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of this period—who dealt the Hegelian metaphysics its death. I indicated, characteristic of the realistic movement in Germany; blow as far as its wider influence was concerned—was Friedrich the idealistic trend of the German mind proved itself ill-adapted Nietzsche (1844-1900). Nietzsche had begun as a disciple of to the uncompromising realism of the French school, and the Schopenhauer and a friend of Wagner, and he ultimately became German realists, whether in fiction or in drama, ultimately the champion of an individualistic and optimistic philosophy sought to escape from the logical consequences of their theories. which formed the sharpest possible contrast to mid-century Even Sudermann, whose Frau Sorge (1887), Der Katzensteg pessimism. The individual, not the race, the Herrenmensch, (1889), and the brilliant, if somewhat sensational romance, not the slave, self-assertion, not self-denying renunciation- Es war (1894), are among the best novels of this period, has these are some of the ideas round which this new optimistic never been a consistent realist. It is consequently not surprising ethics turns. Nietzsche looked forward to the human race to find that, before long, German fiction returned to psychological emerging from an effete culture, burdened and clogged by tradi- and emotional problems, to the poetical or symbolical presentation, and re-establishing itself on a basis that is in harmony tion of life, which was more in harmony with the German temperawith man's primitive instincts. Like Schopenhauer before him, ment than was the robuster realism of Flaubert or Zola. This Nietzsche was a stylist of the first rank, and his literary master- trend is noticeable in the work of Gustav Frenssen (b. 1863), piece, Also sprach Zarathustra (1883-1891), is to be regarded as whose novel Jörn Uhl (1901) was extraordinarily popular; the most important imaginative work of its epoch.
it is also to be seen in the studies of child life and educational Nietzschean individualism was only one of many factors problems which have proved so attractive to the younger which contributed to the new literary development. The writers of the present day, such as Hermann Hesse (b. 1877), realistic movement, as it had manifested itself in France under Emil Strauss (b. 1866), Rudolf Huch (b. 1862) and Friedrich Flaubert, the Goncourts, Zola and Maupassant, in Russia under Huch (b. 1873). One might say, indeed, that at the beginning Dostoievsky and Tolstoi, and in Norway under Ibsen and of the 20th century the traditional form of German fiction, the Björnson, was, for a time, the dominant force in Germany, and Bildungsroman, had come into its ancient rights again. Mention the younger generation of critics hailed it with undisguised ought also to be made of J. J. David (1859-1907), E. von satisfaction; most characteristic and significant of all, the centre Keyserling (b. 1858), W. Hegeler' (b. 1870), G. von Ompteda of this revival was Berlin, which, since it had become the imperial (b. 1863), J. Wassermann (b. 1873), Heinrich Mann (b. 1871) capital, was rapidly establishing its claim to be also the literary and Thomas Mann (b. 1875). Buddenbrooks (1902) by the metropolis. It was the best testimony to the vitality of the last mentioned is one of the outstanding novels of the period. movement that it rarely descended to slavish imitation of the Some of the best fiction of the most recent period is the work of realistic masterpieces of other literatures; realism in Germany women, the most distinguished being Helene Böhlau (b. 1859), was, in fact, only an episode of the 'eighties, a stimulating Gabriele Reuter (b. 1859), Clara Viebig (C. Cohn-Viebig. influence rather than an accepted principle or dogma. And its b. 1860) and Ricarda Huch (b. 1864). Whether the latest suggestive character is to be seen not merely in the writings of movement in German poetry and fiction, which, under the catchthe young Stürmer und Dränger of this time, but also in those word Heimatkunst, has favoured the province rather than the of the older generation who, in temperament, were naturally city, the dialect in preference to the language of the educated more inclined to the ideals of a past age.
classes, will prove a permanent gain, it is still too soon to say, of the novelists of the latter class, A. Wilbrandt, who has but the movement is at least a protest against the decadent already been mentioned as a dramatist, has shown, since about tendencies of naturalism. 1890, a remarkable power of adapting himself, if not to the style At no period of German letters were literature and the theatre and artistic methods of the younger school, at least to the in closer touch than at the end of the 19th and the beginning of ideas by which it was agitated; F. Spielhagen's attitude towards the 20th centuries; more than at any previous time bas the the realistic movement has been invariably sympathetic, while theatre become the arena in which the literary battles of the day a still older writer, Theodor Fontane (1819-1898), wrote between are fought out. The general improvement in the artistic, 1880 and 1898 a series of works in which the finer elements of technical and economic conditions of the German stage bave French realism were grafted on the German novel. To the older already been indicated; but it was not until 1889 that the effects school belong Wilhelm Jensen (b. 1837), and that fine humorist, of these improvements became apparent in dramatic literature. Wilhelm Raabe (b. 1831), with whom may be associated as other Before that date, it is true, Ernst von Wildenbruch (1845-1909) humorists of this period, H Seidel (1842-1906) and W. Busch had attempted to revive the historical tragedy, but the purely (1832-1908). Some of the most interesting examples of recent literary qualities of his work were handicapped by à too effusive German fiction come, however, from Austria and Switzerland. patriotism and a Schillerian pathos; nor did the talent of The two most eminent Austrian authors, Marie von Ebner- Richard Voss (b. 1851) prove strong enough to effect any lasting Eschenbach (b. 1830), and Ferdinand von Saar (1833-1906), reform. In October 1889, however, Gerhart Hauptmann's both excel as writers of Novellen or short stories--the latter play, Vor Sonnenaufgang, was produced on the then recently especially being an exponent of that pessimism which is Austria's founded Freie Bühne in Berlin; and a month later, Die Elte peculiar heritage from the previous generation of her poets. by Hermann Sudermann met with a more enthusiastic reception Austrians too, are Peter Rosegger (b. 1843), who has won in Berlin than had fallen to the lot of any German play for more popularity with his novels of peasant life, K. E. Franzos (1848 than a generation. 1904) and L. von Sacher-Masoch (1835-1895). "German prose Hauptmann (b. 1862), the most original of contemporary fiction is, in Switzerland, represented by two writers of the first German writers, stands, more or less, alone. His early plays, rank: one of these, Gottfried Keller, has already been mentioned; the most powerful of which is Die Weber (1892), were written the other, Konrad Ferdinand Meyer (1825-1898), turned to under the influence either of an uncompromising realism, or of literature or, at least, made his reputation, comparatively late that modified form of realism introduced from Scandinavia; in life. Although, like Keller, a writer of virile, original verse, but in Hanneles Himmelfahrt (1893) he combined realism with Meyer is best known as a novelist; he, too, was a master of the the poetic mysticism of a child's dream, in Florian Geyer (1895) short story. His themes are drawn by preference from the epoch he adapted the methods of realism to an historical subject, and of the Renaissance, and his method is characterized by an in the year 1896 he, to all appearance, abandoned realism to objectivity of standpoint and a purity of style exceptional in write an allegorical dramatic poem, Die versunkene Glocke. German writers.
Hauptmann's subsequent work has oscillated between the The realistic novels of the period were written by H. Conradi extremes marked out by these works from the frank naturalism (1867-1890), Max Kretzer (b. 1854), M. G. Conrad (b. 1846), H. of Fuhrmann Henschel (1898) and Rose Bernd! (1903), to the Heiberg (6. 1840), K. Bleibtreu (b. 1859), K. Alberti (pseudonym fantastic mysticism of Der arme Heinrich (1901) and Und Pippo for Konrad Sittenfeld, b. 1862) and Hermann Sudermann tanzt! (1906). (b. 1857). A want of stability was, however, as has been already The dramatic talent of Hermann Sudermann has developed
on more even lines; the success of Die Ehre was due in the first 1884): G. G. Gervinus, Geschichte der poetischen Nationalliteratur instance to the ability which Sudermann had shown in adapting 1874): VASE C Vilmar, Geschichte der deutschen Nationalliteratur the ideas of his time and the new methods of dramatic presenta-|(1648: 25th ed., 2 vols. 1900, with a continuation by A. Stern): tion to the traditional German birgerliches Drama. This is the wWackernagel, Geschichte der deutschen Literalur (1851-1855: characteristic of the majority of the many plays which followed 2nd ed. by E. Martin, 1879-1894); K. Goedeke, Grundriss zur of which Heimal (1893), Das Glück im Winkel (1896) and Es lebe Geschichte der deulschen Dichtung (3 vols., 1857-1881; 2nd ed. by
E. Goetze and others, in 9 vols., 1884 ff.); W. Menzel, Deutsche das Leben! (1902) may be mentioned as typical. With less Dichtung von der ältesten bis auf die neueste Zeit (1858-1859): H. success Sudermann attempted in Johannes (1898) a tragedy on Kurz, Geschichte der deulschen Literatur mil ausgewählten Stücken lines suggested by Hebbel. A keen observer, a writer of brilliant (3 vols., 1857-1859; 7th ed., 4, vols., 1876–1883); O. Roquette, and suggestive ideas, Sudermann is, above all, the practical Geschichte der deutschen Dichlung (2 vols., 1862:
3rd ed., 1878-1879); playwright; but it is unfortunate that the theatrical element English translation by Mrs F. C. Conybeare ( 2 vols., 1885, new ed. in his work too often overshadows its literary qualities.
1906): Kuno Francke, German Literature as determined by Social Since 1889, the drama has occupied the foreground of interest Forces (1896: 6th ed., 1903); F. Vogt and M. Koch, Geschichte der in Germany. The permanent repertory of the German theatre deutschen Literatur (1897; 2nd ed., 2 vols., 1903): J. G. Robertson, has not, it is true, been much enriched, but it is at least to the deutschen Literatur (2 vols., 1901-1902), with the accompanying
History of German Literature (1902); A. Bartels, Geschichte der credit of contemporary German playwrights that they are un- bibliographical summary, Handbuch zur Geschichte der deulschen willing to rest content with their successes and are constantly Literalur (1996). There are also histories of the literature of separate experimenting with new forms. Besides Hauptmann and countries and districts, such as J. Bächtold, Geschichte der deutschen Sudermann, the most
talented dramatists of the day are Max geschichie (2 vols., 1897–1899), J. W. Nagl and J. Zeidler, DeulschHalbe (b. 1865), 0. E. Hartleben (1864-1905), G. Hirschfeld Österreichische Literalurgeschichie (2 vols., 1899 f.). The most (b. 1873), E. Rosmer (pseudonym for Elsa Bernstein, b. 1866), comprehensive collection of German literature in selections is Ludwig Fulda (b. 1862), Max Dreyer (b. 1862), Otto Ernst Kürschner, Deutsche Nationallilerolur (222 vols., 1882-1898). (pseudonym for 0. E. Schmidt, b. 1862) and Frank Wedekind Deutsches Lesebuch (4 vols, 1835-1872: new ed., 1882 f.), and (b. 1864). In Austria, notwithstanding the preponderant influ- F. Max Müller, The German Classics from the Fourth to the Nineleenth ence of Berlin, the drama has retained its national character- Century (1858; ed. by F. Lichtenstein, 2 yols., 1886; new ed., istics, and writers like Arthur Schnitzler (b. 1862), Hermann 1906). For illustrations to the history of German literature, see
G. Könnecke, Bilderatlas zur Geschichte der deutschen Nationalliteratur Bahr (b. 1863), Hugo von Hofmannsthal (b. 1874) and R.
(1887; 2nd ed., 1895). Beer-Hofmann (b. 1866) have introduced symbolistic elements
(6) Special Periods; i. Old High German and Middle High and peculiarly Austrian problems, which are foreign to the German Periods: R. Kögel and W. Bruckner, “ Geschichte der theatre of north Germany.
althochdeutschen Literatur," and F. Vogt, "Geschichte der mittelThe German lyric of recent years shows a remarkable variety Philologie (2nd ed., vol.ii. pt. 1., 1901); F. Khull
, Geschichte der
hochdeutschen Literatur," in H. Paul's Grundriss der germanischen of new tones and pregnant poetic ideas; it has, as is natural, altdeutschen Dichtung (1886); J. Kelle, Geschichte der deutschen been more influenced by the optimism of Nietzsche-himself a
Literalur, i.-ii. (1892-1896). R. Kögel, Geschichte der deutschen lyric poet of considerable gifts--than has either novel or drama. Literatur bis zum Ausgang des Mittelalters, i. (1894–1897); W. Det lev von Liliencron (1844-1909) was one of the first to break Galther, Geschichte der deutschen Literalur von den ersten Anfängen with the traditions of the lyric as handed down from the literatur, vol. 163, pt. i., 1892): W. Scherer, Geschichte der deulschen
bis zum Ausgang des Millelalters (in Kürschner's Deutsche National. Romantic epoch and cultivated with such facility by the Munich Dichtung im 11. und 12. Jahrhundert, and by the same author, poets. An anthology of specifically modern lyrics, Moderne Geistliche Poelen der deulschen Kaiserzeit (both works in Quellen Dichlercharaktere (1885) by W. Arent (b. 1864), may be regarded und Forschungen, 1874-1875); O. Lyon, Minne- und Meistersang as the manifesto of the movement in lyric poetry
corresponding texts: K. Müllenhoff and W. Scherer, Denkmäler deutscher Poesie
numerous series of editions of medieval to the period of realism in fiction and the drama. Representative und Prosa aus den 8.-12. Jahrhunder! (2 vols., 3rd ed., 1892): poets of this movement are Richard Dehrael (b. 1863), K. M. Heyne, Bibliothek der ältesten deuischen Literaturdenkmäler Henckell (b. 1864), J, H. Mackay (b. 1864 at Greenock), G. (14 vols., begun 1858); F. Pfeiffer, Deutsche Klassiker des Miltel. Falke (b. 1853), F. Avenarius (b. 1856), F. Evers (b. 1871), F. Dichtungen des Mittelalters, edited by K. Bartsch (7 vols., 1872 fl.): Dörmann (b. 1870) and K. Busse (b. 1872). A later development K. Goedeke, Deutsche Dichtung im Mittelalter (2nd ed., 1871): 1. of the lyric-a return to mysticism and symbolism-is to be Zacher, Germanistische Handbibliothek (9 vols., begun 1869); H. Paul, seen in the poetry of Hofmannsthal, already mentioned as a Alldeutsche Textbibliothek (16 vols., begun 1882); Deulsche Texte des dramatist, and especially in Stefan George (b. 1868). Epic editions of the Minnesang are K. Lachmann and M. Haupt, Des
Millelalters, ed. by the Berlin Academy (1904 ff.). Convenient poetry, although little in harmony with the spirit of a realistic Minnesangs Frühling (4th ed. by F. Vogt, 1888). and K. Bartsch, age, has not been altogether neglected. Heinrich Hart (1855- Deulsche Liederdichter des 12. bis 14. Jahrh. (4th ed. by W. Golther, 1906), one of the leading critics of the most advanced school, 1903). is also the author of an ambitious Lied der Menschheit (vols. 1-3,
ii. From 1350-1700.-L. Geiger, Renaissance und Humanismus in
Ilalien und Deutschland (1882; 2nd ed. 1899); K. Borinski, 1888-1896); more conservative, on the other hand, is Robespierre Geschichte der deutschen Literatur seit dem Ausgang des Mittelallers (1894), an epic in the style of Hamerling by an Austrian, Marie in Kürschner's Deutsche Nationallileralur, vol. 163. ii., 1898): delle Grazie (b. 1864). Attention may also be drawn to the H. Palm, Beiträge zur Geschichte der deulschen Literatur des 16.
und 17. Jahrhunderts (1877); C. H. Herford, Studies in the popularity which, for a few years, the so-called Überbretul or
Literary Relations of England and Germany in the Sixteenth Century Cabaret enjoyed, a popularity which has left its mark on the (1886): C. Lemcke, Von Opitz bis Klopstock, i. (1871: 2nd ed. latest developments of the lyric. Associated with this movement 1882); M. von Waldberg, Deutsche Renaissance-Lyrik (1888). and are 0. J. Bierbaum (1865-1910), whose lyrics, collected in Der Die galanie Lyrik (1885); F. Bobertag, Geschichte des Romans in Irrgarten der Liebe (1901), have been extraordinarily popular, Renaissance und die Anfänge der literarischen Kritik in Deutschland E. von Wolzogen (b. 1855) and the dramatist F. Wedekind, (1886). A vast quantity of the literature of these centuries has who has been already mentioned.
been republished by the Stuttgarter literarischer Verein (founded Whether or not the work that has been produced in such in 1839), whose publications now number considerably over two
hundred volumes; further, W. Braune, Neudrucke deutscher Literatura rich measure since the year 1889-or however much of it-is to
werke des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts (begun 1882); K. Goedeke and be regarded as a permanent addition to the storehouse of German 1. Tittmann, Deutsche Dichter des 18. Jahrhunderts (18 vols. national literature, there can be no question of the serious 1867 f.), and Deutsche Dichter des 17. Jahrhunderts (15 vols.. artistic earnestness of the writers; tbe conditions for the produc- 1869 ff.). A valuable anthology is K. Goedeke's Elf Bücher deutscher tion of literature in the German empire in the early years of the Dichtung von Sebastian Bran! bis auf die Gegenwart (2 vols., 1849).
Since 1890 the Jahresberichte für neuere deutsche Literaturgeschichte 20th century were eminently healthy, and herein lies the best have provided an exhaustive survey of all publications dealing with promise for the future.
modern German literature. A useful practical bibliography, for BIBLIOGRAPHY.-(a) General Histories, Anthologies, &c.: A. English readers, covering this and the succeeding periods, is J. S. Koberstein, Grundriss der Geschichte der deutschen Nationalliteratur Nollen, A Chronology and Practical Bibliography of Modern German (1827; sth ed. by K. Bartsch, 5 vols., 1872-1874; 6th ed., vol. i., ' Literature (1903).
. The Eighlzenth Century:-). Schmidt, Geschichte der deutschen | lion unless protected from the atmosphere. At a heat above dull Literatur von Leibniz bis auf unsere Zeit (4 vols., 1863-1867: 2nd redness it becomes exceedingly brittle. German silver in various 18. und 19. Jahrhundert (3 vols., 1845-1846; 3rd ed. 1875): modifications of composition is much used in the arts. Alloys, H. Hettner, Geschichte der deutschen Literatur im 18. Jahrhundert of which about 50% is copper and the residue zinc and nickel (4 vols., 1862-1870; 4th ed. by 0. Harnack, 1893-1895); J. W. Schäfer, Geschichie der deulschen Literatur des 18. Jahrhunderts imitation silver for knives and forks. With a somewhat higher
in about equal proportions take a fine polish, and are used as (1855-1860; 2nd ed. by F. Muncker, 1881); J. K. Mörikofer, Die schweizerische Literatur des 18. Jahrhunderts (1861): J.' w. proportion of copper an alloy is formed suitable for rolling and Löbell, Entwickelung der deutschen Poesie von Klopstock bis zu for wire. In Chinese while silver or packfong (paktong) the Goethes Tod (3 vols., 1856-1865). There are also innumerable more amount of copper is smaller, about 40%, with about 32% of special treatises, such as A. Eloesser, Das bürgerliche Drama (1898); nickel, 25 of zinc, and 2 or 3 of iron. German silver for casting &c. Of collections of the literature of this and the following century: contains 2 or 3 % of lead, which like iron increases the whiteness reference need only be made to the Bibliothek der deutschen National of the alloy. German silver, having a high specific resistance literatur des 18. und 19. Jahrhunderts, published by Brockhaus and a low temperature coefficient, has been used for electrical (44 vols., 1868-1891), and Deutsche Literaturdenkmale des 18. und resistance coils, and these qualities are possessed in a still greater 19. Jahrhunderts, edited first by B. Seuffert (1882-1894), and subse degree in manganin, which contains manganese in place of zinc, quently by A. Saucr.
iv. The Nineleenth Century. Th. Ziegler, Die geistigen und sozialen its composition being 84% of copper, 12 of manganese and 4 of Strömungen des neunzehnlen Jahrhunderts (1899: 2nd ed. 1901); nickel. The addition of a trace of tungsten to German silver, R. von Gottschall, Die deuische Nationalliteratur des 19. Jahr.
as in plotinoid, also largely increases the resistance. kunderts (1854: 7th ed., 4 vols., 1900-1902); R. M. Meyer, Die deutsche Literatur des 19. Jahrhunderts (1899; 4th ed. 1910);
GERMAN SOUTH-WEST AFRICA. This German possession R. M. Meyer, Grundriss der neueren deutschen Literaturgesckichle is bounded W. by the Atlantic, N. by Angola, S. by the Cape (1902); C. Busse, Geschichte der deulschen Dichtung im neunzehnlen province, E. by Bechuanaland and Rhodesia, and is the only Jahrhundert (1901); R. Haym, Die romantische Schule (1870; 2nd ed. 1906); G. Brandes, “ Den romantiske Skole i Tyskland" 1873); has an area of about 322,450 sq. m., and a population of Bantu
German dependency in Africa suited to white colonization. It and " Det unge Tyskland" (1890), in Hovedströmninger i det node Aarhundredes Lillerolur, vols. ii. and vi. (German translations, 1887 Negroes and Hottentots estimated in 1903 at 200,000.' The and 1891; several subsequent editions, Danish and German; European inhabitants, in addition to the military, numbered English translations, ii. 1903, and vi. 1905): R. Huch, Die Blütezeit
7110 in 1907, of whom the majority were German. der Romantik (2nd ed. 1901), and Ausbreilung und Verfall der Romantik (1902); F. Wehl, Das junge Deutschland (1886); J. Area and Boundaries. The boundary separating the German Proelss, Das junge Deulschland (1892), A. Bartels, Die deutsche protectorate from the Portuguese possessions of Angola is the lower Dichtung der Gegenwart (7th ed., 1907); A. von Hanstein, Das Kunene, from its mouth in 17° 18' S., 11° 40' E to the limit of jüngsle Deutschland (2nd ed., 1901); J. F. Coar, Studies in German navigability from the sea, thence in a direct line, corresponding Literature in the Nineteenth Century (1903); Ch. Petzct, Die Blütezeit roughly to the lat. of 17° 20' S., to the river Okavango, which it der deulschen politischen Lyrik (1903). H. Mielke, Der deutsche follows, castwards until the stream turns abruptly south (towards Roman des 19. Jahrhunderts (4th ed., 1900); S. Friedmann, Dos Lake Ngami) From this point a strip of German territory 300 m. deulsche Drama des 19. Jahrhunderis, (2 vols., 1900-1903): B. long and about 50 m. broad, projects eastward until it reaches the Litzmann, Das deutsche Drama in den literarischen Bewegungen der Zambezi a little above the Victoria Falls. On the south this narrow Gegenwari (4th ed., 1898).
C. G. R.) strip of land (known as the Caprivi enclave) is separated from
southern Rhodesia by the kwando or Chobe river. On the east the GERMAN REED ENTERTAINMENT. The dramatic and frontier between British and German territory is in its northern hall musical entertainment which for many years was known in the 21st degree of E. longitude, in its southern half the zoth degree. London by the title of “ German Reed" was a form of theatrical This (rontier is drawn through desert country. The southern frontier
is the Orange river from its mouth to the 20° E. The coast-line enterprise deserving of commemoration in connexion with those
between the Kunene and Orange rivers is not wholly German. Just who made it successful. Mr THOMAS GERMAN REED (born in north of the tropic of Capricorn is the British enclave of Walfish Bay Bristol in 1817, died 1888) married in 1844 Miss PRISCILLA (9.5.). The northern part of the protectorate is known as OvamHORTON (1818-1895), and in 1855 they started their entertain-poland, the central portion as Damara (or Herero) land: the southera ment at the “Gallery of Illustration," in Waterloo Place, London. regions as Great Namaqualand. These names are derived from
those of the dominant native races inhabiting the country. From 1860 to 1877 ihey were assisted by JOHN ORLANDO PARRY Physical Features.-The coast-line is generally low and little (1810-1879), an accomplished pianoforte player, mimic, parodist broken by bays or promontories. In its entire length of about and bumorous singer; and the latter created a new type of
800 m. it has no good natural harbour, and its bays-Angra Pequena, musical and dramatic monologue which became very popular. danger of being filled with sand by
the strong, cold, northerly coase
otherwise Lüderitz Bay, Sierra Bay, Sandwich Harbour-are in His tradition was carried on after 1870 by Mr CORNEY GRAIN current. Swakopmund is an artificial harbour at the mouth of the (1844-1895), who, as a clever, refined, and yet highly humorous river Swakop. The small islands which stud the coast north and society entertainer (originally a barrister), was one of the best south of Angra Pequena belong to Great Britain. The coast-line known figures of his day. After the retirement of the elder is bordered by a belt of sand dunes and desert, which, about 35 m. German Reeds, their son, ALFRED GERMAN REED (1846–1895), Ranked by a mountain range, which attains its highest elevation in himself a capital actor, carried on the business in partnership Mount Omatako (8972 ft.), in about 21° 15' S., 16° 40' E. N. E. of with Corney Grain. The “German Reed Entertainment" Omatako is the Omboroko range, otherwise known as the Waterberg. which was always patronized by a large class of people, many of South of Omboroko, occupying the centre of the country.
attains its highest average altitude. The following massils with their whom objected on principle to going or taking their children highest points may be distinguished: Gans (7664 11.). Nu-uibeb to a regular theatre or a music-hall--retained its vogue for 7480 ft.). Onyati (7201 ft.). Awas (6988 ft.), Komas (5331 ft.) and forty years at Waterloo Place and at the St George's Hall, Ganab (4002 ft.). In the S.E. are the Karas mountains, which attain Regent Street. But the death of Mr Corney Grain almost an elevation of 6570 ft. The mountains for the main part form the simultaneously with Mr Alfred German Reed, in 1895, together from the interior towards the west, slopes again towards the south with the changed public attitude towards the regular theatre, and north from the point of its highest elevation. The Kalahari ended its career.
plateau changes the undulating character it has in the west to a GERMAN SILVER or NICKEL Silver, an alloy of copper, perfect plain in the far cast, where the watered and habitable nickel and zinc, prepared either by melting the copper and nickel half of the country the central plateau contains much rich grass-land. together in a crucible, and adding piece by piece the previously while in the north-eastern region the Omaheke desert has all the heated zinc, or by heating the finely divided metals under a layer characteristics of the Kalahari. of charcoal. To destroy its crystalline structure and so render West Africa. The Kunene (9.0.) has but a small portion of the
There are no rivers of importance wholly within German Southit fit for working, it is heated to dull redness, and then allowed southern bank in the colony, and similarly only part of the northera to cool. German silver is harder than silver; it resembles that me:al in colour, but is of a greyer tinge. Exposed to the air it decreased. The number of adult (native) males in the colony at the
" As the result of wars with the natives, the population greatly tarnishes slightly yellow, and with vinegar affords a crust of beginning of 1908 was officially estimated at 19.900, a figure indicating verdigris. At a bright red beat it melts, losing its zinc by oxida. I a total population of little more than 100.000,
Climate. On the coast the mcan encere is low, and there is
bank of the Orange river (9.0.) is in German territory. Several | existing types of that race, are divided into numerous tribes, streains run south into the Orange; of those the chief is the Great independent of one another, such as the Witbois, Swartzbois, and the Orange carry water all the year round, but are not navigable. Bondelzwarts. The' Bushmen are found scattered over the Neither is the Great Fish river, which, however, is rarely dry. The eastern parts of the country (see HOTTENTOTS and BUSHMEN). Okavango, which comes from the north and runs towards Ngami The second class consists of the mountain Damara (Hau-Khoin), (q.v.), is perennial, but like the Kunene and Orange, belongs only a race of doubtful affinities, probably of Bantu-Negro origin, slopes of the coast chain many streams go N.E. to join the Okavango! but speaking the Hottentot language. The third class belongs They cross the Omaheke waste and are usually dry: Ovampoland to the Bantu-Negro stock, and came from the north-east, exhas a hydrographic system connected with the Kunene, and, in pelling and enslaving the mountain Damara, and settling in seasons of great flood, with that of Ngami. Before the Kunene various parts of the country under different names. The most channels south-east to a large marsh or lake called Etosha, which prominent are the Herero, thorough nomads and cattle-breeders; is cut by 17° E. and 19° S. of these channels the Kwamatuo or while the Ovampo (Ovambo or Ambo), in the northern part of Okipoko, which is perennial, enters Etosha at its N.W. corner. The the protectorate, are agriculturists. The Herero (q.v.) are also lake when full extends about 80 m. W. to E. and 50. m. N. to S. known by the Hottentot name Damara, and by this name their From its S.E. corner issues the Omuramba, which divides into two branches, known respectively as the Omaheke and the Ovampo, country is generally called.. The Bastaards, who live in NamaquaThese streams have an easterly direction, their beds, often dry, land, are a small tribe originating from a mingling of Cape Boers joining the Okavango. The other rivers of the protectorate have with Hottentots. They are Christians, and able to read and as a rule plenty of water in their upper courses in the rainy season, write. The other natives are spirit-worshippers, save for the thunderstorm such a river bed will be suddenly filled with a turbid comparatively few converts of the Protestant missions established current half a mile wide. The water is, however, before long in the country. Of white races represented the chief are Germans absorbed by the thirsty land. Only in exceptionally rainy years and Boers. In the S.E Boer settlers form the bulk of the white do the streams which cross the sand belt carry water to the ocean population. There are also numbers of British colonists in this by digging. Of rivers running direct to the Atlantic the Little Fish region-cmigrants from the Cape. The immigration of Germans river enters the sea at Angra Pequena and the Kuisip in Walfish Bay is encouraged by subsidies and in other ways. The Swakop rises in the hills near the Waterberg, and north of it is the Omaruru, which carries water for the greater part of the year.
Towns. --The chicl port is Swakopmund, built on the northern Hot springs are numerous, and it is remarkablethat those of Windhock bank of the Swakop river (the southern bank belonging to the Aow more copiously during the dry
than the rainy scason.
There by a breakwater. There are also settlements at Lüderitz Bay (white are also many cold springs, and wells which contain water all the year.
Geology.-Gneiss and schist, with intrusive granites and porphyries, pop. 1909, over 1000) and at Sandwich Harbour... Swakopmund is coast belt, coast mountains and the plateau of Damaraland. In the ministrative capital of the colony, situated in a hilly district 180 m. rocks are overlain by sandstones, slates, quartzites and jasper rocks, Station 70 m. W.N.W. of Windhoek, and Tsumeb a mining centre Huib and Han-ami plateaus of Great Namaqualand the crystalline due east of the port, but 237 m. by the railway. Karibib is the only the Transvaal and Pretoria scries (see TRANSVAAL: Geology). The 240 m. N.N.E, of the same place. Olukonda is a government post next oldest rocks are of recent geological date. The Kalahari Kalk, I in Ovampoland. In the S.E. corner of the colony, 30 m. n. of the which extends over large areas to the south-east of Ovampoland, of Warmbad and 180 m. E. of Lüderitz Bay, is the centre of a smali tracts of alluvium occur in the basin of the Ovampo, while the dunes mining industry. Gibeon is a government station and missionary and sand-tracts of the Kalahari occupy the eastern regions.
settlement about midway between Keetmanshoop and Windhoek.
Besides these places there are numbers of small native towns at little . is by fogs, which rise almost
which live a few white traders and missionaries. The missionaries daily. South-west winds prevail. Inland the climate is temperate
have given Biblical names to several of their stations, such as Bethany rather than tropical, with bracing, clear atmosphere. There are
and Beersheba in Namaqualand, and Rehoboth in Damaraland. considerable differences of temperature between day and night, and
In the Caprivi enclave are a German residency and the site of the two well-marked seasons, one cold and dry from May to September, town of Linyante, once the capital of the Makololo dynasty of the other hot and rainy from October to April.' In winter ico frequently forms during the night on open water on the plateau,
Industries. --Agriculture is followed by the natives in the northern but it never remains all day. The yearly rainfall is about 20 in: districts, but the chief industry is stock-raising. The scarcity of in the Damara Hills; there is more rain in the north than in the
water in the southern parts is not favourable for agricultural pursuits, south, and in the east than in the west. In the greater part of the
while the good grazing lands offer splendid, pasturage for cattle,
which the Herero raise in numbers amounting to many hundred colony the climate is favourable for European settlement. Flora and Fauna.-The vegetation corresponds exactly with the
thousands. Sheep and goats thrive well. Horses have been imclimate. In the dry littoral region are plants able to exist with the ported from the Cape. Unfortunately the climate does not suit minimum of moisture they derive from the daily fog-Amarantaceae,
them everywhere, and they are subject to a virulent distemper. Sarcocaula, Aloe dicholoma, Aristida subacaulis and the wonderful
Cattle and sheep also suffer from the diseases which are common Welwitschia. Farther inland are plants which spring up and dis
in the Cape Colony. Camels have been imported, and are doing appear with the rain, and others whose roots reach permanent
well. Wheat, maize and sorghum are the chief crops raised, though water. The former are chicfly grasses, the latter exist almost solely coast the natives collect the kernels of the nara, a wild-growiag
not enough is grown to meet even local requirements. Near the in or near river-beds. Amongst the fine trees often seen here, the ana tree (Acacia albida) is the most noteworthy, its seeds being pumpkin which, in the words of an early traveller, C. J. Andersson,
are eaten by oxen, mice, men, ostriches and lions. Acacia giraffae, Ac.
About half favourite fodder for all domestic animals. horrida, Adansonia sterculia, near the Kunene the Hyphaene ventricosa,
the European settlers are engaged in agriculture. They raise maize, deserve special notice. The vegetation in the mountain valleys is
wheat, tobacco, fruit and vegetables. Cotton cultivation and vitiluxuriant, and towards the north is of a tropical character. The culture are carried on in some districts. palm zone extends a considerable distance south of the Kunene, chief copper deposits are at Tsumeb, which is 4230 ft. above the sea,
Minerals, especially copper, are plentiful in the country. The and here vegetation spreads over the sand dunes of the coast plain, in the Otavi district. Diamonds are found on and near the surface which are covered with grasses. Large game, formerly abundant, especially pachyderms, is scarce.
of the soil in the Lüderitz Bay district, and diamonds have also been of antelopes the following species are plentiful in parts:
springbok, and the Hottentot women are clever in making fur cloths. In the
found in the neighbourhood of Gibeon. A little pottery is made, steenbok, kudu, rietbok, pallah; of monkeys, the, Cynocephalus north the Ovampo do a little smith-work and grass-plaiting. The porcarius is frequent. Various kinds of hyenas and jackals with external trade of the country was of slow growth. The exports, finc fur (Canis mesomelas), also Felis caracal, abound, The spring previous to the
opening up of the Otavi mines, consisted chiefly of hare (Pedestea caffer) and rock-rabbit (Hyrax capensis) may often be observed. Of birds there are 728 species. Crocodiles, turtles and änd ostrich feathers. The chief imports are food stuffs, textiles and
live stock-sent mainly
to Cape Colony-guano, ivory, horns, hides snakes are numerous.
metals, and hardware. In 1903 the value of the exports was £168,560, Inhabitants.-Among the natives of German South-West that of the imports £388,210. The war which followed (see below, Africa three classes may be distinguished. In the first class are Hislory) led to a great shrinking of exports, rendering the figures for the Namaqua (Hottentots) and Bushmen. The Namaqua 85% of the imports are from Germany.
the period 1904-1907 useless for purposes of comparison. About probably came from the south, while the Bushmen may be Communications. The economic development of the country jooked upon as an indigenous race. The Hottentots, the purest l is largely dependent on transport facilities. The railway from
Swakopmund to Windhoek, mentioned above, was begun in 1897, and was refused. In 1876, however, a special commissioner (W. was opened for traffic in July 1902. It cost nearly £700,000 to build. Another narrow gauge railway, to serve the Otavi copper mines, Coates Palgrave) was sent by the Cape government
to the tribes was begun in 1904 and completed in 1908. It starts from Swakop north of the Orange river." The commissioner concluded treaties mund and is 400 m. long, the terminus being at Grootfontein, 40 m. with the Namaqua and Damara which fixed the limits of the S.E. of Tsumeb. The highest point on this line is 5213 st. above the territories of the two races and placed the whole country now sea. In 1906–1908 a railway, 180 m. long, was built from Lüderitz forming German South-West Africa within the sphere of British gauge (3 ft. 6 in.), that gauge being adopted in view of the eventual influence. In the central part of Damaraland an area of some linking up of the line with the British railway systems at Kimberley. 35,000 sq. m. was marked out as a British reservation. The A branch from Seeheim on the Keetmanshoop line runs S.E, to instrument by which this arrangement was made was knowa Kalkfontein.
as the treaty of Okahandya. Neither it nor the treaty relating Besides railways, roads have been made between the chief centres of population. Along these, in the desert districts, wells have been to Great Namaqualand was ratified by the British government, dug.' Across the Awas Mountains, separating Windhoek from the but at the request of Sir Bartle Frere, then high commissioner central plateau, a wide road has been cut. In 1903 the colony was for South Africa, Walfish Bay (the best harbour along the coast) placed in telegraphic communication with Europe and Cape Colony was in 1878 annexed to Great Britain. by the laying of submarine cables having their terminus at Swakopmund. There is a fairly complete inland telegraphic service.
In 1880 fighting between the Namaqua, who were led by There is regular stcamship communication between Hamburg Jan Afrikander, son of Jonker and grandson of Christian and Swakopmund, Walfish Bay and Lüderitz Bay. Regular com- Afrikander, and the Damara broke out afresh, and was Germaa munication is also maintained between Cape Town and the ports not ended until the establishment of European rule. In of the colony. Administration.--At the head of the administration is an imperial 1883 F. A. E. Lüderitz(1834-1886), a Bremen merchant,
Isted. governor, responsible to the colonial office in Berlin, who is assisted with the approval of Prince Bismarck, established a by a council consisting of chicfs of departments. The country is trading station at Angra Pequena. This step led to the annexadivided into various administrative districts. In each of these there tion of the whole country to Germany (see AFRICA, $ 5) is a Bezirksamtmann, with his staff of officials and police force;: In with the exception of Walfish Bay and the islands actually but also the Bastaards are subject. As in all German colonies, British territory. On the establishment of German rule Jonker there a court of appeal at the residence of the governor. The Afrikander's old headquarters were made the seat of administragovernment maintains schools at the chief towns, but education is tion and renamed Windhoek. The Hottentots, under a chieftaia principally in the hands of missionaries. The armed force consists
named Hendrik Witboi, offered a determined opposition to the of regular troops from Germany and a militia formed of Bastaards. The local revenue for some years before 1903 was about £130,000 Germans, but after a protracted war peace was concluded in 1894 per annum, the expenditure about £400,000, the difference between and Hendrik became the ally of the Germans. Thereafter, local receipts and expenditure being made good by imperial subsidies. notwithstanding various local risings, the country enjoyed a ties incurred an expenditure of over £2,000,000, largely for military measure of prosperity, although, largely owing to economic purposes. On articles of export, such as feathers and hides, 5% ad conditions, its development was very slow. valorem duty has to be paid; on cattle and horses an export tax per In October 1903 the Bondelzwarts, who occupy the district head. There is a 10% ad valorem duty on all imports, no difference immediately north of the Orange river, rose in revolt. This act being made between German and foreign goods. The sale of
was the beginning of a struggle between the Germans spirituous liquors is subject to a licence.
and the natives which lasted over four years, and cost
Herero HistoryThe coast of south-west Africa was discovered by Germany the lives of some 5000 soldiers and settlers, Bartholomew Diaz in 1487, whilst endeavouring to find his way and entailed an expenditure of £15,000,000. Abuses committed to the Indies. He anchored in a bay which by reason of its by white traders, the brutal methods of certain officials and the smallness he named Angra Pequena. Portugal, however, took occupation of tribal lands were among the causes of the war, no steps to acquire possession of this inhospitable region, which but impatience of white rule was believed to be the chief reason remained almost unvisited by Europeans until tlie carly years for the revolt of the Herero, the most formidable of the opponents of the 19th century. At this time the country was devastated of the Germans. The Herero had accepted the German proby a Hottentot chief known as Afrikander, who had fled thither tectorate by treaty-without fully comprehending that to which with a band of outlaws after murdering his master, a Boer they had agreed. To crush the Bondelzwarts, an object attained farmer by whom he had been ill-treated, in 1796. In 1805 some by January 1904, the governor, Colonel Theodor Leut wein, had missionaries (of German nationality) went into Namaqualand denuded Damaraland of troops, and advantage was taken of this in the service of the London Missionary Society, which society fact by the Herero to begin a long-planned and well-prepared subsequently transferred its missions in this region to the Rhenish revolt. On the 12th of January 1904 most of the German mission, which had had agents in the country since about 1840. farmers in Damaraland were attacked, and settlers and their The chief station of the missionaries was at a Hottentot settle families murdered and the farms devastated. Reinforcements ment renamed Bethany (1820), a place 125 m. E. by Angra were sent from Germany, and in June General von Trotha Pequena. The missionaries had the satisfaction of stopping arrived and took command the troops. On the oth of August Afrikander's career of bloodshed. He became a convert, a great von Trot ha attacked the Herero in their stronghold, the Waterfriend of the mission, and took the name of Christian. The berg, about 200 m. N. of Windhoek, and inflicted upon them proximity of Great Namaqualand to Cape Colony led to visits a severe defeat. The main body of the enemy escaped, however, from British and Dutch farmers and hunters, a few of whom from the encircling columns of the Germans, and thereafter settled in the country, which thus became in some sense a the Herero, who were under the leadership of Samuel Maherero, dependency of the Cape.
maintained a guerrilla warfare, rendering the whole countryside În 1867 the islands along the coast north and south of Angra unsafe. The Germans found pursuit almost hopeless, being Pequena, on which were valuable guano deposits, were annexed crippled by the lack of water and the absence of means of transto Great Britain. At this time a small trade between the natives port. To add to their troubles a Herero bastard named Morenga, and the outside world was developed at Angra Pequena, the with a following of Hottentots, bad, in July, recommenced merchants engaged in it being British and German. The political hostilities in the south. On the 2nd of October 1904 von Trotha, influence of the Cape spread meantime northward to the land of exasperated at his want of success in crushing the enemy, issued the Herero (Damara). The Herero had been subjugated by a proclamation in which he said: “Within the German frontier Jonker Afrikander, a son of Christian Afrikander, who followed every Hercro with or without a rifle, with or without cattle, the early footsteps of his site and had renounced Christianity, will be shot. I will not take over any more women and children. but in 1865 they had recovered their independence. The But I will either drive them back to your people or have them Rhenish missionaries appealed (1868) to the British government fired on." In a later order von Troiha instructed his soldiers for protection, and asked for the annexation of the country. not to fire into, but to fire over the heads of the women and This request, although supported by the Prussian government, I children, and Prince Bülow ordered the general to repeal the