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On the whole, despite the prosperous condition of the German This production permits a considerable export of coal to the west live-stock farming, the consumption of meat exceeds the amount and south of the empire, but the distance from the coal-fields to rendered available by home production, and prices can only be kept the German coast is such that the import of British coal cannot yet down by a steady increase in the imports from abroad.
be dispensed with (1905, over 7,000,000 tons). Besides this, from Fisheries.-The German fisheries, long of little importance, have 7,000,000 to 8,000,000 tons of lignite come annually from Bohemia. been carefully fostered within recent years. The deep-sea fishing In north Germany peat is also of importance as a suel; the area of in the North Sea, thanks to the exertions of the German fishing league the peat moors in Prussia is estimated at 8000 sq. m., of which 2000 (Deutscher Fischereiverein) and to government support, is extremely are in the north of Hanover. active. Trawlers are extensively employed, and steamers bring the The iron-fields of Germany fall into three main groups: those of catches directly to the large fish markets at Geestemünde and Altona. the lower Rhine and Westphalia, of which Dortmund and Düsseldorf whence facilities are afforded by the railways for the rapid transport are the centres; those of Lorraine and the Saar; and those of upper of fish to Berlin and other centres. The fish mostly caught are cod.Silesia. The output of the ore has enormously increased of recent haddock and herrings, while Heligoland yields lobsters, and the years, and the production of pig iron, as given for 1905, amounted islands of Fohr, Amrum and Sylt oysters of good quality. The to 10,875.000 tons of a value of £28,900,000. German North Sea fishing fleet numbered in 1905 618 boats, with Germany possesses abundant salt deposits. The actual production an aggregate crew of 544i hands. Equally well developed are the not only covers the home consumption, but also allows a yearly Baltic fisheries, the chiel ports engaged in which are Danzig, Eckern increasing exportation, especially
to Russia. Austria and Scandinavia. förde, Kolberg and Travemünde. The principal catch is haddock The provinces of Saxony and Hanover, with Thuringia and Anhalt. and herrings. The catch of the North Sea and Baltic fisheries in produce half the whole amount. A large salt-work is found at 1906 was valued at over £700,000, exclusive of herrings for salting. Strzalkowo (Posen), and smaller ones near Dortmund, Lippstadt The fisheries do not, however, supply the demand for fish, and fresh, and Minden (Westphalia). In south Germany salt abounds most salt and dried fish is imported largely in excess of the home yield. in Württemberg (Hall, Heilbronn, Rottweil); the principal Bavarian
Mines and Minerals. - Germany abounds in minerals, and the works are at the foot of the Alps near Freilassing and Rosenheim. extraordinary industrial development of the country since 1870 is Hesse and Baden, Lorraine and the upper Palatinate have also salt. largely due to its mineral wealth. Having left France much behind works. The total yield of mined salt amounted in 1905 to 6,209,000 in this respect, it' now rivals Great Britain and the United States. tons, including 1,165,000 tons of rock salt. The production has
Germany produces more silver than any other European state. made great advance, having in 1850 been only 5 million cuts. and the quantity is annually incrcasing. It is extracted from the ores in the mines of Freiburg (Saxony), the Harz Mountains, upper
Manufactures.- In no other country of the world has the Silesia, Merseburg. Aix-la-Chapelle. Wiesbaden and Arnsberg. manufacturing industry made such rapid strides within recent Gold is found in the sand of the rivers Isar. Inn and Rhine, and also years as in Germany. This extraordinary development of to a limited extent, on the Harz. The quantity yielded in 1905 was, industrial energy embraces practically all classes of manufactured of silver, about 400 tons of a value of £1,600,000, and goldabout 4 articles. In a general way the chief manufactures may be tons, valued at about 1548.000,
Lead is produced in considerable quantities in upper Silesia, the geographically distributed as follows. Prussia, Alsace-Lorraine, Harz Mountains, in the Prussian province of Nassau, in the Saxon Bavaria and Saxony are the chief seats of the iron manufacture. Erzgebirge and in the Sauerland.' The yield in 1905 amounted to Stecl is produced in Rhenish Prussia. Saxony is predominant
Copper is found principally in the Mansfeld district of the Prussian in the production of textiles, though Silesia and Westphalia province of Saxony and near Arnsberg in the Sauerland, the ore
manufacture linen. Colton goods are largely produced in yielding 31.713 tons in 1905, of which 5000 tons were exported. Baden, Bavaria, Alsace-Lorraine and Württemberg, woollens
About 90% of the zinc produced in Europe is yielded by Belgium and worsteds in Saxony and the Rhine province, silk in Rhenish and Germany. It is mostly found in upper Silesia, around Beuthen, Prussia (Elberfeld), Alsace and Baden. Glass and porcelain and in the districts of Wiesbaden and Aix-la-Chapelle. In 1905 no less than 198.000 tons of block zinc were produced, of which 16,500 are largely produced in Bavaria, lace in Saxony; tobacco tons were exported.
in Bremen and Hamburg, chemicals in the Prussian province of other minerals (with the exceptions of coal, iron and salt trcated of Saxony; watches in Saxony (Glashütte) and Nuremberg. the hilly districts of Hesse and the Saxon Erzgebirge; arsenic in the toys in Bavaria; gold and silver filagree in Berlin and AschaffenRiesengebirge: quicksilver in the Sauerland and in the spurs of the burg; and beer in Bavaria and Prussia. Saarbrücken coa! hills; graphite in Bavaria : porcelain clay, in It is perhaps more in respect of its iron industry than of its other Saxony and Silesia; amber along the whole Baltic coast; and limc manufactures that Germany has attained a leading position in the and gypsum in almost all parts.
markets of the world. Its chief centres are in Westphalia Coal-mining appears to have been first practised in the 14th century and the Rhine province (auf roler Erde), in upper Silesia, at Zwickau (Saxony) and on the Ruhr. There are six large coal in Alsace-Lorraine and in Saxony. Of the total production industry, Coal
fields, occupying an area of about 3600 sq. m., of which of pig iron in 1905 amounting to over 10,000,000 tons, more than the
the most important occupies the basin of the Ruhr, its half was produced in the Rhineland and Westphalia. Huge blast extent being estimated at 2800 sq. m. Here there are more than furnaces are in constant activity, and the output of rolled iron and 60 beds, of a total thickness of 150 to 200 st. of coal; and the amount steel is constantly increasing. In the latter the greatest advance in the pits has been estimated at 45.000 millions of tons. Smaller has been made. The greater part of it is produced at or fields are found near Osnabrück. Ibbenbüren and Minden, and a around Essen, where are the famous Krupp works, and Bochum. larger one near Aix-la-Chapelle. The Saar coal-field, within the Many states have been for a considerable time supplied by Krupp area enclosed by the rivers Saar, Nahe and Blies (460 sq. m.), is of with stcel guns and battleship plates. The export of steel (railway) great importance. The thickness of 80 beds amounts to 250 ft., rails and bridges from this part is steadily on the increase. and the total mass of coal is estimated at 45.400 million tons. The Hardware also, the production of which is centred in Solingen, greater part of the basin belongs to Prussia, the rest to Lorraine. Heilbronn, Esslingen, &c. is largely exported. Germany stands A still larger field exists in the upper Silesian basin, on the border second to Great Britain in the manufacture of machines and engines. land between Austria and Poland. containing about 50.000 million There are in many large cities of north Germany extensive establish. tons,
Beuthen is the chiel centre. The Silesian coal-fields have a ments for this purpose, but the industry is not limited to the large second centre in Waldenburg, east of the Riesengebirge. The Saxon cities. In agricultural machinery Germany is a serious competitor coal-fields stretch eastwards for some miles from Zwickau. Deposits with England. The locomotives and wagons for the German railways of less consequence are found in upper Bavaria, upper Franconia, are almost exclusively built in Germany; and Russia, as well as Baden, the Harz and elsewhere.
Austria, receives large supplies of railway plant from German works The following table shows the rapidly increasing development in shipbuilding, likewise, Germany is practically independent. of the coal production. That of lignite is added. the provinces of yards having been established for the construction of the largest Saxony and Brandenburg being rich in this product
Before 1871 the production of cotton fabrics in France Production of Coal and Lignite.
exceeded that in Germany, but as the cotton manufacture Coal.
is pursued largely in Alsace, the balance is now Year.
against the former country. In 1905 there Quantities. Value. Hands. Quantities. Value. Hands.
were about 9.000,000 spindles in Germany. The
export of the goods manufactured amounted in
this year to an estimated value of £19.600,000. Cotton 1871 218.4 8.5
spinning and weaving are not confined to one district, but
26.2 1881 48.7 252.3 186,000 12.8
are prosecuted in upper Alsace (Mülhausen, Gebweiler, 38.1 25,600
Colmar), in Saxony (Zwickau, Chemnitz, Annaberg), in 1891 73.7 589-5 283.000 20.5
Silesia (Breslau, Liegnitz), in the Rhine province (Düssel1899 101.6 789-6 379.000 34.2 78.4 44.700
dors, Münster, Cologne), in Erfurt and Hanover, in 1900 1093 966-1 414.000 40.5 98.5 50,900
Württemberg (Reutlingen, Cannstatt), in Baden, Bavaria 1905
(Augsburg, Barnberg, Bayreuth) and in the Palatinate.
Although Germany produces wool, flax and hemp, the home pro emanales from a convention originally entered into, in 1825, duction of these materials is not sufficient to meet the demand of between Prussia and Hesse, which, subsequently joined by the manufactures, and large quantities of them have to be imported. In 1895 almost a million persons (half of them women) were employed
Bavarian customs-league, by the kingdom of Saxony and rlie in this branch of industry, and in 1897 the value of the cloth, buckskin Thuringian states, came into operation, as regards the countries and Aannel manufacture was estimated at £18,000,000. The chief concerned, on the ist of January 1834. With progressive seats of this manufacture are the Rhenish districts of Aix-la-Chapelle,
territorial extensions during the ensuing fifty years, and embracDüren, Eupen and Lenncp, Brandenburg, Saxony, Silesia and lower Lusatia, the chief centres in this group being Berlin, Cottbus, Sprem- ing the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, it had in 1871, when the berg, Sagan and Sommerfeld.
German empire was founded, an area of about 209,281 sq. m., The manufacture of woollen and half-woollen dress materials with a population of 40,678,000. The last important addition centres mainly in Saxony, Silesia, the Rhine province and in Alsace.
was in October 1888, when Hamburg and Bremen were inFurniture covers, table covers and plush are made in Elberfeld and Chemnitz, in Westphalia and the Rhine province (notably in Elber-corporated. Included within it, besides the grand-duchy of feld and Barmen): shawls in Berlin and the Bavarian Vogtland; Luxemburg, are the Austrian communes of Jungholz and carpets in Berlin, Barmen and Silesia. In the town of Schmiedeberg Mittelberg; while, outside, lie the little free-port territories in the last district, as also Cottbus (Lusatia), oriental patterns are of Hamburg, Cuxhaven, Bremerhaven and Geestemünde, successfully imitated. The chief seats of the stocking manufacture Heligoland, and small portions of the districts of Constance are Chemnitz and Zwickau in Saxony, and A polda in Thuringia. and Waldshut, lying on the Baden Swiss frontier. Down to The export of woollen goods from Germany in 1905 amounted to a value of £13,000,000,
1879 Germany was, in general, a free-trade country. In this Although lincn was formerly one of her most important articles of year, however, a rigid protective system was introduced by the manufacture, Germany is now left far behind in this industry by Zolltarifgesctz, since modified by the commercial treaties between manufacture has its principal centres in Silesia, Westphalia, Saxony Germany and Austria-Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and Belgium, and Württemberg, while Hirschberg in Silesia, Bielefeld in Westphalia of the ist of February 1892, and by a customs tariff law of the and Zittau in Saxonyare noted for the excellence of their productions. 251h of December 1902. The foreign commercial relations The goods manufactured, now no longer, as formerly, coarse in tex of Germany were again altered by the general and conventional ture, vie with the finer and more delicate fabrics of Bellast. In the textile industry for flax and hemp there were, in 1905, 276,000 fine
customs tariff, which came into force on the ist of March 1906. spindles, 22,300 hand-looms and 17,600 power-looms in operation. The Zolltarifgesetz of the i5th of July 1879, while restricting and, in 1905, linen and jute materials were exported of an estimated the former free import, imposed considerable duties. Exempt value of over £2,000,000. The jute manufacture, the principal from duty were now only refuse, raw products, scientific instrucentres of which arc Berlin, Bonn, Brunswick and Hamburg, has of ments, ships and literary and artistic objects; forty-four articles late attained considerable dimensions.
Raw silk can scarcely be reckoned among the products of the -notably beer, vinegar, sugar, herrings, cocoa, salt, fish oils, empire, and the annual demand has thus to be provided for by ether, alum and soda-were unaffected by the change, while importation. The main centre of the silk industry is Crefeld and its duties were henceforth levied upon a large number of articles as well as Berlin, Bielefeld, Chemnitz, Stuttgart and the district machines and locomotives, grain, building timber, tallow, horses, neighbourhood; then come Elberfeld and Barmen, Aix-la-Chapelle, which had previously been admitted duty free, such as pig iron, around Mülhausen in Alsace.
The manufacture of paper is prosecuted almost everywhere in the cattle and sheep; and, again, the tariff law further increased empire. There were 1020 mills in operation in 1895. and the exports the duties leviable upon numerous other articles. Export duties Paper.
in 1905 amounted to more than £3.700,000 sterling, as
were abolished in 1865 and transit dues in 1861. The law under facture is carried on to the largest extent in the Rhine province, in
which Great Britain enjoyed the most favoured nation treatSaxony and in Silesia. Wall papers are produced chicfly
in Rhenish ment " cxpired on the 31st of December 1905, but its provisions Prussia, Berlin and Hamburg; the fines sorts of letter-paper in were continued by the Bundesral until further notice. The Berlin, Leipzig and Nuremberg; and printing paper (especially for average value of each article is fixed annually in Germany under
The chief seat of the Icather industry is Hesse-Darmstadt, in the direction of the Imperial Statistical Office, by a commission which Mainz and Worms produce excellent material. In Prussia of experts, who receive information from chambers of commerce
large factories are in operation in the Rhine province, in and other sources. There are separate valuations for imports Leather.
Westphalia and Silesia (Brieg). Boot and shoe manu; and exports. The price fixed is that of the goods at the moment factures are carried on everywhere; but the best goods are produced by Mainz and Pirmasens. Gloves for export are extensively made in of crossing the frontier. For imports the price does not include Württemberg, and Offenbach and Aschaffenburg are renowned for customs duties, cost of transport, insurance, warehousing, &c., fancy leather wares, such as purses, satchels and the like.
incurred after the frontier is passed. For exports, the price Berlin and Mainz are cclebrated for the manufacture of furniture; includes all charges within the territory, but drawbacks and Bavaria for toys; the Black Forest for clocks; Nuremberg for bounties are not iaken into account. The quantities are deterpencils: Berlin and Frankfort-on-Main for various perfumes; and Cologne for the famous eau-de-Cologne.
mined according to obligatory declarations, and, for imports, The beetroot sugar manufacture is very considerable. It centres the fiscal authorities may actually weigh the goods. For mainly in the Prussian province of Saxony, where Magdeburg is the packages an official tax is deducted. The countries whence
chief market for the whole of Germany, in Anhalt, Bruns goods are imported and the ultimate destination of exports are Sugar. 376, and the amount of raw sugar and molasses produced amounted registered. The import dues amounted in the year 1906, the 10 2,643,531 metric tons, and of refined sugar 1,711,063 tons. first year of the revised tariff, to about £31,639,000, or about
Beer is produced throughout the whole of Germany. The production is relatively greatest in Bavaria. The Brausteuergebiet
10S. 50. per head of population. (beer excise district) embraces all the states forming the confined to comparatively recent times. The quantities of such
Statistics relating to the forcign trade of the Empire are necessarily Zollverein, with the exception of. Bavaria, Württemberg, imported articles as are liable to duty have, indeed, been known Baden and Alsace-Lorraine, in which countries the excise duties are
for many years; and in 1872 official tables were compiled showing separately collected. The total number of breweries in the beer the value both of imports and of exports. But when the resulis excise district was, in 1905-1906, 5995, which produced 1017 million of these tables proved the importation to be very much greater gallons; in Bavaria nearly 6000 breweries with 392 million gallons: than the exportation, the conviction arose that the valuation of the in Baden over 700 breweries with 68 million gallons; in Württem exports was erroneous and below the reality. In 1872 the value of the berg over 5000 breweries with 87 million gallons; and in Alsace- imports was placed at £173.400,000 and that of the exports at Lorraine 95 breweries with about 29 million gallons. The amount £124,700,000. In 1905 the higures were imports, £371,000,000, brewed per head of the population amounted, in 1905, roughly to and exports, £292,000,000, including precious metals. 160 imperial pints in the excise district; to 450 in Bavaria;
280 in Württemberg: 260 in Baden; and 122 in Alsace-Lorraine. It may Table A following shows the classification of goods adopted be remarked that the beer brewed in Bavaria is generally of darker before the tariff revision of 1906. From 1907 a new classification colour than that produced in other states, and extra strong brews has been adopted, and the change thus introduced is so great are exported largely into the beer excise district and abroad.
that it is impossible to make any comparisons between the Commerce.-The rapid development of German trade dates statistics of years subsequent to and preceding the year 1906. from the Zollverein (customs union), under the special rules Table B shows imports and exports for 1907 and 1908 according and regulations of which it is administered. The Zollverein | to the new classification adopted.
TABLE A.-Classes of Imports and Exports, 1905.
Exports. Groups of Articles.
Value in £1000. Value in £1000.
1907. 1908. Refuse
Chemical Cotton and cottons
and pharma23,488,750 22,949,600 Lead and by-products
ceutical products, colours 14,784 14,850 28,116 26,845
996,300 979,400 Brush and sieve makers' goods
Chemical primary mate
102,400 515,450 Drugs, chemists and oilmen's
rials, acids, salts.
9.550 Colours and dyeing ma
15,896,900 23,196,250 terials Iron and iron goods
951 3,156,500 33, 126,400
879 11,630 10,518 Varnish, lacquer
158 206 Ores, precious metals, asbestos, &c.
221 28,834,050 9,899,450 Ether, alcohol not inFlax and other vegetable spinning
cluded elsewhere, essenmaterials except cotton
6,794,100 1,235,700 Grain and agricultural produce
tial oils, perfumery and
59,136,200 7,496,500 cosmetics Glass
1,979 1,918 538,050
1,004 2,743.900 Artificial manures Hair, feathers, bristles :
1,303 1,236 Skins
Explosives of all kinds
74 1,612 9,548,450
1,269 Wood and wooden wares
Other chemical and phar
16,940,850 6,056,150 maceutical products Hops.
2,765 Instruments, machines, &c.
Animal and vegetable tex
4,351,500 17,898,250 tilc materials and wares Calendars
thereof Caoutchouc, &c.
98.540 7,379,600 4,616,400
92,105 78,086 70,343 Clothes, body linen, millinery
Silk and silk goods 13,533 739.900
13,704 13,324 7.321,050
Wool Copper and copper goods
31,195 27,114 24,918 10,307,050 Hardware, &c.
Unworked wool. 12,610,550
19,975 19,309 2,042,400
Worked wool Leather and leather goods : 3.567.950 9,665,300
4,025 4,961 3799 3.393
Wares of Linens
8,660 6,925 20,668 1.750,100
18,964 1,904,950 Cotton Candles I1,150
38,543 34,456 29,004
26,201 Literary and works of art 3,066,050
27,705 26,167 } 9,025,500
Worked cotton Groceries and confectionery
980 950 912 41,446,400 17.585,000
Cotton warcs Fats and oils
9,858 7,338 24,828 12,510,600 2,631,600
22,324 Paper goods .
Other vegetable textile
10,783 10,411 265,700
3,777 720,200 Unworked
1,125 1,211 Worked
166 Silks and silk goods .
168 I 22
Wares thereof Soap and perfumes
Leather and leather wares, Playing cards
18,950 furriers' wares Stone goods. 2,822,000
6,695 6,657 16,778 2,110,550
Leather Coal, lignite, coke and peat
2,804 7.503 8,328
Leather wares Straw and hemp goods. 561,650
4,016 3,867 Furriers' wares
2,698 Tar, pitch, resin
5,237 5,616 Animals, and animal products.
Wares of soft caoutchouc Earthenware goods.
1,094 391,650 5,076,350
Hardened caoutchouc and Cattle
11,366,200 725,100 Oilcloth
634 602 177,300 Wares of animal or vegetable
17 Wools and woollen textiles
25,290,200 21,562,900 Zinc and zinc goods
material for carving or 682,250
2,413,600 Tin and japanned goods
Wooden wares Goods insufficiently declared
859 769 1,707 Paper, cardboard and wares
1,349 1,205 £352,317,250 £284,626,900
9.342 9,111 Books, pictures, paintings : 1,992 2,036 4,667 4.765 Earthenware
467 377 5,224 4,612 Glass and glassware
747 728 5,671 5,149 TABLE B.-Classes of Imports and Exporls, 1907 and 1908.
Precious metals and wares
11,616 19,295 15,898 6,151
11,184 18,873 11,071 2,897 Groups of Articles.
432 422 4,827 3,254 Silver
1,665 1,948 2,731 2,707 1907. 1908. 1907. 1908.'
1,434 1,716 1,206 1,418 Silver wares
231 232 1,525 1,289 Agricultural and forest pro
Base metals and wares duce 2 215,532 205,512 45,796
26,035 26,398 57,146 58,895 Agricultural produces
Iron and iron wares 93,253, 102,954 10,369 15,168
5,903 4,472 38,899 40,162 Colonial produce and sub
Pig iron (including non-
966 905 Southern fruit and fruit
3,560 37,933 39,257 peel 3,214 3,262
Aluminium and alumi20
23 Forest produce 28,166 26,299 4,066
273 Resins 8,216 8,209
Raw aluminium 2,500 2,325
529 433 152 77 Animals and animal pro
Lead and lead wares.
1,438 1,484 945 Hides and skins
985 16,920 17,699
Raw lead (including
5,383 5,453 Meat, oil, sugar, beverages 21,523
waste). 20,404 20,284 20,048
525 Mineral and fossil raw ma
420 417 terials, mineral oils
Zinc and zinc wares
2,489 Earths and stones
Raw zinc (including 6.541 7.542 3,250 13,006 Ores, slag, cinders 16,465 15.451 1,407 1,206 waste)
1,784 Mineral fuel 16,895
Zinc wares 14,910 19.445 20,020
22 802 705 Mineral oils and other
'Tin and tin wares
2,405 2,629 1,380 1,236 fossil raw materials
Raw tin (including
2,357 2,581 787 688 Tin wares
48 48 593
Nickel and nickel wares 400 340 246
• Provisional figures only.
Imports. Exports. Groups of Articles. Value in £1000. Value in ficoo.
Groups of Articles.
Value in £1000. Value in £1000. 1907. 1908. 1907. 1908.
1907 1908.1 1907.
1908. Nickel wares
65 Electro-technical products 411 451 8,227 9,107 Copper and copper wares 13,803
2,562 1,587 5,849
4,862 Raw copper (including
Firearms, clocks, musical copper coin, brass,
1,732 1,424 8,704 7,505 tombac, &c.). 12,995 14,192 2,204 2,014
Clocks and watches
1,296 1,210 Copper wares
3,176 2,780 Instruments of precision
35 3,949 3,273 Machinery, vehicles
7,093 5,489 33,117 34,653 Machinery 4,090 3,451 19,041 20,684
442,663 429,636 349,114 3,36,347
· Provisional figures only. The following table shows the commercial intercourse in imports and exports, exclusive of bullion and coin, between Germany
and the chief countries of the world in 1905, 1906 and 1907.
in Germany's £1000. Total £1000.
Total £1000. Total
5.2 United Kingdom
1.6 British South Africa
0.5 Dominion of Canada
0:1 New Zealand
94 British West Africa
0.8 British India
47 Dutch Indies
2.1 Argentine Republic
1.6 United States
15.1 Commonwealth of Australia
The commerce of Germany shows an upward tendency, which The chief_ports are Hamburg, Stettin, Bremen, Kiel, Lübeck, progresses pari passu with its greatly increased production. The Flensburg, Bremerhaven, Danzig (Neufahrwasser), Geestemünde export of ships from the United Kingdom to the empire decreased and Emden; and the number and tonnage of vessels of foreign during two years, 1903 (£305,682) and 1904 (£365,062), almost to a nationality entering and clearing the ports of the empire, as compared vanishing point, German yards being able to cope with the demands with national shipping, were in 1906:made upon them for the supply of vessels of all classes, including mercantile vessels and ships of war. In 1905 and subsequent years,
Number however, the degree of employment in German yards increased to Foreign Ships. entered Tonnage. cleared Tonnage. such an extent, principally owing to the placing of the Admiralty
in Cargo. contracts with private builders, that the more urgent orders for mercantile vessels were placed abroad.
5917 1.589.346 5059 1,219.388 The following tables give the value of trade between the United British
5327 5,129,017 3211 2.552,268 Kingdom and Germany in 1900 and 1905:
4891 1,164,431 3317 747,656 Dutch
458,401 1973 316,562 Staple Imports into the United Kingdom
720 347,811 from Germany.
720 250,564 439 143.983
The ports of Hamburg and Bremen, which are the chief outlets for Sugar
emigration to the United States of America, carry on a vast comGlass and manufactures
mercial trade with all the chief countries of the world, and are the Eggs
main gates of maritime intercourse between the United Kingdom Cottons and yarn i :
and Germany. Woollens and yarn
The inland navigation is served by nearly 25,000 river, canal and Iron and steel and manufactures
coasting vessels, of a tonnage of about 4,000,000. Machinery
411,178 735.536 Paper
Railways. The period of railway construction was inaugurated Musical instruments
676,391 in Germany by the opening of the line (4 m. in length) from Toys.
644,690 714,628 Zinc and manufactures
Nuremberg to Fürth in 1835, followed by the main line (71 m.) 461,023
673,602 Wood and manufactures
between Leipzig and Dresden, opened throughout in 1839.
513,200 735,830 The development of the railway system was slow and was not
conceived on any uniform plan. The want of a central govern
ment operated injuriously, for it often happened that intricate Principal Articles exported by
negotiations and solemn treaties between several sovereign Great Britain to Germany.
states were required before a line could be constructed; and,
moreover, the course it was to take was often determined less £
£ Cottons and yarn
by the general exigencies of commerce than by many trifling
3.843.917 4.941,917 Woollens and yarn
interests or desires of neighbouring states. The state which Alpaca, &c., yarn.
was most self-seeking in its railway politics was Hanover, which Wool
742,632 1,691,035 separated the eastern and western parts of the kingdom of Ironwork
Prussia. The difficulties arising to Prussia from this source Herrings
1,651,441 2,042,483 Machinery
were experienced in a still greater degree by the seaports of Coals, cinders
4,267,172 3,406,535 Bremen and Hamburg, which were severely hampered by the New ships
1,592,865 1,377,081 particularism displayed by Hanover.
The making of railways was from the outset regarded by * Navigation. The seamen of Frisia are among the best in the some German states as exclusively a function of the government. world, and the shipping of Bremen and Hamburg had won a The South German states, for.example, have only possessed state respected name long before a German mercantile marine, railways. In Prussia numerous private companies, in the first properly so called, was heard of. Many Hamburg vessels sailed instance, constructed their systems, and the state contented under charter of English and other houses in foreign, especially itself for the most part with laying lines in such districts only Chinese, waters. Since 1868 all German ships have carried a as were not likely to attract private capital. common flag-black, white, red; but formerly Oldenburg, The development of the German railway system falls conHanover, Bremen, Hamburg, Lübeck, Mecklenburg and Prussia veniently into four periods. The first, down in 1840, embraces had each its own flag, and Schleswig-Holstein vessels sailed the beginnings of railway enterprise. The next, down to 1848, under the Danish flag. The German mercantile fleet occupies, shows the linking-up of various existing lines and the establishin respect of the number of vessels, the fourth place after ment of inter-connexion between the chief towns. The third, Great Britain, the United States of America and Norway; down to 1881, shows the gradual establishment of state control but in respect of tonnage it stands third-after Great Britain in Prussia, and the formation of direct trunk lines. The and the United States only.
fourth begins from 1881 with the purchase of practically all The following table shows its distribution on the ist of January the railways in Prussia by the government, and the introducof the two years 1905 and 1908:
tion of a uniform system of interworking between the various
state systems. The purchase of the railways Baltic Ports. North Sea Ports. Total Shipping. by the Prussian government was on the whole Number. Tonnage. Number. Tonnage. Number. Tonnage. equably carried out, but there were several
hard cases in the expropriation of some of 1905
the smaller private lines. Sailing vessels
19,067 2181 559,436 2567 578,503 The majority of the German railways are Steamers 236.509 1171 1.537,563
now owned by the state governments. Out of Totals 872 255.576 3352 2,096,999
34,470 m. of railway completed and open for
traffic in 1906, only 2579 m. were the property 1908–
of private undertakings, and of these about Sailing vessels 394 17,472 2255 516.180 2649 533,652 Steamers $21 274.952
150 were worked by the state. The bulk of the 1401 1,981,831 1922 2,256.783
railways are of the normal 4 ft. 8} in. gauge. Totals 915
-extended over 1218 m. in 1903, and of these In 1905, 2136 vessels of 283,171 tons, and in 1908, 2218 vessels of 537 m. were worked by the state. 284.081 tons, betonged to Prussian ports, and the number of sailors The board responsible for the imperial control over the of the mercantile marine was 60,616 in 1905 and 71,853 in 1908.
whole railway system in Germany is the Reichseisenbahnoml