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but without any justification, the legend being met with in and still another at Swallwell (now No. 48 Gateshead) demanded England centuries prior to the date of the Regius MS., and long that “the Apprentices shall have their Charge given at the time prior to its incorporation in masonic legends on the Continent. of Registering, or within thirty days after "; the minutes in

The next Ms., in order, is known as the “Cooke" (Ad. Ms. serting such entries accordingly even so late as 1754, nearly 23,198, British Museum), because Matthew Cooke published a twenty years after the lodge had cast in its lot with the Grand fair reproduction of the document in 1861; and it is deemed by Lodge of England. competent palcographers to date from the first part of the 15th Their Christian character is further emphasized by the “ First century. There are two versions of the Old Charges in this little Charge that you shall be true men to God and the holy Church"; book, purchased for the British Museum in 1859. The compiler the York MS. No. 6 beseeches the brethren " at every meeting was probably a mason and familiar with several copies of these and assembly they pray heartily for all Christians "; the Melrose MS. Constitutions, two of which he utilizes and comments upon; MS. No. 2 (1674) mentions“ Merchants and all other Christian he quotes from a MS. copy of the Policronicon the manner in men,' and the Aberdeen MS. (1670) terms the invocation which a written account of the sciences was preserved in the two A Prayer before the Meeting." Until the Grand Lodge era, historic stones at the time of the Flood, and generally makes Freemasonry was thus wholly Christian. The York MS. No.4 knows the traditions of the society as well as the laws wbich of 1693 contains a singular error in the admonitory lines: were to govern the members.

The (n) one of the elders takeing the Booke and that Its introduction into England through Egypt is noted (where

hee or shee that is to be made mason, shall lay their the Children of Israel " lernyd ye craft of Masonry "), also the

hands thereon and the charge shall be given.' lande of behest ” (Jerusalem) and the Temple of Solomon (who This particular reading was cited by Hughan in 1871, but was “confirmed ye chargys yt David bis Fadir” had made). Then considered doubtful; Findel, however, confirmed it, on his masonry in France is interestingly described; and St Alban and visit to York under the guidance of the celebrated 'masonic “ Æthelstane with his yongest sone" (the Edwin of the later student the late Rev. A. F. A. Woodford. The mistake was due MSS.) became the chosen mediums subsequently, as with the possibly to the transcriber, who had an older roll before him, other Charges, portions of the Old Testament are often cited in confusing “they,” sometimes, written "the" with "she,"i order to convey a correct idea to the neophytc, who is to hear the or reading that portion, which is often in Latin, as ille vel illa, document read, as to these sciences which are declared to be free instead of ille vel illi. in themselves (fre in hem sclse). Of all crafts followed by man In some of the Codices, about the middle of the 17th century. in this world “Masonry hathe the moste 'notabilite," as con- and later, New Articles are inserted, such as would be suitable firmed by “ Elders that were bi for us of masons (who) had these for an organization similar to the Masons' Company of London, chargys wryten,” and “as is write and taught in ye boke of our which had one, at least, of the Old Charges in its possession accharges."

cording to inventories of 1665 and 1676; and likewise in 1722, Until quite recently no representative or survival of this termed The Book of the Constitutions of the Accepled Masons. particular version had been traced, but in 1890 one was dis- Save its mention (" Book wrote on parchment ") by Sir Francis covered of 1687 (since known as the William Watson Ms.). Palgrave in the Edinburgh Review (April 1839) as being in Of sone seventy copies of these old scrolls which have been existence “not long since," this valuable document has been unearthed, by far the greater proportion have been made public lost sight of for many years. since 1860. They have all much in common, though often That there were signs and other secrets preserved and used curious differences are to be detected; are of English origin, by the brethren throughout this mainly operative period may no matter where used; and when complete, as they mostly are, be gathered from discreet references in these old MSS. The whether of the 16th or subsequent centuries, are noteworthy Institutions in parchment (22nd of November 1696) of the for an invocation or prayer which begins the recital:

Dumfries Kilwinning Lodge (No. 53, Scotland) contain a copy “The mighte of the ffather of heaven

of the oath taken“, when any man should be made":And the wysedome of the glorious Sonne

These Charges which we now reherse to you and all others ye through the grace and the goodnes of the holly

secrets and misterys belonging to free masons you shall ghoste yt been three p'sons and one God

faithfully and truly keep, together with ye Counsell of ye be with us at or beginning and give us grace

assembly or lodge, or any other lodge, or brother, or sellow.' so to gou'ne us here in or lyving that wee maye come to his blissé that nevr shall have ending.--Amen."

“ Then after ye oath taken and the book kissed "(i.e. the Bible) (Grand Lodge MS. No. I, A.D. 1583.)

the "precepts” are read, the first being:

You shall be true men to God and his holy Church, and that They are chiefly of the 17th century and ncarly all located

you do not countenance or maintaine any eror, faction, in England; particulars may be found in Hughan's Old Charges schism or herisey, in ye church to ye best of your underof the British Freemasons (1872, 1895 and supplement 1906).' standing." (History of No. 53, by James Smith.) The chief scrolls, with some others, have been reproduced in The Grand Lodge MS. No. 2 provides that “ You shall keepe facsimile in six volumes of the Quatuor Coronalorum Antigrapha; secret ye obscure and intricate pts. of ye science, not disclosinge and the collection in Yorkshire has been published separately, them to any but such as study and use ye same." either in the West Yorkshire Reprints or the Ancient York The Harleian MS. No. 2054 (Brit. Mus.) is still more explicit, Masonic Rolls. Several bave been transcribed and issued in termed The free Masons Orders and Constitutions, and is in the other works.

handwriting of Randle Holme (author of the Academie of These scrolls give considerable information as to the tradi- Armory, 1688), who was a member of a lodge in Cheshire. Followtions and customs of the craft, together with the regulations ing the MS. Constitutions, in the same handwriting, about 1650, for its government, and were required to be read to appren- is a scrap of paper with the obligation:tices long after the peculiar rules ceased to be acted upon, There is sevrall words and signes of a frec Mason to be revailed each lodge apparently having one or more copies kept for to yu wch as yu will answr. belore God at the Great and the purpose. The old Lodge of Aberdeen ordered in 1670 that

terrible day of judgmt. yu keep secret and not to revaile the the Charge was to be “read at ye entering of everie entered

same to any in the heares of any p'son, but to the Mrs and

fellows of the Society of Free Masons, so helpe me God, &c." prenteise"; another at Alnwick in 1701 provided

(W. H. Rylands, Mas. Mag., 1882.) " Noe Mason shall take any apprentice (but he must) Enter him and give him his Charge, within one whole

? Findel claims that his Treatise on the society was the cause year after " ;

which "first impellod England to the study of masonic history

and ushered in the intellectual movement which resulted in the The service rendered by Dr W. Begemann (Germany) in his writings of Bros. Hughars

, Lyon, Gould and others." Great credit "Attempt to Classify the Old Charges of the British Masons" was due to the late German author for his important work, but (vol. 1 Trans. of the Quatuor Coronati Lodge, London) has been very before its advent the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford, D. Murray Lyon great, and the researches of the Rev. A. F. A. Woodford and G. W. and others in Great Britain were diligent masonic students on similar Speth have also been of the utmost consequence.

lines.

It is not yet settled who were the actual designers or architects them “ Cowans," a course justified by the king's " Maister of of the grand old English cathedrals. Credit has been claimed Work, William Schaw, whose Slatutis and Ordinanceis (28th for church dignitaries, to the exclusion more or less of the master December 1598) required that “Na maister or fellow of craft masons, to whom presumably of right the distinction belonged. ressaue any cowanis to wirk in his societie or companye, nor send In early days the title “ architect " is not met with, unless the nane of his servants to wirk wt. cowanis, under the pane of term " Ingenator " had that meaning, which is doubtful. As to twentie pounds.” Gradually, however, the rule was relaxed, in this interesting question, and as to the subject of building time such monopoly practically ceased, and the word "cowan" generally, an historical account of Master and Free Masons is only known in connexion with speculative Freemasonry. (Discourses upon Architecture in England, by the Rev. James Sir Walter Scott, as a member of Lodge St David (No. 36), was Dallaway, 1833), and Noles on the Superintendents of English familiar with the word and used it in Rob Roy. In 1707 a cowan Buildings in the Middle Ages (by Wyatt Papworth, 1887), should was described in the minutes of Mother Lodge Kilwinning, be consulted. Both writers were non-masons. The former as a mason“ without the word,” thus one who was not a free observes: “The honour due to the original founders of these mason (History of the Lodge of Edinburgh No. 1, by D. Murray edifices is almost invariably transferred to the ecclesiastics Lyon, 1900). under whose patronage they rose, rather than to the skill and In the New English Dictionary (Oxford, vol. iv., 1897) under design of the master mason, or professional architect, because the “ Freemason " it is noted that three views have been proonly historians were monks. . . . They were probably not so pounded (1) “The suggestion that free-mason stands for well versed in geometrical science as the master masons, for free-stone-mason would appear unworthy of attention, but mathematics formed a part of monastic learning in a very limited for the curious fact that the earliest known instances of any degree.” In the Journal of Proceedings R.I.B.A. vol. iv. (1887), similar appellation are mestre mason de franche peer (Act 25 Edw. a skilful critic (W.H. White) declares that Papworth, in that valu. III., 1350), and sculplores lapidum liberorum, alleged to occur able collection of facts, has contrived to annihilate all the profes-in a document of 1217; the coincidence, however, seems to be sional idols of the century, setting up in their place nothing merely accidental. (2) The view most generally held is that except the master mason. The brotherhood of Bridge-builders,' freemasons were those who were free of the masons' guild. that travelled far and wide to build bridges, and the travelling Against this explanation many forcible objections have been bodies of Freemasons," he believes never existed; nor was brought by Mr G. W. Speth, who suggests (3) that the itinerant William of Wykeham the designer of the colleges attributed to masons were called free because they claimed exemption from him. It seems well-nigh impossible to disprove the statements the eontrol of the local guilds of the towns in which they made by Papworth, because they are all so well grounded ontemporarily settled. (4) Perhaps the best hypothesis is that the attested facts; and the attempt to connect the Abbey of Cluny, term refers to the medieval practice of emancipating skilled or men trained at Cluny, with the original or preliminary designs artisans, in order that they might be able to travel and render of the great buildings erected during the middle ages, at least their services wherever any great building was in process of during the 12th and 13th centuries, is also a failure. The whole construction." The late secretary of the Quatuor Coronati question is ably and fully treated in the History of Freemasonry Lodge (No. 2076, London) has thus had his view sanctioned by by Robert Freke Gould (1886-1887), particularly in chapter vi. " the highest tribunal in the Republic of Letters so far as on " Medieval Operative Masonry," and in his Concise History Philology is concerned ” (Dr W. J. Chetwode Crawley in Ars (1903).

Qualuor Coronatorum, 1898). Still it cannot be denied that The lodge is often met with, either as the tabulatum domicialem members of lodges in the 16th and following centuries exercised (1200, at St Alban's Abbey) or actually so named in the Fabric the privilege of making free masons and denied the freedom Rolls of York Minster (1370), ye loge being situated close to the of working to cowans (also called un-freemen) who had not been fane in course of erection; it was used as a place in which the so made free; "the Masownys of the luge” being the only ones stones were prepared in private for the structure, as well as recognized as freemasons. As to the prefix being derived from occupied at meal-time, &c. Each mason was required to "swere the word frere, a sufficient answer is the fact that frequent upon ye boke yt he sall trewly ande bysyli at his power hold and reference is made to “ Brother freemasons," so that no ground for kepe holy all ye poyntes of yis forsayde ordinance" (Ordinacio that supposition exists (cf. articles by Mr Gould in the Freemason Cementanorum).

for September 1898 on “ Free and Freemasonry "). As to the term free-mason, from the 14th century, it is held There are numerous indications of masonic activity in the by some authorities that it described simply those men who British lodges of the 17th century, especially in Scotland; worked " freestone," but there is abundant evidence to prove the existing records, however, of the southern part of the United that, whatever may have been intended at first, free-mason soon Kingdom, though few, are of importance, some only having been hada much wider signification, the prefix free being also employed made known in recent years. These concern the Masons' by carpenters (1666), sewers (15th century, tailors at Exeter) and Company of London, whose valuable minutes and other docuothers, presumably to indicate they were free to follow their ments are ably described and commented upon by Edward trades in certain localities. On this point Mr Gould well observes: Conder, jr., in his Hole Crafle and Fellowship of Masons (1894), “ The class of persons from whom the Freemasons of Warrington the author then being the Master of that ancient company. It (1646), Staffordshire (1686), Chester, York, London and their was incorporated in 1677 by Charles II., who graciously met the congeners in the 17th century derived the descriptive title, wishes of the members, but as a company the information "lhat which became the inheritance of the Grand Lodge of England, is to be found in the Corporation Records at Guildhall proves very were free men, and masons of Gilds or Companies ” (History, clearly that in 1376 the Masons' Company existed and was vol. ii. P. 160). Dr Brentano may also be cited: “Wherever represented in the court of common council.” The title then the Craft Guilds were legally acknowledged, we find foremost, favoured was“ Masons," the entry of the term "Freemasons” that the right to exercise their craft, and sell their manufactures, being crossed out. Herbert erroneously overlooked the correcdepended upon the freedom of their city(Developonent of tion, and stated in his History of the Twelve Great Livery ComGuilds, &c., p. 65). In like manner, the privilege of working panies (vol. i.) that the Freemasons returned two, and the Masons as a mason was not conferred before candidates had been "made four members, but subsequently amalgamated; whereas the free." The regular free-masons would not work with men, even revised entry was for the “Masons" only. The Company if they had a knowledge of their trade, “if unfree," but styled obtained a grant of arms in 1472 (12th year Hen. VIII.), one of the

"It is not considered necessary to refer at length to the Fratres first of the kind, being thus described :-"A feld of Sablys A Pontis, or other imaginary bodies of freemasons, as such questions Cheveron silver grailed thre Castellis of the same garnysshed wt.

*** No distinct trace of the general employment of large migratory dores and wyndows of the feld in the Cheverod or Cumpas of bands of masons, going from place to place as a guild, or company. Black of Blak": it is the authority (if any) for all later armorial or brotherhood" (Prol. T. Hayter-Lewis, Brit.

Arch. Assoc., 1889). / bearings having a chevron and castles, assumed by other masonic

were

organizations. This precious document was only discovered in ferred on honorary members during the 17th century in 1871, having been missing for a long time, thus doubtless accounts particular. ing for the erroneous representations met with, not having the In Dr Plot's History of Staffordshire (1686) is a remarkable correct blazon to follow. The oldest masonic motto known account of the "Society of Freemasons," which, being by an is “God is our Guide" on Kerwin's tomb in St Helen's church, unfriendly critic, is all the more valuable. He states that the Bishopgate, of 1594; that of " In the Lord is all our trust custom had spread "more or less all over the nation "; persons not being traced until the next century. Supporters consisting of the most eminent quality did not disdain to enter the Fellowof two doric columns are mentioned in 1688 by Randle Holme, ship; they had “ a large parchmenl volum containing the History but the Grand Lodge of England in the following century used and Rules of the Craft of Masonry "; St Amphibal, St Alban, Beavers as operative builders. Its first motto was “ In the King Athelstan and Edwin are mentioned, and these “charges beginning was the Word " (in Greek), exchanged a few years on and manners

after perusal approved by King Hen. 6 ward for “ Relief and Truth,” the rival Grand Lodge (Atholl and his council, both as to Masters and Fellows of this right Masons) selecting“ Holiness to the Lord " (in Hebrew), and the Worshipfull craft.” It is but fair to add that notwithstanding final selection at the “ Union of December 1813 " being Audi the service he rendered the Society by his lengthy description, Vide Taco.

that credulous historian remarks of its history that there is Mr Conder's discovery of a lodge of “ Accepted Masons " being nothing he ever“ met with more false or in coherent.” held under the wing of the Company was a great surprise, dating The author of the Academie of Armory, previously noted, as the records do from 1620 to 1621 (the earliest of the kind yet knew better what he was writing about in that work of 1088 in traced in England), when seven were made masons, all of whom which he declares: "I cannot but Honor the Fellowship of were free of the Company before, three being of the Livery; the Masons because of its Antiquity; and the more, as being a the entry commencing" Att the making masons.” The meetings member of thal Society, called Free Masons " Mr Rylands states were entitled the “ Acception," and the members of the lodge that in Harl. MS. 5955 is a collection of the engraved plates for a were called Accepled Masons, being those so accepled and initiated, second volume of this important work, one being devoted to the the term never otherwise being met with in the Records. An Arms of the Society, the columns, as supporters, having globes additional fee had to be paid by a member of the Company to thereon, from which possibly are derived the two pillars, with join the “ Acception,” and any not belonging thereto were such ornaments or additions seen in lodge rooms at a later period. mulct in twice the sum; though even then such “ acceptance' In the same year“ A Tripos or Speech delivered at a commencedid not qualify for membership of the superior body; the fees ment in the University of Dublin held there July 11, 1688, by for the “ Acception " being £i and £2 respectively. In 1638- John Jones, then A.B., afterwards D.D.,” contained" " notable 1639, when Nicholas Stone entered the lodge (he was Master evidence concerning Freemasonry in Dublin.” The Tripos was of the Company 1632-1633) the banquet cost a considerable included in Sir Walter Scott's edition of Dean Swift's works sum, showing that the number of brethren present must have (1814), but as Dr Chetwode Crawley points out, though noticed been large.

by the Rev. Dr George Oliver (the voluminous Masonic author), Elias Ashmole (who according to his diary was “made a Free he failed to realize its historical importance. The satirical and Blason of Warrington with Colonel Henry Mainwaring," seven withal amusing speech was partly translated from the Latin by brethen being named as in attendance at the lodge, 16th of Dr Crawley for his scholarly introduction to the Masonic ReOctober 1646) states that he “received a summons to appear at prints, &c., by Henry Sadler. “ The point seems to be that a Lodge to be held next day at Masons' Hall, London.” Accord- Ridley (reputed to have been an informer against priests under ingly on the rith of March 1682 he attended and saw six gentle- the barbarous penal laws) was, or ought to have been, hanged; men " admitted into the Fellowship of Free Masons," of whom that his carcase, anatomized and stuffed, stood in the library; three only belonged to the Company; the Master, however, and that frath scoundrellus discovered on his remains the FreeMr Thomas Wise, the two wardens and six others being present masons' Mark.” The importance of the references to the crait in on the occasion as members in their dual capacity. Ashmole Ireland is simply owing to the year in which they were made, adds: “We all dyned at the Halfe Moone Tavern in Cheapside as illustrative of the influence of the Society at that time, of which at a noble dinner prepaired at the charge of the new-accepted records are lacking. Masons.”

It is primarily to Scotland, however, that we have to look It is almost certain that there was not an operative mason for such numerous particulars of the activity of the fraternity present at the Lodge held in 1646, and at the one which met from 1599 to the establishment of its Grand Lodge in 1736, in 1682 there was a strong representation of the speculative for an excellent account of which we are indebted to Lyon, the branch. Before the year 1654 the Company was known as that Scottish masonic historian. As early as 1600 (8th of June) the of the Freemasons for some time, but after then the old title attendance of John Boswell, Esq., the laird of Auchinleck, is of Masons was reverted to, the terms "Acception” and entered in the minutes of the Lodge of Edinburgh; he attested “ Accepted " belonging to the speculative Lodge, which, however, the record and added his mark, as did the other members; so in all probability either became independent or ceased to work it was not his first appearance. Many noblemen and other soon after 1682. It is very interesting to note that subsequently gentlemen joined this ancient atelier, notably Lord Alexander, (but never before) the longer designation is met with of“ Free Sir Anthony Alexander and Sir Alexander Strachan in 1634, and Accepted Masons,” and is thus a combination of operative the king's Master of Work (Herrie Alexander) in 1638, General and speculative usage.

Alexander Hamilton in 1640, Dr Hamilton in 1647, and many Mr Conder is of opinion that in the Records "there is no other prominent and distinguished men later; “James Neilsone, evidence of any particular ceremony attending the position of Master Sklaitter to His Majestie," who was entered and past Master Mason, possibly it consisted of administering a different in the Lodge of Linlithgow, being elected a joining member," oath from the one taken by the apprentices on being entered.” | 2nd March 1654. Quarter-Master General Robert Moray (or There is much to favour this supposition, and it may provide Murray) was initiated by members of the Lodge of Edinburgh, the key to the vexata quaestio as to the plurality of degrees priorat Newcastle on the 20th of May 1641, while the Scottish army to the Grand Lodge era. The fellow-crafts were recruited from was in occupation. On due report to their Alma Mater such those apprentices who had served their time and had their essay reception was allowed, the occurrence having been considered (or sufficient trial of their skill) duly passed; they and the the first of its kind in England until the ancient Records of the Masters, by the Schaw Statutes of 1598, being only admitted in Masons' Company were published. the presence of " sex Maisteris and twa enterit prenteissis.As The minute-books of a number of Scottish Lodges, which are a rule a master mason meant one who was master of his trade, i.e. still on the register, go back to the 17th century, and abundantly duly qualified; but it sometimes described employers as distinct confirm the frequent admission of speculatives as members and from journcymen Freemasons; being also a compliment con- 1 officers, especially those of the venerable Mother Lodge

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Kilwinning," of which the earl of Cassillis was the deacon in 1672, character, from about the 12th century onward. Much as there who was succeeded by Sir Alexander Cunningham, and the earl was in common between the Stonemasons of Germany and the of Eglinton, who like the first of the trio was but an apprentice. Freemasons of Great Britain and Ireland, it must be conceded There were three Head Lodges according to the Scottish Code of that the two societies never united and were all through this 1599, Edinburgh being "the first and principall,” Kilwinning long period wholly separate and independent; a knowledge of the secund,"and Stirling" the third ludge."

Freemasonry and authority to hold lodges in Germany being The Aberdeen Lodge (No, i tris) has records preserved from derived from the Grand Lodge of England during the first half 1670, in which year what is known as the Mark Book begins, of the 18th century. The theory of the derivation of the Freecontaining the oldest existing roll of members, numbering 49, masons from the Steinmetsen was first propounded in 1779 by all of whom have their marks registered, save two, though only the abbé Grandidier, and has been maintained by more modern ten were operatives. The names of the earls of Finlater, Erroll writers, such as Fallou, Heideloff and Schneider, but a thorough and Dunfermline, Lord Forbes, several ministers and professional examination of their statements has resulted in such an origin men are on the list, which was written by a glazier, all of whom being generally discredited. Whether the Steinmeleon had secret had been enlightened as to the “benefit of the measson word," signs of recognition or not, is not quite clear, but that the Freeand inserted in order as they “ were made fellow craft.” The masons bad, for centuries, cannot be doubted, though precisely Charter (Old Charges) had to be read at the “ entering of everie what they were may be open to question, and also what portions prenteise," and the officers included a master and two wardens. of the existing ceremonies are reminiscent of the craft anterior

The lodge at Melrose (No. I bis) with records back to 1674 did to the Revival of 1717. Messrs Speth and Gould favour the not join the Grand Lodge until 1891, and was the last of those notion that there were two distinct and separate degrees prior to working (possibly centuries before that body was formed) to the third decade of the 18th century (Ars Q.C., 1898 and 1903), accept the modern system of government. Of the many note while other authorities have either supported the One degree wortby lodges mention should be made of that of “ Canongate theory, or consider there is not sufficient evidence to warrant Kilwinding No. 2," Edinburgh, the first of the numerous pendicles a decision. Recent discoveries, however, tend in favour of the of“ Mother Lodge Kilwinning, No.0," Ayrshire, started in 1677; first view noted, such as the Trinity College MS., Dublin (“ Free and of the Journeymen No 8, formed in 1707, which was a secession Masonry, Feb. 1711"), and the invaluable: Chetwode Crawley from the Lodge of Edinburgh; the Fellow Crafts or Journeymen MS. (Grand Lodge Library, Dublin); the second being read in not being satisfied with their treatment by the Freemen Masters connexion with the Haughsoot Lodge Records, beginning 1702 of the Incorporation of Masons, &c. This action led to a trial (Hist. of Freemasonry, by W. F. Vernon, 1893). before the Lords of Council and Session, when finally a “Decreet Two of the most remarkable lodges at work during the period Arbitral ” was subscribed to by both parties, and the junior of transition (1717-1723), out of the many then existing in organization was permitted " to give the mason word as it is England, assembled at Alnwick and at York. The origin of the called”in a separate lodge. The presbytery of Kelso' in 1652 first noted is not known, but there are minutes of the meetings sustained the action of the Rev. James Ainslie in becoming a from 1703, the Rules are of 1701, signed by quite a number of Freemason, declaring that “there is neither sinne nor scandale members, and a transcript of the Old Charges begins the volume. in that word” (i.e. the “ Mason Word "), which is often alluded in 1708-1709 a minute provided for a masonic procession, at to but never revealed in the old records already referred to which the brethren were to walk " with their aprons on and One Scottish family may be cited in illustration of the continuous Comon Square.” The Lodge consisted mainly of operative working of Freemasonry, whose membership is enshrined in free Brothers," and continued for many years, a code of bythe records of the ancient Lodge of “Scoon and Perth No. 3" laws being published in 1763, but it never united with the Grand and others. A venerable document, lovingly cared for by No. 3, Lodge, giving up the struggle for existence a few years further on. bears date 1658, and recites how John Mylne came to Perth from The other lodge, the most noteworthy of all the English the “North Countrie,” and was the king's Master Mason and predecessors of the Grand Lodge of England, was long held at W.M. of the Lodge, his successor being his son, who entered York, the Mecca of English Freemasons. Its origin is unknown, “ King James the sixt as ffreman measone and fellow craft "; but there are traces of its existence at an early date, and possibly bis third son John was a member of Lodge No. I and Master it was a survival of the Minster Lodge of the 14th century. Mason to Charles I., 1631-1636, and his eldest son was a deacon Assuming that the York MS. No. 4 of 1693 was the property of No. 1 eleven times during thirty years. To him was of the lodge in that year (wbich Roll was presented by George apprenticed his nephew, who was warden in 1663–1664 and Walker of Wetherby in 1777), the entry which concludes that deacon several times. William Mylne was a warden in 1695, Scroll is most suggestive, as it gives " The names of the Lodge Thomas (eldest son) was Master in 1735, and took part in the members) and the "Lodge Ward(en).” Its influence most formation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland. Others of the family probably may be also noted at Scarborough, where “ A private continued to join thc Lodge No. 1, until Robert, the last of the Lodge” was held on the roth of July 1705, at which the president Mylnes as Freemasons, was initiated in 1754, died in 1811, and “ William Thompson, Esq., and severall others brethren ffree

was buried in St Paul's cathedral, having been Surveyor to Masons" were present, and six gentlemen (named) “ were then that Edifice for fifty years," and the last of the masonic Mylnes admitted into the said ffraternity.” These particulars are enfor five generations. The “St John's Lodge,” Glasgow (No. 3 dorsed on the Scarborough MS. of the Old Charges, now owned bis), has some valuable old records and a " Charter Chest ” by the Grand Lodge of Canada at Toronto. A narrow folio with the words carved thereon “ God save the King and Masons manuscript Book beginning 7th March 1705-1706," which was Craft, 1684." Loyalty and Charity are the watch words of the quoted from in 1778, has long been missing, which is much to be Society.

regretted, as possibly it gave particulars of the lodge which The Craft Gilds (Corps d'Étal) of France, and their progeny assembled at Bradford, Yorkshire, " when 18 Gentlemen of the the Companionage, have been fully described by Mr Gould, first families in that neighbourhood were made Masons." There and the Steinmelsen of Germany would require too detailed is, however, another roll of records from 1712 to 1730 happily notice if we were to particularize its rules, customs and general preserved of this “ Ancient Honble. Society and Fraternity just a century later, took quite an opposite view, deciding to depose Free and Accepted Masons."

The Associate Synod which met at Edinburgh, March 1755. of Free Masons,” sometimes styled “ Company” or “ Society of from office any of their brethren who would not give up their masonic membership (Scots Mag., 1755, P. 158). Papal Bulls have also

Not to be behind the London fratres, the York brethren formed been issued against the craft, the first being in 1738; but neither a Grand Lodge on the 27th of December 1725 (the “Grand interdicts nor anathemata have any influence with the fraternity, and fall quite harmless.

3 The Chetwode Crawley MS., by W. J. Hughan (Ars. Q.C., 1904), °?" We have the Mason Word and second sight,

• The York Grand Lodge, by Messrs. Hughan and Whytehead Things for to come we can fortell aright."

(Ars Q.C., 1900), and Masonic Sketches and Reprints (1871), by the (The Muses Threnodie, by H. Adamson, Edin., 1638.) I former.

Lodge of all England" was its modest title), and was flourishing | King Edward VII. ceased to govern the English craft, and was for years, receiving into their company many county men of great succeeded by H.R.H. the duke of Connaught. From 1737 to influence. Some twenty years later there was a brief period 1907 some sixteen English princes of the royal blood joined the of somnolence, but in 1761 a revival took place, with Francis brotherhood. Drake, the historian, as Grand Master, ten lodges being chartered From 1723 to 1813 the number of lodges enrolled in England in Yorkshire, Cheshire and Lancashire, 1762-1790, and a Grand amounted to 1626, and from 1814 to the end of December 1909 Lodge of England, south of the Trent, in 1779, at London, as many as 3352 were warranted, making a grand total of 4978, which warranted two lodges. Before the century ended all these of which the last then granted was numbered 3185. There were collapsed or joined the Grand Lodge of England, so there was in 1909 still 2876 on the register, notwithstanding the many not a single representative of “ York Masonry ”left on the advent vacancies created by the foundation of new Grand Lodges in the of the next century.

colonies and elsewhere. The premier Grand Lodge of England soon began to constitute Distribution and Organizalion.--The advantage of the cosmonew Lodges in the metropolis, and to reconstitute old ones that politan basis of the fraternity generally (though some Grand applied for recognition, one of the earliest of 1720-1721 being Lodges still preserve the original Christian foundation) has been still on the Roll as No. 6, thus having kept company ever since conspicuously manifested and appreciated in India and other with the three “time immemorial Lodges," Nos. 2, 4 and 12. countries where the votarics of numerous religious systems Applications for constitution kept coming in, the provinces congregate; but the unalterablc basis of a belief in the Great being represented from 1723 to 1724, before which time it is likely Architect of the Universe remains, for without such a recognition the Grand Lodge of Ireland' had been started, about which the there can be no Freemasonry, and it is now, as it always has been, most valuable Caementaria Hibernica by Dr Chet wode Crawley entirely free from party politics. The charities of the Society in may be consulted with absolute confidence. Provincial Grand England, Ireland and Scotland are extensive and well organized, Lodges were formed to ease the authorities at headquarters, their united cost per day not being less than £500, and with those and, as the society spread, also for the Continent, and gradually of other Grand Lodges throughout the world must amount to throughout the civilized globe. Owing to the custom prevailing a very large sum, there being over two millions of Freemasons. before the 18th century, a few brethren were competent to form The vast increase of late years, both of lodges and members, lodges on their own initiative anywhere, and hence the registers however, calls for renewed vigilance and extra care in selecting of the British Grand Lodges are not always indicative of the first candidates, that numbers may not be a source of weakness appearance of the craft abroad. In North America? lodges were instead of strength. held before what is known as the first "regular" lodge was In its internal organization, the working of Freemasonry formed at Boston, Mass., in 1733, and probably in Canada involves an elaborate system of symbolic ritual,- as carried out likewise. The same remark applies to Denmark, France, Ger at meetings of the various lodges, uniformity as to essentials many, Holland, Italy, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden and other being the rule. The members are classified in numerous degrees, countries. Of the many scores of military lodges, the first war- of which the first three are “ Entered Apprentice," " Fellow rant was granted by Ireland in 1732. To no other body of Craft” and “ Master Mason," each class of which, after initiaFreemasons has the craft been so indebted for its prosperity in tion, can only be attained after passing a prescribed ordeal or early days as to their military brethren. There were rivals to examination, as a test of proficiency, corresponding to the the Grand Lodge of England during the 18th century, one of "essays” of the operative period. considerable magnitude being known as the Ancients or Atholl The lodges have their own by-laws for guidance, subject to Masons, formed in 1751, but in December 1813 a junction was the Book of Constitutions of their Grand Lodge, and the regulaeffected, and from that time the prosperity of the United Grand tions of the provincial or district Grand Lodge if located in Lodge of England, with few exceptions, has been extraordinary counties or held abroad.

Nothing but a volume to itself could possibly describe the It is to be regretted that on the continent of Europe Freemain features of the English Craft from 1717, when Anthony masonry has sometimes developed on different lines from that Sayer was elected the first Grand Master of a brilliant galaxy of the “ Mother Grand Lodge” and Anglo-Saxon Grand Lodges of rulers. The first nobleman to undertake that office was the generally, and through its political and anti-religious tendencies duke of Montagu' in 1721, the natural philosopher J. T. has come into contact or conflict with the state authorities Desaguliers being his immediate predecessor, who has been or the Roman Catholic church. The" Grand Orient of France credited (and also the Rev. James Anderson) with the honour of (but not the Supreme Council 33°, and its Grand Lodge) is an starting the premier Grand Lodge; but like the fable of Sir example of this retrograde movement, by its elimination of Christopher Wren having been Grand Master, evidence is entirely thc paragraph referring to a belief in the “Great Architect of lacking. Irish and Scottish peers share with those of England the Universe" from its Slaluls cl réglements généraux. This the distinction of presiding over the Grand Lodge, and from deplorable action has led to the withdrawal of all regular Grand 1782 to 1813 their Royal Highnesses the duke of Cumberland, Lodges from association with that body, and such separation the prince of Wales, or the duke of Sussex occupied the masonic must continue until a return is made to the ancient and inviolable throne. From 1753 to 1813 the rival Grand Lodge had been landmark of the society, which makes it impossible for an atheist busy, but ultimately a desire for a united body prevailed, and either to join or continue a member of the fraternity. under the “ ancient ” Grand Master, H.R.H. the duke of Kent, The Grand Lodge of England constituted its first lodge in it was decided to amalgamate with the original ruling organiza- Paris in the year 1732, but onc was formed still earlier on the tion, H.R.H. the duke of Sussex becoming the Grand Master of continent at Gibraltar 1728-1729. Others were also opened in the United Grand Lodge. On the decease of the prince in 1843 Germany 1733, Portugal 1735, Holland 1735, Switzerland 1740, the earl of Zetland succeeded, followed by the marquess of Ripon Denmark 1745, Italy 1763, Belgium 1765, Russia 1771, and in 1874, on whose resignation H.R.H. the prince of Wales

The Masonic Records 1717-1894, by John Lane, and the exbecame the Grand Master. Soon after succeeding to the throne, cellent Masonic Yearbook, published annually ty the Grand Lodg

The celebrated "Lady Freemason," the Hon. Mrs Aldworth of England, are the two standard works on Lodge enumeration, (n Miss St Leger, daughter of Lord Doneraile), was initiated in localization and nomenclature. For particulars of the Grand Lodges, Ireland, but at a much earlier date than popularly supposed; and especially that of England, Gould's History is most uscful and certainly not later than 1713, when the venturesome lady was trustworthy; and sor an original contribution to the history of the twenty. All early accounts of the occurrence must be received with rival Grand Lodge or Atholl Masons, Sadler's Masonic Facts and caution, as there are no contemporary records of the event.

Fictions. 2 History of Freemasonry, by Dr A. G. Mackey (New York, 1898), 5"A peculiar system of Morality, veiled in Allegory and illusand the History of the Fraternity Publishing Company, Boston, trated by Symbols" (old definition of Freemasonry). Mass., give very full particulars as to the United States.

• The British House of Commons in 1799 and 1817, in acts of "See History of Freemasonry in Canada (Toronto, 1899), by J. parliament, specifically recognized the laudable character of the Ross Robertson.

society and provided for its continuance on definite lines.

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