift or the Grand Master Mason," &c., devoting many more pages to similar by purchase; that is, only birth, servitude or , marriage are absurdities, but dismisses the important modern innovation (1716 qualifications. The Honorary Freedom of Boroughs Act 1885, 1717) of a Grand Lodge with a few lines noteworthy for their brief

and indefinite character. however, makes an exception, as by that act the council of every borough may from time to time admit persons of distinction Wales ( a Master Mason and master of 'a lodge "), and was the work

In 1738 a second edition was issued, dedicated to the prince of to be honorary freemen of the borough. The town clerk of of the same brother (as respects the historical part), the additions every borough keeps a list, which is called “the freeman's roll,” being mainly on the same lines as the former volume, only, if pos. and when any person claims to be admitted a freeman in respect sible, still more ridiculous and extravagant; 4:8. Cyrus constituted of birth, servitude or marriage, the mayor examines the claim, was "the Right Worshipful Grand Master of France, and Edward I. and if it is established the claimant's name is enrolled by the being deeply engaged in wars left the crast to the care of several town clerk.

successive grand masters" (duly enumerated). Such loose stateA person may become a freeman or freewoman of one of the ments may now pass unheeded, but unfortunately they do not

exhaust the objections to Dr Anderson's method of writing history. London livery companies by (1) apprenticeship or servitude; The excerpt concerning St Alban (apparently made from Coles's (2) patrimony; (3) redemption; (4) gift. This last is purely Ancient Constitutions, 1728-1729) has the unwarranted additional honorary. The most usual form of acquiring freedom was by title of Grand Master conferred on that saint, and the extract conserving apprenticeship to a freeman, free both of a company and cerning King Æthelstan and Prince Edwin from the “* Old MS.

Charges " (given in the first edition) contains still more unauthorized of the city of London. By an act of common council of 1836 modern terms, with the year added of 926; thus misleading most apprenticeship was permitted to freemen of the city who had not seriously those who accept the volume as trustworthy, because written taken up the freedom of a company. By an act of common by the accredited historian of the Grand Lodge, Junior Grand council of 1889 the term of service was reduced from seven years in the author's accuracy when Dr Anderson comes to treat of the

Warden in 1723. These examples hardly increase our confidence to four years. Freedom by patrimony is always granted to origin of the premier Grand Lodge; but he is our only informant children of a person who has been duly admitted to the freedom. as to that important event, and it his version of the occurrence is Freedom by redemption or purchase requires the payment of declined, we are absolutely without any information. certain entrance fees, which vary with the standing of the com

In considering the early history of Freemasonry, from a pany. In the Grocers' Company freedom by redemption does purely matter-of-fact standpoint, it will be well to settle as a not exist, and in such companies as still have a trade, e.g. the necessary preliminary what the term did and does now include Apothecaries and Stationers, it is limited to members of the trade.

or mean, and how far back the inquiry should be conducted, See W. C. Hazlitt, The Livery Companies of the Cily of London as well as on what lines. If the view of the subject herein taken (1892). FREEMASONRY. According to an old " Charge " delivered considerable space to a consideration of the laws and customs

be correct, it will be useless to load the investigation by devoting to initiates, Freemasonry is declared to be an "ancient and of still older societies which may have been utilized and imitated honourable institution: ancient no doubt it is, as having sub- by the fraternity, but which in no sense can be accepted as the sisted from time immemorial; and honourable it must be acknowledged to be, as by a natural tendency it conduces to make those Masons. They were predecessors, or possibly prototypes, but

actual forbears of the present society of Free and Accepted so who are obedient to its precepts ... to so high an eminence

not near relatives or progenitors of the Freemasons.? has its credit been advanced that in every age Monarchs them

The Mother Grand Lodge of the world is that of England, selves have been promoters of the -art, have not thought it which was inaugurated in the metropolis on St John Baptist's derogatory from their dignity to exchange the sceptre for the day 1717 by four or more old lodges, three of which still flourish. trowel, have patronised our mysteries and joined in our There were other lodges also in London and the country at the Assemblies.” For many years the craft has been conducted time, but whether they were invited to the meeting is not now without respect to clime, colour, caste or creed.

known. Probably not, as 'existing records of the period preserve History.—The precise origin of the society has yet to be ascer. tained, but is not likely to be, as the early records are lost; of lodges at work in Scotland, and undoubtedly in Ireland the

a sphinx-like silence thereon. Likewise there were many scores there is, however, ample evidence remaining to justify the claim craft was widely patronized. Whatever the ceremonies may have for its antiquity and its honourable character. Much has been been which were then

known as Freemasonry in Great Britain and written as to its eventful past, based upon actual records, but Ireland, they were practically alike, and the

venerable Old Charges still more which has served only to amuse or repel inquirers, and or MS. constitutions, dating back several centuries, were rightly led not a few to believe that the fraternity has no trustworthy held by them as the title-deeds of their masonic inheritance. history. An unfavourable opinion of the historians of the craft generally may fairly have been held during the 18th and early the fraternity quite different in many respects to all preceding

It was a bold thing to do, thus to start a governing body for in the 19th centuries

, but happily since the middle of the latter organizations, and to brand as irregular all lodges which declined century quite a different principle has animated those brethren who have sought to make the facts of masonic history known

1 If history be no ancient Fable to the brotherhood, as well as worth the study of students in

Free Masons came from Tower of Babel. general. The idea that it would require an investigator to be

("The Freemasons; an Hudibrastic poem," London, 1723.)

? The Early History and Antiquities of Freemasonry and Medieval a member of the “mystic tie ” in order to qualify as a reader of Builders, by Mr G. F. Fort (U.S.A.), and the Cathedral Builders: The masonic history has been exploded. The evidences collected Magestri Comacini, by " Leader Scott" (the late Mrs Baxter), take concerning the institution during the last five hundred years,

rather a different view on this point and ably present their argu; or more, may now be examined and tested in the most severe

ments. The Rev. C. Kingsley in Roman and. Teuton writes of manner by literary and critical experts (whether opposed or

the Comacini, •* Perhaps the original germ of the great society of Freemasons.

to acoept such authority; but the very originality and audacity should be mainly devoted to giving particulars, as far as possible, of its promoters appears to have led to its success, and it was not of the lodges, their traditions, customs and laws, based rupun long before most of the lodges of the pre-Grand-Lodge era joined actual documents which can be tested and verified by members and accepted “constitution" by warrant of the Grand Master. and non-members alike. Not only so, but Ireland quickly followed the lead, so early as It has been the rule to treat, more or less fully, of the influence 1725 there being a Grand Lodge for that country which must have exerted on the fraternity by the Ancient Mysteries, the Essenes, been formed even still earlier, and probably by lodges started | Roman Colleges, Culdees, Hermeticism, Fehm-Gerichte et hoc before any were authorized in the Englisn counties. In Scotland genus omne, especially the Steinmetzen, the Craft Gilds and the the change was not made until 1736, many lodges even then Companionage of France, &c.; but in view of the separate and holding aloof from such an organization. Indeed, out of some independent character of the freemasons, it appears to be quite hundred lodges known to have been active then, only thirty-three unnecessary, and the time so employed would be better devoted responded and agreed to fall into line, though several joined later; to a more thorough search after additional evidences of the some, however, kept separate down to the end of the 19th century, activity of the craft, especially during the crucial period overlapwhile others never united. Many of these lodges have records ping the second decade of the 18th century, so as to discover inof the 17th century though not then newly formed; one in formation as to the transmitted secrets of the medieval masons, particular, the oldest (the Lodge of Edinburgh, No. 1), possesses which, after all, may simply have been what Gaspard Monge minutes so far back as the year 1599.

felicitously entitles " Descriptive Geometry, or the Art and It is important to bear in mind that all the regular lodges Science of Masonic Symbolism." throughout the world, and likewise all the Grand Lodges, directly The rules and regulations of the masons were embodied in or indirectly, have sprung from one or other of the three governing what are known as the Old Charges; the senior known copy bodies named; Ireland and Scotland following the example being the Regius MS. (British Museum Bibl. Reg. 17 A, i.), set by their masonic mother of England in having Grand Lodges which, however, is not so exclusively devoted to masonry as the of their own. It is not proved how the latter two became ac- later copies. David Casley, in his catalogue of the MSS. in the quainted with Freemasonry as a secret society, guided more or King's Library (1734), unfortunately styled the little gem less by the operative MS. Constitutions or Charges common to A Poem of Moral Dulies; and owing to this misdescription its the three bodies, not met with elsewhere; but the credit of a true character was not recognized until the year 1839, and then Grand Lodge being established to control the lodges belongs to by a non-mason (Mr Halliwell-Phillipps), who had it reproduced England.

in 1840 and brought out an improved edition in 1844. Its date It may be a startling declaration, but it is well authenticated, has been approximately fixed at 1390 by Casley and other that there is no other Freemasonry, as the term is now understood, authorities. than what which has been so derived. In other words, the lodges The curious legend of the craft, therein made known, deals and Grand Lodges in both hemispheres trace their origin and first of all with the number of unemployed in early days and authority back to England for working what are known as the the necessity of finding work," that they myght gete here lyvynge Three Degrees, controlled by regular Grand Lodges. That being therby.” Euclid was consulted, and recommended the "onest so, a history of modern Freemasonry, the direct offspring of the craft of good masonry," and the genesis of the society is found British parents aforesaid, should first of all establish the descent" yn Egypte lande." By a rapid transition, but “mony erys of the three Grand Lodges from the Freemasonry of earlier days; afterwarde," we are told that the "Craft com ynto England yn such continuity, of five centuries or more, being a sine qua non tyme of good kynge Adelstonus (Æthelstan) day," who called of antiquity and regularity.

an assembly of the masons, when fifteen articles and as many more It will be found that from the early part of the 18th century points were agreed to for the government of the craft, each being back to the 16th century existing records testify to the assemblies duly described. Each brother was instructed that, of lodges, mainly operative, but partly speculative, in Great " He must love wel God, and holy Churche algate Britain, whose guiding stars and common heritage were the Old

And hys mayster also, that he ys wythe." Charges, and that when their actual minutes and transactions

“The thrydde poynt must be severle. cease to be traced by reason of their loss, these same MS. Con

With the prentes knowe hyt wele, stitutions furnish testimony of the still older working of such

Hys mayster cownsel he kepe and close, combinations of freemasons or masons, without the assistance,

And hys felows by hys goode purpose;

The prevetyse of the chamber telle he no mon, countenance or authority of any other masonic body; conse

Ny yn the logge whatsever they done, quently such documents still preserved, of the 14th and later

Whatsever thou heryst, or syste hem do, centuries (numbering about seventy, mostly in form of rolls),

Telle hyt no mon, whersever thou go." with the existing lodge minutes referred to of the 16th century, The rules generally, besides referring to trade regulations, are down to the establishment of the premier Grand Lodge in 1717, as a whole suggestive of the Ten Commandments in an extended prove the continuity of the society, Indeed so universally has form, winding up with the legend of the Ars quatuor coronatorum, this claim been admitted, that in popular usage the term Free- as an incentive to a faithful discharge of the numerous obligations, mason is only now applied to those who belong to this particular A second part introduces a more lengthy account of the origin fraternity, that of mason being applicable to one who follows of masonry, in which Noah's flood and the Tower of Babylon that trade, or honourable calling, as a builder.

are mentioned as well as the great skill of Euclid, whoThere is no evidence that during this long period any other

Through hye grace of Crist yn heven, organization of any kind, religious, philosophical, mystical or

He commensed yn the syens seven otherwise, materially or even slightly influenced the customs The “ seven sciences are duly named and explained. The of the fraternity, though they may have done so; but so far compiler apparently was a priest, line 629 reading “ And, when as is known the lodges were of much the same character through- ye gospel me rede schal,” thus also accounting for the many out, and consisted really of operatives (who enjoyed practically religious injunctions in the MS.; the last hundred lines are a monopoly for some time of the trade as masons or freemasons), evidently based upon Urbanitatis (Cott. MS. Caligula A 11, fol. 88) and, in part, of “speculatives," i.e, noblemen, gentlemen and and Instructions for a Parish Priest (Cott. MS. Claudius A 11, men of other trades, who were admitted as honorary members. fol. 27), instructions such as lads and even men would need who

Assuming then that the freemasons of the present day are the were ignorant of the customs of polite society, correct depórtment sole inheritors of the system arranged at the so-called “Revival at church and in the presence of their social superiors. of 1717," which was a development from an operative body to The recital of the legend of the Quatuor Coronali has been held one partly speculative, and that, so far back as the MS. Records by Herr Findel in his History of Freemasonry (Allgemeine Geextend and furnish any light, they must have worked in Lodges schichte der Freimaurerei, 1862;' English editions, 1866–1869) in secret throughout the period noted, a history of Freemasonry to prove that British Freemasonry was derived from Germany,

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