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one proceeds to the east the greater are the contrasts of summer and tute of wood, but to compensate for this the people have ample
hamster and the field-mouse are a scourge to agriculture. Or game
value. At the beginning of the 19th century the country was eastern provinces of Prussia to ten annually.
Flora.-The flora of Germany comprises 3413 species of phanero-agency for instituting an exact census on a uniform plan. The gamic and 4306 cryptogamic plants. The country forms a section formation of the German Confederation in 1815 efiected but of the central European zone, and its flora is largely under the little change in this respect, and it was left to the different states influence of the Baltic and Alpine elements, which to a great degree to arrange in what manner the census should be taken, On the Wheat, rye, barley and oats are cultivated everywhere, but spelt foundation, however, of the German customs union, or Zollverein, only in the south and buckwheat in the north and north-west. between certain German states, the necessity for accurale Maize only ripens in the south. country, those of the sandy plains in the north being of excellent statistics became apparent and care was taken to compile quality. All the commoner sorts of fruit-apples, pears, cherries, trustworthy tables Researches show the population of the &c.-grow everywhere, but the more delicate kinds, such as figs. German empire, as at present constituted, to have been: apricots and peaches, are confined to the warmer districts. The vine (1816) 24,833,396; (1855) 36,113,644; and (1871) 41,058,792. flourishes as far as the 51° N., but only yields good wine in the districts of the Rhine and Danube. Flax is grown in the north of the states included in the empire for the years 1871, 1875,
The following table shows the population and area of each and hemp more particularly in the central districts. Rape can be produced everywhere when the soil permits. Tobacco is cultivated 1900 and 1905:on the upper Rhine and in the valley of the Oder. The
Area and Population of the German Slales. northern plain, especially in
1905 Sq. m.
29,292 4,863,450 5.022,390 6,176,057 6.524.372 222-7
5.789 2.556,244 Germany is not nearly so well
2,760,586 4.202,216 4.508,601 778.8
1,818.539 1,881.505 2,169,480 2,302,179 305.5 Forests.
5.823 1,461,562 1.507,179 1,867.944 2,010,728 345.3 many, where indeed most of the
2,966 852,894 884,218 1,119,893 1,209,175 lower mountains are covered
5,068 557.897 with timber, as is indicated by
553,785 607.770 625.045 123.3 Saxc-Weimar
286,183 292,933 362,873 388,095 277-8 the frequent use of the termina.
Mecklenburg-Strelitz tion wald affixed to the names
1,131 96,982 95,673 102,602 103.451 91.5 of the mountain ranges (as
399,180 438,856 176-8
Brunswick &c.). The " Seenplatten " are
1,418 311,764 327.493 464,333 485,958 342.5 Saxe-Meiningen
194,494 250.731 268,916 wooded than the hill less
511 142,122 145,844 194.914 206,508 404.1 country, but the eastern por Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
229.550 242,432 tion of the northern lowlands
888 203.437 213.565 316,085 328,029 is well provided with timber.
369.4 A narrow strip along the shores
Schwarzburg Sondershausen 333 75.523 76,676 80.898 of the Baltic is covered with
85.152 255.7 Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
363 67,191 oaks and beeches; farther in
67.480 93.059 96,835 266.7
57,918 59,127 136-5
45,094 46,985 68.396 70,603 Elbe, coniferous trees are the
319 89.032 92.375 139,210 144.584 453.2 most prevalent, praticularly Schaumburg-Lippe
131 32,059 33,133 43,132 44.992 343.4 the Scotch fir:
birches are also
138,952 145.577 310-4 Free Townsforests consist chiefly of firs, Lübeck
115 52,158 56,912 96,775 105,857 920-5 pines and larches, but contain Bremen
99 122,402 142,200 224.882 263,440 2661-0 also silver firs, beeches and Hamburg
338.974 oaks. Chestnuts and walnuts
388,618 768,349 874,878 5467.9 appear on the terraces of the
Alsace-Lorraine Phine valley and in Swabia
5,604, 1.549.738 1,531,804 1,719.470 1.814.564
323-8 and Franconia. The whole
208.780 | 41,058.792 | 42.727.360 56,367,178 60,641,278 290-4 north-west of Germany is desti
The population of the empire has thus increased, since 1871, by, East Prussia). The total number of German-speaking people, 19,582,486 or 47.6%. The increase of population during 1895- within the boundaries wherein they constitute the compact mass 1900 was greatest in Hamburg. Bremen, Lübeck, Saxony, Prussia of the population, may be estimated, if the Dutch and Walloons be and Baden, and least in Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Waldeck of the included, at 65 millions. total population in 1900, 54-3% was urban (i.e. living in towns of The geographical limits of the German language thus do not quite 2000 inhabitants and above), leaving 45.7 % to be classified as rural. coincide with the German frontiers. The empire contains about On the 1st of December 1905, of the sotal population 29,884,681 3 millions of persons who do not make use of German in everyday were males and 39,756,597 Temales; and it is noticeable that the life, not counting the resident foreigners. male population shows of late years a larger relative increase than Apart from the foreigners above mentioned, German subjects the female, the male population having in five years increased by speaking a tongue other than German are found only in Prussia, 2.147.434 and the female by only 2,126,666. The greater increase Saxony and Alsace-Lorraine. The following table shows roughly in the male population is attributable to diminished emigration the distribution of German-speaking people in the world outside and to the large increase in immigrants, who are mostly males. the German empire:In 1905, 485.906 marriages were contracted in Germany, being at the
Other European rate of 8.0 per thousand inhabitants. In the same year the total number of births was 2,048,453. Of these, 61,300 were stillborn Belgium (Walloon). 4,000,000
Netherlands Dutch) 5.200,000 Countries.
13,000,000 and 174.494 illegitimate, being at the rate, respectively, of 3% Luxemburg
100,000 and 8.5% of the total. Illegitimacy is highest in Bavaria (about
2.300,000 Africa 15°). Berlin (14%), and over 12% in Saxony. Mecklenburg-France
600,000 500,000 Australia.
150,000 Schwerin and Saxe. Meiningen. It is lowest in the Rhine Province and Westphalia (3.9 and 2.6 respectively). Divorce is steadily on According to the census of the 1st of December 1900 there were the increase, being in 1904, 11.1 per 10,000 marriages, as against 51,634.757 persons speaking commonly one language and 248.374 8.1, 81, 9 3 and 10-t for the four preceding years. The average speaking iwo languages. In the kingdom of Saxony, according to deaths for the years 1901-1905 a mounted to 1,227.903; the rate was the census of 1900, there were 48,000 Wends, mostly in Lusatia. thus 20-2 per thousand inhabitants, but the death-rate has materially with respect to Alsace-Lorraine, detailed estimates (but no census) decreased, the total number of deaths in 1907 standing at 1,978,349; gave the number of French in the territory of Lorraine at about the births for the same year were 2,060,974. In connexion with 170,000, and in that of Alsace at about 46,000. suicides, it is interesting to observe that the highest rates prevail The Poles have increased very much, owing to a greater surplus of in some of the smaller and more prosperous states of the empire-births than in the case of the German people in the eastern provinces for example, in Saxe. Weimar. Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Saxe. of Prussia, to immigration froin Russia, and to the Polonization of Altenburg (on a three years' average of figures), while the Roman many Germans through clerical and other influences (see History). Catholic country Bavaria, and the impoverished Prussian province The Poles are in the majority in upper Silesia (Government district of Posen show the most favourable statistics. For Prussia 'the rate of Oppeln. 55%) and the province of Posen (60%). They are is 20, and for Saxony it is as high as 31 per 100,000 inhabitants. numerous in West Prussia (34%) and East Prussia (14%). The large cities, notably Berlin, Hamburg, Breslau and Dresden, The Wends are decreasing in number, as are also the Lithuanians show, however, relatively the largest proportion.
on the eastern border of East Prussia, Czechs are only found in In 1900 the German-speaking population of the empire amounted Silesia on the confines of Bohemia. to 51,883,13!. Of the inhabitants speaking other languages there Russians flocked to Germany in thousands after the Russo-Japanese were: Polish, 3,086,489; French (mostly in Lorraine), 211,679: War and the insurrections in Russia, and the figures given for 1900 Masurian, 142.049;
Danish, 141,061; Lithuanian, 106,305: had been doubled in 1907. Males preponderate among the various Cassubian, 100,213; Wendish, 93,032; Dutch, 80.361Italian, nationalities, with the exception of the British, the larger proportion of 65.961; Moravian, 64,382; Czech, 43.016; Frisian, 20,677: whom are females cither in domestic service or engaged in tuition. English, 20,217; Walloon, 11,841. In 1995 there were resident Chief Towns.--According to the results of the census of the ist within the empire 1,028.560 subjects of foreign states, as compared of December 1905 there were within the empire 41 towns with with 778,698 in 1900. Of these 17,293 were subjects of Great Britain populations exceeding 100,000, viz. :and Ireland, 17,184 of the United States of America and 20,584 of France. The bulk of the other foreigners residing in the country
Population. belonged to countries lying contiguous, such as Austria, which claimed nearly the hall, Russia and Italy.
2,040,148 Languages. - The German-speaking nations in their various Hamburg
802.793 branches and dialects, if we include the Dutch and the Walloons, Munich
538,393 extend in a compact mass along the shores of the Baltic and of the
516,996 North Sea, from Memel in the east to a point between Gravelines
502.570 and Calais near the Straits of Dover. On this northern line the Breslau
470,751 Germans come in contact with the Danes who inhabit the northern
428.503 parts of Schleswig within the limits of the German empire. A line
334.951 from Flensburg south-west ward to Joldelund and thence north Nuremberg
294.344 westward to Hoyer will nearly give the boundary between the two Düsseldorf.
253,099 idioms. The German-French frontier traverses Belgium from west Hanover
250,032 to east, touching the towns of St Omer, Courtrai and Maastricht.
Württemberg 249,443 Near Eupen, south of Aix-la-Chapelle, it turns southward, and near Chemnitz
244,405 Arlon south-east as far as the crest of the Vosges mountains, which Magdeburg
240,661 it follows up to Belfort, traversing there the watershed of the Rhine
239.512 and the Doubs. In the Swiss territory the line of demarcation Essen
231,396 passes through Bienne, Fribourg, Saanen, Leuk and Monte Rosa. Stettin
224,078 In the south the Germans come into contact with Rhaeto-Romans
219,862 and Italians, the former inhabiting the valley of the Vorder-Rhein Bremen
214.953 and the Engadine, while the latter have settled on the southern slopes Duisburg
192,227 of the Alps, and are continually advancing up the valley of the Dortmund
175.575 Adige. Carinthia and Styria are inhabited by German people, except
169,899 the valley of the Drave towards Klagenfurt. Their eastern neigh Altona
168,301 bours there are first the Magyars, then the northern Slavs and the
Alsace-Lorraine 167.342 Poles. The whole eastern frontier is very much broken, and cannot
163.710 be described in a few words. Besides detached German colonies in Elberfeld
162,682 Hungary proper, there is a considerable and compact German (Saxon) Mannheim
162,607 population in Transylvania. The river March is the frontier north Danzig
159,685 of the Danube from Pressburg as far as Brûnn, to the north of which Barmen
156,148 the German regions begin ncar Olmütz, the interior of Bohemia and Rixdorf
153,650 Moravia being occupied by Czechs and Moravians. In these countrics Gelsenkirchen
147,037 the Slav language has been steadily superseding the German. In Aix-la-Chapelle
143,906 the Prussian provinces of Silesia and Posen the castern parts are Schöneberg
140,992 mixed territories, the German language progressing very slowly Brunswick
136,423 among the Poles. In Bromberg and Thorn, in the valley of the Posen
137,067 Vistula, German is prevalent. In West Prussia some parts of the Cassel
120,446 interior, and in East Prussia a small region along the Russian frontier, Bochum
118,455 are occupied by Poles (Cassubians in West Prussia, Masurians in
110,347 1 The question, much disputed between Germans and Danes, is
105,182 exhaustively treated by P. Lauridsen in F. de Jessen's La Question
100,953 de Sleswig (Copenhagen, 1906), pp. 114 et set
Density of Population.-In respect of density of population, | (Bela vulgaris) is largely grown in some districts for the production of Germany with (1900) 269.9 and (1905) 290-4 inhabitants to the sugar, which has greatly increased of recent years. There are two square mile is exceeded in Europe only by Belgium, Holland and centres of the beet sugar production: Magdeburg for the districts England. Apart from the free citles, Hamburg, Bremen and Prussian Saxony, Hanover, Brunswick, Anhalt and Thuringia, Lübeck, the kingdom of Saxony is the most, and Mecklenburg- and Frankfort-on-Oder at the centre of the group Silesia, Branden. Strelitz the least, closely peopled state of the empire. The most burg and Pomerania. Flax and hemp are cultivated, though not so thinly populated districts are found, not as might be expected in much as formerly, for manufacture into linen and canvas, and also the mountain regions, but in some parts of the plains. Leaving out rape seed for the production of oil. The home supply of the former of account the small centres, Germany may be roughly divided into no longer suffices for the native demand. The cultivation of hops two thinly and two densely populated parts. In the former division is in a very thriving condition in the southern states of Germany. has to be classed all the North German plain. There it is only in the The soil occupied by hops was estimated in 1905 at 98,000 acresvalleys of the larger navigable rivers and on the southern border a larger area than in Great Britain, which had in the same year about of the plain that the density exceeds 200 inhabitants per square mile. 48,000 acres. The total production of hops was 29,000 tons in 1905, In some places, indeed, it is far greater, c.g. at the mouths of the and of this over 25.000 were grown in Bavaria, Württemberg, Baden Elbe and the Weser, in East Holstein, in the delta of the Memel and and Alsace-Lorraine. Almost the whole yield in hops is consumed the environs of Hamburg. This region is bordered on the south by in the country by the great breweries. a densely peopled district, the northern boundary of which may be Tobacco forms a most productive and profitable object of culture defined by a líne from Coburg via Cassel to Münster, for in this part in many districts. The total extent under this crop in 1905 was about there are not only very fertile districts, such as the Goldene Aue in 35,000 acres, of which 45% was in Baden, 12% in Bavaria, 30% Thuringia, but also centres of industry. The population is thickest in Prussia, and the rest in Alsace and Hesse-Darmstadt. In the in upper Silesia around Beuthen (coal-felds), around Ratibor, Neisse north the plant is cultivated principally in Pomerania, Brandenburg and Waldenburg (coal-fields), around Zittau (kingdom of Saxony), and East and West Prussia. or late years the production has somein the Elbe valley around Dresden, in the districts of Zwickau and what diminished, owing to the extensive tobacco manufacturing Leipzig as far as the Saale, on the northern slopes of the Harz and industries of Bremen and Hamburg, which import almost exclusively around Bielefeld in Westphalia. In all these the density exceeds foreign leaves. 400 inhabitants to the square mile, and in the case of Saxony rises Ulm, Nuremberg, Quedlinburg, Erfurt, Strassburg and Guben to 750. The third division of Germany comprises the basin of the are famed for their vegetables and garden seeds. Berlin is noted for Danube and Franconia, where around Nuremberg. Bamberg and its flower nurseries, the Rhine valley, Württemberg, and the Elbe Würzburg the population is thickly clustered. The fourth division valley below Dresden for fruit, and Frankfort-on-main for cider. embraces the valleys of the upper Rhine and Neckar and the district The culture
of the vine is almost confined to southern and western of Düsseldorf on the lower Rhine. In this last the proportion ex. Germany, and especially to the Rhine district. The northern limits ceeds 1200 inhabitants to the square mile.
of its growth extend' from Born in a north-easterly Emigration. There have been great oscillations in the actual direction through Cassel to the southern foot of the emigration by sea. It first exceeded 100,000 soon after the Franco- Harz, crossing 52° N, on the Elbe, running then east some miles to German War (1872, 126,000), and this occurred again in the years the north of that parallel, and finally turning sharply towards the 1880 to 1892. Germany lost during these thirteen years more than south-west on the Warthe. In the valley of the Saale and Elbe 1,700,000 inhabitants by emigration. The total number of those (near Dresden), and in lower Silesia (between Guben and Grünberg), who sailed for the United States from 1820 to 1900 may be estimated the number of vineyards is small, and the wines of inferior quality; at more than 4,500,000. The number of German emigrants to but along the Rhine from Basel to Coblenz, in Alsace, Baden, the Brazil between 1870 and 1900 was about $2,000. The greater Palatinate and Hesse, and above all in the province of Nassau, the number of the more recent emigrants was from the agricultural lower slopes of the hills are literally covered with vines. Here are provinces of northern Germany-West Prussia, Posen, Pomerania, produced the celebrated Rüdesheimer, Hochheimer and JohannisMecklenburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Hanover, and sometimes the berger. The vines of the lower Main, particularly those of Würzburg, emigration reached 1% of the total population of these provinces. are the best kinds; those of the upper Main and the valley of the In subsequent years the emigration of native Germans greatly Neckar are rather inferior. The Moselle wines are lighter and more decreased and, in 1905, amounted only to 28,075. But to this acid than those of the Rhine. The total amount produced in number must be added 284,787 foreigners in that year were Germany is estimated at 1000 million gallons, of a value of 1,000,000; shipped from German ports (notably Hamburg and Bremen) to Alsace-Lorraine turning out 400 millions; Baden, 175, Bavaria, distant parts. Of the above given numbers of purely German Württemberg and Hesse together, 300; while the remainder, which emigrants 26,007 sailed for the United States of America ; 243 to though small in quantity is in quality the best, is produced by Canada; 333 to Brazil; 674 to the Argentine Republic; 7 to other | Prussia. parts of America; 57 to Africa; and 84 to Australia.
The cultivation of grazing lands in Germany has been greatly Agriculture. -Despite the enormous development of industries improved in recent times and is in a highly prosperous condition. and commerce, agriculture and cattle-rearing still represent The provinces of Schleswig-Holstein, Pomerania, Hanover
(especially the marsh-lands near the sea) and the grandin Germany a considerable portion of its economic wealth. duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin are particularly remarkable Almost two-thirds of the soil is occupied by arable land, pastures in this respect. The best meadow-lands of Bavaria are in the and meadows, and of the whole area, in 1900, 91% was classed province of Franconia and in the outer range of the Alps, and those as productive. Of the total area 47.67% was occupied by land
of Saxony in the Erzgebirge. Württemberg, Hesse and Thuringia
also yield cattle of excellent quality. These large cattle-rearing under tillage, 0.89% by gardens, 11•02% by meadow-land, centres not only supply the home markets but export live stock in 5.01% by pastures, and 0-25% by vineyards. The largest estates considerable quantities to England and France. Butter is also are found in the Prussian provinces of Pomerania, Posen and largely exported to England from the North Sea districts and from Saxony, and in ast and West Prussia, while in the Prussian Rhine Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg: The breeding of horses has
attained a great perfection. The main centre is in East and West province, in Baden and Württemberg small farms are the rule.
Prussia, then follow the marsh districts on the Elbe and Weser, some The same kinds of cereal crops are cultivated in all parts of the parts of Westphalia, Oldenburg, Lippe, Saxony and upper Silesia, empire, but in the south and west wheat is predominant, and in the lower Bavaria and Alsace-Lorraine." of the stud farms Trakehnen north and east rye, oats and barley, To these in some districts are in East Prussia and Graditz in the Prussian province of Saxony enjoy added spelt, buckwheat, millet, rice-wheat, lesser spelt and maize. a European reputation. The aggregate number of sheep has shown In general the soil is remarkably well cultivated. The three years'a considerable falling off, and the rearing of them is mostly carried rotation formerly in use, where autumn and spring-sown grain and on only on large estates, the number showing only 9,692,501 in 1900, fallow succeeded cach other, has now been abandoned, except in and 7.907,200 in 1904, as against 28,000,000 in 1860. As a rule, some districts, where the system has been modified and improved. sheep-farming is resorted to where the soil is of inferior quality and In south Germany the so-called Fruchtwechsel is practised, the fields unsuitable for tillage and the breeding of cattle. Far more attention being sown with grain crops every second year, and with pease or is accordingly given to sheep-farming in northern and north-eastern beans, grasses, potatoes, turnips, &c., in the intermediate years. Germany than in Schleswig-Holstein, Westphalia, the Rhineland In north Germany the mixed Koppelwirthschaft is the rule, by which and south Germany. The native demand for wool is not covered by system, after several years of grain crops, the ground is for two or the home production, and in this article the export from the United three seasons in pasture.
Kingdom to Germany is steadily rising, having amounted in 1905 Taking the average of the six years 1900-1905, the crop of wheat to a value of £1,691,035, as against £742632 in 1900. The largest amounted to 3,550,033 tons (metric), rye to 9,296,616 tons, barley stock of pigs is in central Germany and Saxony, in Westphalia, on to 3,102,883 tons, and oats to 7,160,883 tons. But, in spite of this the lower Rhine, in Lorraine and Hesse. Central Germany (especi. considerable yield in cercals, Germany cannot cover her home ally Gothą and Brunswick) exports sausages and hams largely, as consumption, and imported on the average of the six years 1900- well as Westphalia, but here again considerable importation takes 1905 about 45 million tons of cercals to supply the deficiency. place from other countries. Goats are found everywhere, but especi. The potato is largely cultivated, not merely for food, but for dis-ally in the hilly districts. Poultry farming is a considerable industry, tillation into spirits. Tbis manufacture is prosecuted especially in the gcese of Pomerania and the fowls of Thuringia and Lorraine being eastern Germany. The number of distilleries throughout the in especial favour. Bee-keeping is of considerable importance, German empire was, in 1905-1906, 68,405. The common beet' particularly in north Germany and Silesia.