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• partly by new machinery devised to meet the new obligation im- quarries,dockyards,wharves, manufactoriesand breweries; bricklayers

posed. The sick-funds (Krankenkassen) are thus of seven kinds: and navvies ; post-office, railway, and naval and military servants and (1) free assistance funds (Freie Hilfskassen), either registered under officials: carters, raftsmen and canal hands; cellarmen, warehousethe law of 1876, as modified in 1884 (Eingeschriebene Hilfskassen), men; stevedores; and agricultural labourers. Each of these groups or established under the law of the separate states (landesrechtliche forms an association, which within a certain district embraces all the Hilfskassen); (2) Betriebs- or Fabrikkrankenkassen, sunds established industries with which it is connected. The funds for covering the by individual factory-owners; (3) Baukrankenkasse, a fund estab- compensation payable in respect of accidents are raised by payments lished for workmen engaged on the construction (Bau) of particular based, in agriculture, on the taxable capital, and in other trades and engineering works (canal-digging, &c.), by individual contractors; industries on the earnings of the insured. Compensation in respect (4) gild sick funds (Innungskrankenkassen), established by the gilds of injury or death is not paid if the accident was brought about for the workmen and apprentices of their members; (5) miners' through the culpable negligence or other delict of the insured. In sick fund (Knappschaftskasse); (6) local sick fund (Orlskrankenkasse), case of injury, involving incapacity for more than thirteen weeks established by the commune for particular crafts or classes of (for the earlier period the Krankenkassen provide), the weekly sum workmen: 1) Gemeindekrankenversicherung, i.e. insurance of payable during complete or permanent incapacity is fixed at the members of the commune as such, in the event of their not subscribing ratio of two-thirds of the earnings during

the year preceding the to any of the other funds. Of these, 2, 3, 6 and 7 were created accident, and in case of partial disablement, at such a proportion under the above-mentioned laws.

of the earnings as corresponds to the loss through disablement. The number of such funds amounted in 1903 to 23,271, and in certain circumstances (e.g. need for paid nursing) the sum may be included 10,224,297 workmen. The Ortskrankenkassen, with increased to the full rate of the previous earnings. In case of death, 4.975.322 members, had the greatest, and the Baukrankenkassen, as a consequence of injury, the following payments are made: (1) with 16,459, the smallest number of members. The Ortskranken a sum of at least {2, 1os. to defray the expenses of interment; kassen, which endeavour to include workmen of a like trade, have (2) a monthly allowance of one-fifth of the annual earnings as above to a great extent, especially in Saxony, fallen under the control of to the widow and each child up to the age of 15. the Social Democrats. The appointment of permanent doctors Life Insurance. There were forty-six companies in 1900 for the (Kassenärzte) at a fixed salary has given rise to much difference insurance of life. The number of persons insured was 1,446,249 between the medical profession and this local sick fund; and the at the end of that year, the insurances amounting to roughly insistence on " freedom of choice " in doctors, which has been made [320,000,000. Besides these are sixty-one companies-of which by the members and threatens to militate against the interest

of the forty-six are comprised in the above life insurance companies profession, has been met on the part of the medical body

by the paying subsidies in case of death or of military service, endowments, appointment a commission to investigate cases of undue influence &c. Some of these companies are industrial. The transactions of in the selection.

all these companies included in 1900 over 4,179,000 persons, and the According to the statistics furnished in the Vierteljahreshefte zur amount of insurances effected was £80,000,000. Statistik des deutschen Reiches for 1905, the receipts amounted to upwards of £10,000,000 for 1903, and the expenditure to somewhat is no state religion, each state being left free to maintain its own

Religion.-So far as the empire as a whole is concerned there nearly £600,000, and the invested funds totalled £9.000,000. The establishment. Thus while the emperor, as king of Prussia, is workmen contribute

at the rate of two-thirds and the employers at summus episcopus of the Prussian Evangelical Church, as emthe rate of one-third; the sum payable in respect of each worker peror he enjoys no such ecclesiastical headship. In the several varying from 15-3% of the earnings in the "communal sick fund to at most 14-4% in the others.

states the relations of church and state differ fundamentally 2. Insurance against old age and invalidity comprehends all according as these states are Protestant or Catholic. In the persons who have entered upon their 17th year, and who belong to latter these relations are regulated either by concordats between one of the following classes of wage-earners: artisans, apprentices, the governments and the Holy See, or by bulls of circumscription domestic servants, dressmakers, charwomen, laundresses, seam; issued by the pope after negotiation. The effects of concordats apprentices in shops (excepting assistants and apprentices inchemists' and bulls alike are tempered by the exercise by the civil shops), schoolmasters, schoolmistresses, teachers and governesses, power of certain traditional reserved rights, e.g. the placetum are arranged in five classes, according to the amount of their regium, recursus ab abusu, nominatio regia, and i hat of vetoing

the nomination of personae minus gratae. In the Protestant yearly earnings: viz. 417. 108. ; £27. los.; £47, 1os. ; £57. JOS; and £100. The contributions, affixed to a pension book states the ecclesiastical authority remains purely territorial, stamps, are payable each week, and amount, in English money, to and the sovereign remains effective head of the established 1.45d., 2.34d., 2.82d., 3.3od. and 4.23d. Of the contribution one hall is paid by the employer and the other by the employee, whose ecclesiastical self-government (by means of general synods, &c.)

church. During the 19th century, however, a large measure of duty it is to see that the amount has been properly entered in the pension book. The pensions, in case of invalidity, amount (including

was introduced, pari passu with the growth of constitutional a state subsidy of £2, 1os. for each) respectively to £8, 8s.; government in the state; and in effect, though the theoretical 411, 5$:: £13, 105.: 115. 158.; and {18. The old-age pensions supremacy of the sovereign survives in the church as in the state, (beginning at 70 years) amount to 45: ios.; £7; 18. 108.; £10; he cannot exercise it save through the general synod, which is and {11, 1os. The old-age and invalid insurance is carried out by thirty-one large territorial offices, to which must be added nine the state parliament for ecclesiastical purposes. Where a special unions. The income of the forty establishments was, in sovereign rules over a state containing a large proportion of 1903, £8,500,000 (including £1,700,000 imperial subsidy). The both Catholics and Protestants, which is usually the case, both capital collected was upwards of £50,000,000.

It may be added that employees in mercantile and trading houses, systems coexist. Thus in Prussia the relations of the Roman who have not exceeded the age of 40 years and whose income is Catholic community to the Protestant state are regulated by below £150, are allowed voluntarily to share in the benefits of this arrangement between the Prussian government and Rome; insurance.

while in Bavaria the king, though a Catholic, is legally summus 3. Accident Insurance (Unfallversicherung).-The insurance of workmen and the lesser officials against the risks of accident is episcopus of the Evangelical Church. effected not through the state or the commune; but through associa According to the religious census of 1900 there were in the German tions formed ad hoc. These associations are composed of members empire 35.231,104 Evangelical Protestants, 20.327,913 Roman following the same or allied occupations (eg, Toresters, seamen, Catholics, 6472 Greek Orthodox, 203,678 Christians belonging to smiths, &c.), and hence are called professional associations other confessions, 586,948 Jews, 11,597 members of other sects and (Berufsgenossenschaften). They are empowered, subject to the 5938 unclassified. The Christians belonging to other confessions limits set by the law, to regulate their own business by means of a include Moravian Brethren, Mennonites, Baptists, Methodists and general meeting and of elected committees. The greater number Quakers, German Catholics, Old Catholics, &c. The table on followof these associations cover a very wide field, generally the whole ing page shows the distribution of the population according to empire; in such cases they are empowered to divide their spheres religious beliefs as furnished by the census of 1900. into sections, and to establish agents in different centres to inquire Almost two-thirds of the population belong to the Evangelical into cases of accident, and to see to the carrying out of the rules Church, and rather more than a third to the Church of Rome; the prescribed by the association for the avoidance of accidents. Those actual figures (based on the census of 1900) being (%) Evan: associations, of which the area of operations extends beyond any gelical Protestants, 62.5; Roman Catholics, 36-14 Dissenters and single state, are subordinate to the control of the imperial insurance others, .043, and Jews, 1.0. The Protestants have not increased bureau (Reichsversicherungsam!) at Berlin; those that are confined proportionately in number since 1890, while the Roman Catholics to a single state (as generally in the case of foresters and husband-show a small relative increase. Three states in Germany have a men) are under the control of the state insurance bureau (Landes- decidedly predominant Roman Catholic population, viz. Alsaceversicherungsamt).

Lorraine, Bavaria and Baden; and in four states the Protestant So far as their earnings do not exceed £150 perannum, the following element prevails, but with from 24 to 34% of Roman Catholics; classes are under the legal obligation to insure: labourers in mines, viz. Prussia, Württemberg, Hesse and Oldenburg. In Saxony and









and Hesse, where the Reformed Church had Evangelicals. Catholics.



the preponderance. The inhabitants of these

countries opposed the introduction of the Prussia 21,817.577 12,113,670 139,127 392,322

union, but could not prevent their being subBavaria 1.749,206 4,363,178 7,607


ordinated to the Prussian Oberkirchenral (high Saxony 3,972,063 198,265 19,103 12,416

church-council), the supreme court of the Württemberg 1,497,299 650,392


state church. A synodal constitution for the Baden 704,058 1,131,639


Evangelical State Church was introduced in Hesse 746,201 341,570 7.368


Prussia in 1875. The Oberkirchenral retains Mecklenburg-Schwerin




the right of supreme management. The Saxe-Weimar 347,144 14,158 361

ecclesiastical affairs of the separate provinces Mecklenburg-Strelitz 100,568 1,612


are directed by consistorial boards. The Oldenburg

309,510 86,920



parishes (Pfarreien) are grouped into dioceses Brunswick 436,976 24,175 1,271


(Sprengel), presided over by superintendents, Saxe-Meiningen

244,810 4,170



who are subordinate to the superintendent. Saxe-Altenburg

189,885 4,723



general of the province. Prussia has sixteen Saxe-Coburg-Gotha



608 superintendents-general. The ecclesiastical Anhalt

794 1,605

administration is similarly regulated in the Schwarzburg-Sondershausen


other countries of the Protestant creed. Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt



Regarding the number of churches and Waldeck



chapels Germany has no exact statistics, Reuss-Greiz .



There are five archbishoprics within the Reuss-Schleiz




German empire: Gnesen-Posen, Cologne, Schaumburg-Lippe




Freiburg (Baden), Munich-Freising Lippe

Roman 132,708


and Bamberg. The twenty bishop-

Catholic Lübeck



rics are: Breslau (where the bishop Bremen

Church. 208,815 13.506



has the title of "prince-bishop"), Hamburg

30,903 3,149 17.949

Ermeland (scat at Frauenburg: East Prussia). Alsace-Lorraine

1,310,450 4.301 32,379

Kulm (seat at Pelplin, West Prussia), Fulda,

Hildesheim, Osnabrück, Paderborn, Münster,
35,231,104 20,327.913 203,678 586,948

Limburg, Trier, Metz, Strassburg, Spires,
Würzburg, Regensburg, Passau, Eichstätt,

Augsburg, Rottenburg (Württemberg) and the eighteen minor states the number of Roman Catholics is only | Mainz. Apostolic vicariates exist in Dresden (for Saxony), and from 0.3 to 3:3% of the population.

others for Anhalt and the northern missions. From the above table little can be inferred as to the geographical The Old Catholics (q.v.), who seceded from the Roman Church in distribution of the two chief confessions. On this point it must be consequence of the definition of the dogma of papal infallibility, borne in mind that the population of the larger towns, on account number roughly 50,000, with 54 clergy. of the greater mobility of the population since the introduction of It is in the towns that

the Jewish element is chiefly to be found. railways and the abolition of restrictions upon free settlement, has They belong principally to the mercantile class, and arc to a very become more mixed--Berlin, Leipzig, Hamburg, &c., showing large extent dealers in money. Their wealth has grown proportionally more Roman Catholics, and Cologne, Frankfort-on to an extraordinary degree. They are increasingly numer. Main, Munich more Protestants than formerly. Otherwise the ous in Hamburg, Berlin, Frankfort-on-Main, Breslau, Königsberg, geographical limits of the confessions have been but little altered Posen, Cologne, Nuremberg and Fürth. As a rule their numbers since the Thirty Years' War. In the mixed territories those places are proportionately greater in Prussia than elsewhere within the which formerly belonged to Roman Catholic princes are Roman empire." But, since 1871, the Jewish population of Germany shows Catholic still, and vice versa. Hence a religious map of South a far smaller increase than that of the Christian confessions, and Germany looks like an historical map of the 17th century. The even in the parts of the country where the Jewish population is number of localities where the two confessions exist side by side is densest it has shown a tendency to diminish. It is relatively small., Generally speaking, South Germany is predominantly Roman greatest in the province of Posen, where the numbers have fallen Catholic. Some districts along the Danube (province of Bavaria, from 61,982 (39.1 per thousand) in 1871 to 35,327 (1817 per thousand) Upper Palatinate, Swabia), southern Württemberg and Baden, and in 1900. The explanation is twofold--the extraordinary increase in Alsace-Lorraine are entirely so. These territories are bordered (1) in their numbers in Berlin and the province of Brandenburg. by a broad stretch of country on the north, where Protestantism and (2) in the number of conversions to the Christian faith. In this has maintained its hold since the time of the Reformation, including last regard it may be remarked that the impulse is less from religious Bayreuth or eastern upper Franconia, middle Franconia, the northern conviction than from a desire to associate on more equal terms half of Württemberg and Baden, with Hesse and the Palatinate with their neighbours. Though still, in fact at least, if not by law. Here the average proportion of Protestants to Roman Catholics is excluded from many public offices, especially from commands in two to one. The basin of the Main

is again Roman Catholic from the army, they nevertheless are very powerful in Germany, the press. Bamberg to Aschaffenburg (western upper Franconia and lower being for the most part in 'their hands, and they furnish in many Franconia). In Prussia the western and south-eastern provinces are cities fully one half of the lawyers and the members of the corporamostly Roman Catholic, especially the Rhine province, together tion. It should be mentioned, as a curious fact, that the numbers with the government districts of Münster an Arnsberg. The of the Jewish persuasion in the kingdom of Saxony increased territories of the former principality of Cleves and of the countship from 3358 (1.3 per thousand) in 1871 to 12,416 (3 per thousand) of Mark (comprising very nearly the basin of the Ruhr), which went to Brandenburg in 1609, must, however, be excepted. North of Münster, Roman Catholicism is still prevalent in the territory of the former bishopric of Osnabrück. In the east, East Prussia high among all the civilized great nations of the world (see

Education. In point of educational culture Germany ranks predominant a hundred years ago in all the frontier provinces ac- EDUCATION: Germany). Education is general and compulsory quired by Prussia in the days of Frederick the Great, but since then throughout the empire, and all the states composing it have, with the German immigrants have widely propagated the Protestant minor modifications, adopted the Prussian system providing is still found in the district of Oppeln and the countship of Glatz, for the establishment of elementary schools-Volksschulen-in in the province of Posen, in the Polish-speaking Kreise of West every town and village. The school age is from six to fourteen, Prussia, and in Ermeland (East Prussia). In all the remaining and parents can be compelled to send their children to a Volks. territory the Roman Catholic creed is professed only in the Eichsfeld schuic, unless, to the satisfaction of the authorities, they are on the southern border of the province of Hanover and around receiving adequate instruction in some other recognized school Hildesheim.

The adherents of Protestantism are divided by their confessions or institution. into Reformed and Lutheran. To unite these the church union

has been introduced in several Protestant states, as for Protestant

The total number of primary schools was 60,584 in 1906 Chanch.

example in Prussia and Nassau in 1817. in the Palatinate 1907; teachers, 166,597: pupils, 9.737,262-an average of about

in 1818 and in Baden in 1822. Since 1817 the distinction one Volksschule to every 900 inhabitants. The annual expendihas accordingly been ignored in Prussia, and Christians are there ture was over £26,000,000, of which sum $7.500,000 was pro. enumerated only as Evangelical or Roman Catholic. The union, how- vided by state subvention. There were also in Germany in ever, has not remained wholly unopposed a section of the more rigid the same year 643 private schools, giving instruction similar to Luthcrans who separated themselves from the state church being that of the clementary schools, with 4!,000 pupils. A good now known as Old Lutherans. In 1866 Prussia annexed Hanover criterion of the progress of education is obtained from the diminishand Schleswig-Holstein, where the Protestants were Lutherans, ing number of illiterate a my recruits, as shown by the following

in 1900.

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addition to 424 commercial schools of a lesser degree, 100 schools for Number of

textile manufactures and numerous schools for special metal inYears. Recruits.

Per 1000

dustries, wood-working, ceramic industries, naval architecture and Total. Recruits.

engineering and navigation. For military science there are the Roel

academies of war (Kriegsakademien) in Berlin and Munich, a naval 1875-1876 139,855

academy in Kiel; and various cadet and non-commissioned officers 3311

237 9021880-1881

schools. 151,180 2406

15.9 1885-1886 152,933


Libraries.--Mental culture and a general diffusion of knowledge 1890-1891 193,318. 1035

are extensively promoted by means of numerous public libraries 250,287

established in the capital, the university towns and other places. 1.5


The most celebrated public libraries are those of Berlin (1,000,000

volumes and 30,000 MSS.); Munich (1,000,000 volumes, 40,000 1900-1901 253,000


MSS.); Heidelberg (563,000 volumes, 8000 MSS.); Göttingen of the above 131 illiterates in 1900-1901, 114 were in East and Dresden (500,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.); "Hamburg (municipal

(503,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.); Strassburg, (760,000 volumes); West Prussia, Posen and Silesia.


library, 600,000 volumes, 5000 MSS.); Stuttgart (400,000 volumes, To Universities and Higher Technical Schools.-Germany owes 3500 MSS.): Leipzig (university library,500,000 volumes, 5000 MSS.). its large number of universities, and its widely diffused higher Würzburg (350,000 volumes); Tübingen (340,000 volumes); Rostock education to its former subdivision into many separate states. 7000 MSS.); Freiburg-im-Breisgau (250,000 volumes); Bonn

(318,000 volumes): Breslau (university library, 300,000 volumes, Only a few of the universities date their existence from the 265.000 volumes); and Königsberg (230,000 volumes, 1100 MSS.). 19th century; the majority of them are very much older. Each | There are also famous libraries at Gotha, Wolfenbüttel and Celle. of the larger provinces, except Posen, has at least one university, some of an exclusively scientific character and others designed for the entire number being 21. All have four faculties except the popular diffusion of useful knowledge. Foremost among German Münster, which has no faculty of medicine. As regards theology, academies is the Academy of Sciences (Akademie der Wissenschaften) Bonn, Breslau and Tübingen have both a Protestant and a in Berlin, founded in 1700 on Leibnitz's great plan and opened in Catholic faculty; Freiburg, Munich, Münster and Würzburg Frederick the Great on the French model and received its present are exclusively Catholic; and all the rest are Protestant. constitution in 1812. as four sections: physical, mathematical,

The following table gives the names of the 21 universities, the dates philosophical and historical. The members are (1) ordinary (50 in of their respective foundations, the number of their professors and number, each receiving a yearly dotation of £30), and (2) extraother teachers for the winter half-year 1908-1909, and of the students ordinary, consisting of honorary and corresponding (foreign)

members. attending their lectures during the winter half-year of 1907-1908: It has published since 1811 a selection of treatises furnished by its

most eminent men, Students. Professors

among whom must be HO

Date of

reckoned Schleier

Teachers. Theology. Law. Medicine. Philosophy.

macher, the brothers

Humboldt, Grimm, Berlin 1809

326 t 493

Savigny, Böckh, Ritter 2747

3934 Bonn 1818

and Lachmann, and 190

3209 Breslau



has promoted philo

2071 Erlangen 1743 155

logical and historical 323 355

1058 Freiburg 14571 150

research by helping 373


1814 Giessen 1607 63

the production of such

204 Göttingen


works as Corpus in

21126 Greifswald




scriptionum Graecarum; Halle 1694

331 174

Corpus inscriptionum 217


1239 Heidelberg



Lalinarum; Monu357


1676 Jena

menta Germaniae his116



lorica, the works of 271 239

480 1025 Königsberg

Aristotle, Frederick 152 317! 218

502 1105 the Great's works and Leipzig


2419 4341 Marburg

Kant's collected works. 1527 117 133


876 1670 Munich

Next in order come 6239169


1979 5943 Münster 1902 A 25 278

(1) the Academy. of 458

1606 Sciences at Munich, Rostock


67 D 211 1322 648 founded in 1759. Strassburg

844 1709


three Tübingen 1477


384 1578

classes, philosophical, 102



historical and physical,

and especially famous Not included in the above list is the little academy-Lyceum for its historical research; (2) the Society of Sciences (Gesellschaft der Hosianum-at Braunsberg in Prussia, having faculties of theology Wissenschaften) in Göttingen, founded in 1742; (3) that of Erfurt, (Roman Catholic) and philosophy, with 13 teachers and 150 students. founded 1758; (4) Görlitz (1779) and (5) the Royal Saxon Society In all the universities the number of matriculated students in 1907- of Sciences" (Königliche sächsische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften). 1908 was 46,471, including 320 women, 2 of whom studied theology, founded in Leipzig in 1846. Ample provision is made for scientific 14 law, 150 philosophy and 154 medicine. There were also, within collections of all kinds in almost all places of any importance, cither the same period, 5653 non-matriculated Hörer (hearers), including at the public expense or through private munificence. 2486 women.

Observatories.-These have in recent years been considerably Ten schools, technical high schools, or Polytechnica, rank with the augmented. There are 19 leading observatories in the empire, viz, universities, and have the power of granting certain degrees. They at Bamberg, Berlin (2), Bonn, Bothkamp in Schleswig, Breslau, have departments of architecture, building, civil engineering, Düsseldorf, Gotha, Göttingen, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Jena, Kiel, chemistry, metallurgy and, in some cases, anatomy. These schools Königsberg, Leipzig, Munich, Potsdam, Strassburg and Wilhelmsare as follows: Berlin (Charlottenburg), Munich, Darmstadt, Karls- haven. ruhe, Hanover, Dresden, Stuttgart, Aix-la-Chapelle, Brunswick Book Trade. This branch of industry, from the important and Danzig; in 1908 they were attended by 14,149 students (2531 position it has gradually acquired since the time of the Reformation, foreigners), and had a teaching staff of 753. Among the remaining is to be regarded as at once a cause and a result of the mental culture higher technical schools may be mentioned the three mining academies of Germany. Leipzig, Berlin and Stuttgart are the chief centres of of Berlin, Clausthal, in the Harz, and Freiberg in Saxony. For the trade. The number of booksellers in Germany was not less than instruction in agriculture there are agricultural schools attached to 10,000 in 1907, among whom were approximately 6000 publishers. several universities-notably Berlin, Halle, Göttingen, Königsberg, The following figures will show the recent progress of German Jena, Poppelsdorf near Bonn, Munich and Leipzig. Noted academies I literary production, in so far as published works are concerned: of forestry are those of Tharandt (in Saxony),

sold Eberswalde, Münden on the Weser, Hohenheim Year 1570 1600

1618 1650 1700

1750 1800 1840 1884 1902 near Stuttgart, Brunswick, Eisenach, Giessen and Books 229


950 1219 3335 6904 15,607 26,902 Karlsruhe. Other technical schools are again the five veterinary academies of Berlin, Hanover, Munich, Dresden and Newspapers.—While in England a few important newspapers Stuttgart, the commercial colleges (Handelshochschulen) of Leipzig, have an immense circulation, the newspapers of Germany are much Aix-la-Chapelle, Hanover, Frankfort-on-Main and Cologne, in more numerous, but on the whole command a more limited sale.

Some large cities, notably Berlin, Cologne, Hamburg, Dresden, Voluntarily enlisted in the army and navy,
Leipzig and Munich, have, however, newspapers with a daily circu on or before attaining service age

57.739 Hlation of over 100,000 copies, and in the case of some papers in Assigned as recruits to the navy

10,374 Berlin a million copies is reached. Most readers receive their Put back, &c.

684,193 newspapers through the post office or at their clubs, which may help

788,968 to explain the smaller number of copies sold. Fine Arts.-Perhaps the chief advantage which Germany has Available as army recruits, fit

425,557 derived from the survival of separate territorial sovereignties within of these, (a) Assigned to the active army for two or three the empire has been the decentralization of culture. Patronage of years' service with the colours

212,661 art is among the cherished traditions of the German princes; and (6) Assigned to the Ersatz-Reserve of the even whereas for instance at Cas is no longer a court, army and navy


89,877 the artistic impetus given by the former sovereigns has survived (c) Assigned to the ist levy of Landsturms

123,019 their fall. . The result has been that there is in Germany no such

425,557 concentration of the institutions for the encouragement and study of the fine arts as there is in France or England. Berlin has no

Thus only half the men on whom the government has an practical monopoly, such as is possessed by London or Paris, of the effective hold go to the colours in the end. Moreover few of the celebrated museums and galleries of the country. The picture men" put back, &c.," who figure on both sides of the account for galleries of Dresden, Munich and Cassel still rival that at Berlin, any one year, and seem to average 660,000, are really" put back.” though the latter is rapidly becoming one of the richest in the world They are in the main those who have failed or fail to present them. collections

of England. For the same reason the country is very well selves, and whose names are retained on the liability lísts against provided with excellent schools of painting and music. of the art the day of their return. Many of these have emigrated. schools the most famous are those of Munich, Düsseldorf, Dresden and Berlin, but there are others, c.g. at Karlsruhe, Weimar and is liable to service and no substitution is allowed. Liability

By the constitution of the 16th of April 1871 every German Königsberg. These schools are in close touch with the sovereigns and the governments, and the more promising pupils are thus from begins at the age of seventeen, and actual service, as a rule, the first assured of a career, especially in connexion with the decora- from the age of twenty. The men serve in the active army and tion of public buildings and monuments. To this fact is largely army reserve for seven years, of which two years (three in the due the excellence of the Germans in grandiose decorative painting case of cavalry and horse artillery recruits) are spent with the and sculpture, a talent for the exercise of which plenty of scope has been given them by the numerous public buildings and memorials colours. During his four or five years in the reserve, the soldier raised since the war of 1870. Perhaps for this very reason, however, is called out for training with his corps twice, for a maximum the German art schools have had no such cosmopolitan influence of eight weeks (in practice usually for six). After quitting the as that exercised by the schools of Paris, the number of foreign reserve the soldier is drafted into the first ban of the Landwehi students attending them being comparatively small. It is otherwise with the schools of music, which exercise a profound influence far for five years more, in which (except in the cavalry, which is beyond the borders of Germany. Of those the most important are not called out in peace time) he undergoes two trainings of from on-Main. The fame of Weimar as a scat of musical cducation, and remains in it until he has completed his thirty-ninth year-i.e. the conservatoires of Leipzig, Dresden, Berlin, Munich and Frankfort- eight to fourteen days. Thence he passes into the second ban though it possesses an excellent conservatoire, is based mainly on the tradition of the abbé Liszt, who gathered about him here a

from șix to seven years more, the whole period of army and Landnumber of distinguished pupils

, some of whom have continued wehr service being thus nineteen years. Finally, all soldiers are to make it their centre. Music in Germany also receives a passed into the Landsturm, in the first ban of which they remain grcat stimulus from the existence, in almost every important until the completion of their forty-fifth year. The second ban town, of opera-houses partly supported by the sovereigns or by the civic authorities. Good music being thus brought within consists of untrained men between the ages of thirty-nine and the reach of all, appreciation of it is very wide-spread in all classes of forty-five. Young men who reach a certain standard of educathe population. The imperial government maintains institutes at tion, however, are only obliged to serve for one year in the active Rome and Athens which have done much for the advancement of archaeology.

(P. A. A.)

army. They are called One-Year Volunteers (Einjährig-FreiArmy. - The system of the nation in arms ” owes its existence willigen), defray their own expenses and are the chief source of to the reforms in the Prussian army that followed Jena. The supply of reserve and Landwehr officers. That proportion of “ nation in arms ” itself was the product of the French Revolu- the annual contingents which is dismissed untrained goes either tionary and Napoleonic wars, but it was in Prussia that was Landwehr, it will be observed, contains only men who have

to the Ersatz-Reserve or to the ist ban of the Landsturm (the seen the systematization and the economical and effective application of the immense forces of which the revolutionary served with the colours). The Ersatz consists exclusively of period had demonstrated the existence (see also ARMY; CON young men, who would in war time be drafted to the regimental

depots and thence sent, with what training circumstances had SCRIPTION; FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY Wars, &c.). It was with an army and a military system that fully represented the in the meantime allowed, to the front. Some men of the Ersatz idea of the nation in arms” that Prussia created the powerful receive a short preliminary training in peace time. Germany of later days, and the same system was extended

In 1907 the average height of the private soldiers was 5 st. 6 in., by degrees over all the other states of the new empire. But that of the non-commissioned officers 5 ft. 64 in., and that of the these very successes contained in themselves the germ of new

one-year volunteers 5 ft. 91 in. A much greater proportion of troubles. Increased prosperity, a still greater increase in popula- the country recruits were accepted as "fit” than of those tion and the social and economic disturbances incidental to the coming from the towns. Voluntary enlistments of men who conversion of an agricultural into a manufacturing com- desired to become non-commissioned officers were most frequent munity, led to the practical abandonment of the principle of in the provinces of the old Prussian monarchy, but in Berlin universal service. More men came before the recruiting itself and in Westphalia the enlistments fell far short of the osticer than there was money to train; and in 1895 the period number of non-commissioned officers required for the territorial of service with the colours was reduced from three to two regiments of the respective districts. Above all, in Alsace years--a step since followed by other military powers, the idea Lorraine one-eighth only of the required numbers were obtained.

Peace and War Strengths.-German military policy is revised being that with the same peace effective and financial grants every five years; thus a law of April 1905 fixes the strength and half as many men again could be passed through the ranks as establishments to be attained on March 31, 1910, the necessary before.

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augmentations, &c., being carried out gradually in the intervening In 1907 the recruiting statistics were as follows:

years. The peace strength for the latter date was fixed at 505,839

men (not including officers, non-commissioned officers and one-year Number of young men attaining service age (including

volunteers), formingthose who had voluntarily enlisted before their time) 556,772

633 battalions infantry. Men belonging to previous ycars who had been put back

510 squadrons cavalry. 5 for re-examination. &c., still borne on the lists


574 batteries field and horse artillery,

40 battalions foot artillery. 1,214.525

29 battalions pioneers. 9! DeductPhysically unfit, &c.


12 battalions communication troops, 11. Struck off

860 TL

23 train battalions, &c.

The addition of about 25,000 officers and 85,000 non-commissioned regiments or 12 battalions). 2 regiments of field artillery (comprising officers, one-year men, &c., brings the peace footing of the German 9 batteries of field-guns and 3 of field howitzers, 72 pieces in all), army in 1910 to a total of about 615,000 of all ranks.

3 squadrons of cavalry, I or a companies of pioneers, a bridge train As for war, the total fighting strength of the German nation and 1 or 2 bearer companies; (c) corps troops, 1 battalion rifles, (including the navy) has been placed at as high a figure as 11,000,000, telegraph troops, bridge train, ammunition columns, train (supply) of these 7,000,000 have received little or no training, owing to medical battalion, field bakeries, bearer companies and field hospitals, &c., unfitness, residence abroad, failure to appear, surplus of annual with, as a rule, one or two batteries of heavy field howitzers or contingents, &c., as already explained, and not more than 3,000,000 mortars and a machine-gun group. The remainder of the cavalry of these would be available in war. The real military resources of and horse artillery attached to the army corps in peace goes in war Germany, untrained and trained, are thus about 7,000,000, of whom to form the cavalry divisions. Certain corps have an increased 4,000,000 have at one time or another done a continuous period of effective; thus the Guard has a whole cavalry division, and the I. service with the colours.' This is of course for a war of defence a corps (Königsberg) has three divisions.: Several corps possess an outrance. For an offensive war, only the active army, the reserve; extra infantry brigade of two 2-battalion regiments, but these, the Ersatz and the 1st levy of the Landwehr

would be really available unless stationed on the frontiers, are gradually absorbed into new A rough calculation of the number of these who go to form or to divisions and army corps. In war several army corps, cavalry. reinforce the field armies and the mobilized garrisons may be given: divisions and reserve divisions are grouped in two or more armies, Cadres of officers and non-commissioned officers 100,000

and in peace the army corps are divided for purposes of superior From 7 annual contingents of recruits (ie.

control amongst several " army inspections." active army and reserve)

The cavalry is organized in regiments of cuirassiers, dragoons,

1,200,000 lancers, hussars and mounted rifles, the regiments having four From 5 contingents of Landwehr (Ist ban) 600,000 From 7 classes of Ersatz reserve called to the

service and one depot squadrons, Troopers are armed with lance,

sword and carbine (for which in 1908 the substitution of a short rifle depots, able-bodied men

400,000 One-year volunteers recalled to the colours or

with bayonet was suggested), In peace time the highest permanent

organization is the brigade of two regiments or eight squadrons, but serving as reserve and Landwehr officers 100,000

in war and at mancuvres divisions of three brigades, with horse 2,400,000

artillery attached, are formed.

The infantry consists of 216 regiments, mostly of three battalions These again would divide into a first line army of 1,350,000 and a

each. These are numbered, apart from the eight Guard regiments second of 1,050,000. It is calculated that the field

army would and the Bavarians, serially throughout the army. Certain regiments consist, in the third week of a great war, of 633 battalions, 410 Chasseur or rifle battalions (Jäger). The battalion has always lour squadrons and 574 batteries, with technical, departmental and medical troops (say 630,000 bayonets, 60,000 sabres and 3444 guns, of the infantry is the model 1898 magazine rifle and bayonet (see

companies, each, at war strength, 250 strong. The armament or 750,000 men), and that these could be reinforced in three or four weeks by 350 fresh battalions. Behind these forces there would

RIFLE). shortly become available for secondary operations about 460 bat

The field (including horse) artillery consists in peace of 94 regitalions of the ist ban Landwehr, and 200 squadrons and about 220

ments subdivided into two or three groups (Abteilungen), each of batteries of the reserve and Landwehr. In addition, each would

two or three 6-gun batteries. The field gun in use is the quickleave behind depot troops to form the nucleus on which the 2nd ban firing gun 96/N.A. (see ORDNANCE: Field Equipments). Landwehr and the Landsturm would eventually be built up. The furnish the heavy artillery of the field army. It consists of torty

The foot artillery is intended for siege and fortress warfare, and to total number of units of the three arms in all branches may be stated battalions. Machine gun detachments, resembling 4-8 un batteries approximately at 2200 battalions, 780 squadrons and 950 batteries. Command and Organisation.-By the articles of the constitution

and horsed as artillery, were formed to the number of sixteen in the whole of the land forces of the empire form a united army in 1904-1906. These are intended to work with the cavalry divisions. war and peace under the orders of the emperor. The sovereigns of Afterwards it was decided to form additional small groups of two the chief states are entitled to nominate the lower grades of officers, guns each, less fully horsed, to assist the infantry, and a certain and the king of Bavaria has reserved to himself the special privilege number

of these were created in 1906-1908. of superintending the general administration of the three Bavarian

The engineers are a technical body, not concerned with field army corps: but all appointments are made subject to the emperor's pioneers (29 battalions) are assigned to the field army, with duties

warsare or with the command of troops. On the other hand, the of the empire. It is the almost invariable practice of the kings of corresponding roughly to those of field companies R.E. in the British Prussia to command their forces in person, and the army commands, service. Other branches represented in Great Britain by the Royal too, are generally held by leaders of royal or princely rank. The Engineers are known in Germany by the title communication natural corollary to this is the assignment of special advisory duties troops" and comprise railway, telegraph and airship, and balloon

battalions. The Train is charged with the duties of supply and to a responsible chief of staff. The officers are recruited either from the Cadet Corps at Berlin or from amongst those men, of transport. There is one battalion to each army corps. sufficient social standing, who join the ranks as "avantageurs

Remounts.-The peace establishment in horses is approximately with a view to obtaining commissions. Reserve and Landwehr

100,000. Horses serve eight to nine years in the artillery and nine officers are drawn from among officers and selected non-commissioned

to ten in the cavalry, after which, in the autumn of each year, they officers retired from the active army, and one-ycar volunteers who

are sold, and their places taken by remounts. The latter are bought

at horse-fairs and private sales, unbroken, and sent to the 25 remount have passed a special examination. All candidates, from whatever brother officers before being definitively commissioned.. Promotion artillery riding horses come from Prussia proper. The Polish source they come, are subject to approval or rejection by their depots, whence, when fit for the service, they are sent to the various

units, as a rule in the early summer. Most of the cavairy and in the German army is excessively slow, the senior subalterns having districts produce swist Hussar horses of a semi-eastern type. Hanover eighteen to twenty years' commissioned service and the senior is second only to East Prussia in output of horses. Bavaria, Saxony captains sometimes thirty: The number of officers on the active list is about 25,000. The under-officers number about 84,000.

and Württemberg do not produce enough horses for their own armies The German army is organized in twenty-three army, corps: and forty-five young horses were bought by the army authorities

and have to draw on Prussia. Thirteen thou sand four hundred stationed and recruited in the various provinces and states as follows: during 1907. The average price was about £51 for field artillery Guard, Berlin (general recruiting); 1. Königsberg (East, Prussia); draught horses, 165 for heavy draught horses, and £46 for riding 11. Stettin (Pomerania); III. Berlin (Brandenburg): IV. Magdeburg

horses. (Prussian Saxony); V. Posen (Poland and part of Silesia); VI. Breslau (Silesia); VII. Münster (Westphalia): VIII. Coblenz

The military expenditure of Germany, according to a comparative (Rhinelana): IX. Altona (Hanse Towns and Schleswig-Holstein); table furnished to the House of Commons by the British war office

in 1907, varied between £36,000,000 and £44,000,000 per annum X. Hanover (Hanover); XI. Cassel (Hesse-Cassel); XII. Dresden (Saxony); XIII. Stuttgart (Württemberg); XIV. Karlsruhe

in the period 1899-1902, and between £42,000,000 and £51,000,000 (Baden); XV. Strassburg (Alsace): XVI. Metz (Lorraine): XVII.

per annum in that of 1905-1909. Danzig (West Prussia); XVIII. Frankfurt-am-Main (Hesse Darm

Colonial Troops.--In 1996 these, irrespective of the brigade of Munich: II. Bavarian Corps, Wurzburg; III. Bavarian Corps, German East Africa troops, 220 Europeans and 1470 natives; the stadt, Main country): xix. Leipzig (Saxony): 1. Bavarian Corps, occupation then maintained in north China and

of special reinforceNuremberg. The formation of a XX. army corps out of the extra division of the XIV. corps at Colmar in Alsace, with the addition of

Cameroon troops, 145 European and 1170 natives; S.W. African two regiments from Westphalia and drafts of the XV. and XVI. troops, entirely European and normally consisting of 606 officers corps, was announced in 1908 as the final step of the programme for ? These last have a curious history. They were formed from about the period 1906–1910. The normal composition of an army corps 1890 onwards, by individual squadrons, two or three being voted each on war is (a) staff, (6) 2 infantry divisions, each of 2 brigades (4 year. Ostensibly raised for the duties of mounted orderlies, at a

time when it would have been impolitic to ask openly for more Actually between 1883 and 1908 over five million recruits cavalry, they were little by little trained in real" cavalry work, passed through the drill sergeant's hands, as well as perhaps 210,000 then combined in provisional regiments for disciplinary purposes one-year volunteers.

and at last frankly classed as cavalry.

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