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negotiation which followed served only to show that no accommodation was possible. Charles himself made no serious effort to understand the controversy; he was resolved, whether the Lutherans had right on their side or not, that they should submit, and he did not doubt but that he would be able to awe them into submision by an unwanted display of power. But to his surprise the Lutheran princes who attended the diet refused to give way. They were, however, outnumbered by their enemies, and it was the Romanist majority which dictated the terms of the decree, which was laid before the diet in September, enjoining a return to religious conformity within seven months. The Protestant princes could only present a formal protest and leave Augsburg. Finally the decree of the diet, promulgated in NOVember, ordered the execution of the edict of Worms, the restoration of all church property, and the maintenance of the jurisdiction of the bishops. The duty of enforcing the decree was especially entrusted to the Reichskammergaichl; thus by the processes of law the Protestant princes were to be deprived of much of their property, and it seemed probable that if they did not submit the emperor would have recourse to arms.
For the present, however, fresh difficulties with France and an invasion by the Turks, who had besieged Vienna with an immense army in the autumn of 15:9, forced Charles
The ham 0! to mask hisdesigns. Meanwhile some of the Lutherans, ‘53:? angered and alarmed by the decisions of the Reich:
knmmugericlil, abandoned the idea that resistance to the imperial authority was unlawful and, meeting in December 1 530, laid the foundation of the important league of Schmalkalden, among the first members of the confederation being the rulers of Saxony and lfesse and the cities of Bremen and Magdeburg. The league was soon joined by other strong cities, among them Strassliurg, Ulm, Constance, Liibeck and Goslar; but it was not until after the defeat and death of Zwingli at Kappel in October 15y that it was further strengthened by the adhesion of those towns which had hitherto looked for leadership to the Swiss reformer. About this time the military forces of the league were organized, their heads being the elector of Saxony and the landgrave of Hesse. But the league had a political as well as a religious aspect. It was an alliance between the enemies of the house of Habsburg, and on this side it gained the support of the duke of Bavaria and treated with Francis 1. of France. To this its rapid growth was partly due, but more perhaps to the fact that the Reformation in Germany was above all things a popular movement, and thus many princes who would not have seceded from the Roman Church of their own accord were compelled to do so from political motives. They had been strong enough to undermine the imperial power; they were not strong enough to resist the pressure put upon them by a majority of their subjects. It was early in 1532, when faced with the necessity of resisting the Turkish advance, that Charles met the diet at Regensburg. He must have men and money for this purpose even at the price of an arrangement with the Protestants. But the Lutherans were absent from the diet, and the Romanists, although they voted help, displayed a very uncomprombing temper towards their religious foes. Under these circumstances the emperor took the matter into his own hands, and his negotiations with the Protestants resulted in July 1532 in the religious peace of Nuremberg, a measure which granted temporary toleration to the Lutherans and which was repeatedly confirmed in the following years. Charles’s reward was substantial and immediate. His subjects vied with each other in hurrying soldiers to his standard, and in a few weeks the great Turkish host was in full retreat.
While the probability of an alliance between Pope Clement Vll. and Francis 1. of France, together with other international hm“, complications, prevented the emperor from following In," u up his victory over the Turks, or from reducing the Germany. dissenters from the Roman religion to obedience,
Protestantism was making substantial progress in the states, notably in Anhalt and in Pomerania, and in the cities, and in January 1534 the Protestant princes were bold
enough to declare that they did not regard the decisions of the Rciehrlranrmergcrichl as binding upon them. About this time Germany witnessed three events of some importance. Through the energy of Philip of Hesse, who was aided by Francis X, Ulrich of Wurttemberg was forcibly restored to his _duchy. The members of the Romanist league recently founded at Halle would not help the Habsburgs, and in june 1534, by the treaty of Cadan, King Ferdinand was forced to recognize the restoration as afnil accompli; at the same time he was compelled to promise that he would stop all proceedings of the'Reicluknmmevgrrirki against the members of the league of Schmalkalden. The two other events were less favourable for the new religion, or rather for its orthodox manifestations. After a struggle, the Annbaptists obtained control of Mllnster and for a short time governed the town in accordance with their own peculiar ideas. while at Lubeck, under the burgomaster _Iiirgen \Vullenweber. a democratic government was also established. But the bishop of Milnster and his friends crushed the one movement, and alter interfering in the affairs of Denmark the Lubeckers were compelled to revert to their former mode of government. The outbreak of the war between the Empire and France in 1556 almost coincided with the enlargement of the league of Schmalkaldcn, the existence of which was prolonged for ten years. All the states and cities which subscribed to the confesion of Augsburg were admitted to it, and thus a large number of Protestants, including the duchics of Wiirttemberg and Pomerania and the cities of Augsburg and Frankfort, secured a needful protection against the decrees of the Reichkonllergeridrf, which the league again repudiated. Among the new membersof the confederation was Christian 111., king of Denmark About the same time (May r536) an agreement between the Lutherans and the Zwinglians was arranged by Martin Buccr, and was embodied in a document called the Concord of “‘ittcnberg, and for the present the growing dissensions between the heads of the league, John Frederick, elector of Saxony, and Philipof Hesse, were checked. Thus strengthcned the Protestant princes declared against the proposed gcneral council at Manlua. while as a counterpoise to the league of Schmalkalden the imperial envoy, Mathias Held (d. 1563), persuaded the Romanist princes in June 1538 to form the league of Nuremberg. But, although he had made a truce with France at Nice in this very month. Charles V. was more conciliatory than some of his representatives. and at Frankfort in April 1539 he came to terms with the Protestants, not, however, granting to them all their demands. In r539, too, the Protestants received a great accession of st rengt h. the Lutheran prince Henry succeeding his Romanist brother George asduke of Saxony. Ducal Saxony was thus completely won for the reformed faith, and under the politic elector joachim II. the same doctrines made rapid advances in Brandenburg. Thus practically all North Germany was united in supporting the Protestant cause.
In r542, when Charles V. was again involved in war with France and Turkey, who were helped by Sweden, Denmark and Scotland, the league of Schmalkalden took advantage m of his occupations to drive its stubborn foe, Henry, 010' duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, from his duchy and M"to enthrone Protestantism completely therein. But “a this was not the only victory gained by the Protestants about this time. The citizens of Regensburg accepted their doctrines. which also made considerable progress in the Palatinate and in Austria, while the archbishop of Cologne, Hermann von \Vicd. and William, duke of Gelderland, Clcves and Julicrs, announced their secession from the Roman religion. The Protestants were now at the height of their power, but their ascendancy was about to be destroyed, and that rather by the folly and imprudence of their leaders than by the skill and valour of their foes. The unity and the power of the league of Schmalkalden were being undermined by two important events, the bigamy of Philip of Hesse, which for political reasons was condoned by the Lutheran divines,and the dissensions between john Frederick, the ruler of electoral, and Maurice. the new ruler of ducal Saxony. To save himself from the
consequences of his double marriage, which had provided him wit h powerful enemies, Philip in June 15“ came to terms with the emperor, who thus managed to spike the guns of the league of Schmalkalden, although the strength of this confederation did not fail until after the campaign against Henry of Brunswick. But while on the whole the fortunes of the European war, both inlhc east and in the west, were unfavourable to the imperialists, Charles V. found time in r543 to lead a powerful force against William of Gelderland, who had joined the circle of his foreign foes. William was completely crushed; Cclderland was added to the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs, while the league of Schmalkalden impotently watched the proceedings. This happened about a year after war between the two branches of the Saxon house had only been averted by the mediation of Luther and of Philip of Hesse. The emperor, however, was unable, or unwilling, to make a more general attack on the Protestants. In accordance with the promises made to them at Frankfort in 1539, conferences between the leaders of the two religious parties were held at Hagenau, at Worms and at Regcns‘ burg, but they were practically futile. The diets at Regensburg and at Nuremberg gave very little aid for the wars, and did nothing to solve the religious difficulties which were growing more acute with repeated delays. At the diet of Spires in r544 Charles purchased military assistance from the Protestants by making lavish promises to them. With a new army he marched against the French, but suddenly in September [544 he concluded the treaty of Crépy with Francis 1. and left himself free to begin a new chapter in the. history of Germany.
Charles was now nearly ready to crush the Protestants, whose influence and teaching had divided Germany and weakened the imperial power, and were now endangering the
I "10.70 supremacy of the liabsburgs in the Netherlands and
over rm in Alsace. His plan was to bring about the meeting "I!" W of a general council to make the necessary reforms in fizz" the church, and then at whatever cost to compel the
Protestants to abide by its decisions. “'hile Pope Paul 111., somewhat reluctantly, summoned the council which ultimately met at Trent, Charles made vigorous preparations for war. Having made peace with the Turks in October 1545 he began to secure allies. Assistance was promised by the pope; the emperor purchased the neutrality of Duke William of Bavaria, and at a high price the active aid of Maurice of Saxony; he managed to detach from the league of Schmalkaldcn those members who were without any enthusiasm for the Protestant cause and also those who were too timid to enter upon a serious struggle. Meanwhile the league was inactive. Its chiefs differed on questions of policy, one section believing that the emperor did not intend to proceed to extremities, and for some time no measures were taken to meet the coming peril. At last, in June 1546, during the meeting of the diet at Regensburg, Philip and John Frederick of Saxony realized the extent of the danger and began to muster their forces. They were still much more powerful than the emperor, but they did not work well together, or with Sebastian Schartlin von Burtenbach, who led their troops in South Germany. In July 1546 they were placed under the imperial ban, and the war began in the valley of the Danube. Charles was aided by soldiers hurried from Italy and the Netherlands, but he did not gain any substantial successes until after October 1546, when his ally Maurice invaded electoral Saxony and forced John Frederick to march northwards to its defence. The Lutheran cities of southern and central Germany, among them Strassburg, Augsburg, Ulm and Frankfort, now submitted to the emperor, while Ulrich of Wurttemberg and the elector palatine of the Rhine, Frederick 11., followed their example. Having restored Roman Catholicism in the nrchbishopric of Cologne and seen Henry of Brunswick settled in his duchy early in t 547, Charles led his men against his principal enemies, Philip of Hesse and John Frederick, who had quickly succeeded in driving Maurice from his electorate. At Muhlbcrg in April r547 he overtook the army of the Saxon elector. His victory was complete. John Frederick was taken prisoner,and a little later Philip of Hesse. after vainly prolonging the struggle, was induced
to surrender. ’The rising in the other parts of northern Germany was also put down, and the two leaders of political Lutheranism were prisoners in the emperor's hands.
Unable to shake the allegiance of John Frederick to the Lutheran faith, Charles kept him and Philip of Hesse in captivity and began to take advantage of his triumph, although n u, Magdeburg was still offering a stubborn resistance mill." to his allies. By the capitulation of Wittenberg the electorate of Saxony was transferred to Maurice, and in the mood of a conqueror the emperor met the diet at Augsburg in September r547. llis proposals to strengthen and reform the administration of Germany were, however, not acceptable to the princes, and the main one was not pressed; but the Netherlands were brought under the protection of the Empire and some minor reforms were carried through. A serious quarrel with the pope, who had moved the council from Trent to Bologna, only increased the determination of Charles to establish religious conformity. In consultation with both Romanist and Lutheran divines a confession of faith called the lnlen'm was drawn up; this was in the nature of a compromise and was issued as an edict in May t548, but owing to the opposition of the Romanist princes it was not made binding upon them, only upon the Lutherans. There was some resistance to the Interim, but force was employed against Augsburg and other recalcitrant cities, and soon it was generally accepted. Thus all Germany seemed to lie at the emperor's feet. The Reformation had enabled him to deal with the princes and the imperial cities in a fashion such as no sovereign had dealt with them for three centuries.
Being now at-the height of his power Charles wished to secure the succession to the imperial throne to his son Philip, after
wards Philip ll. of Spain. This intention produced 1,, dissensions among the Habsburgs, especially between impel-III the emperor and his brother Ferdinand, and other If?"
causes were at work, moreover, to undermine the farmer's position. The Romanist princes were becoming alarmed at his predominance, the Protestant princes resented his arbitrary measures and disliked the harsh treatment meted out to John Frederick and to Philip of Hesse; all alike, irritated by the presence of Spanish soldiers in their midst, objected strongly to take I’hilip for their king and to any extension of Spanish influence in Germany. Turkey and France were again threatening war, and although the council had. returned to Trent it seemed less likely than ever to satisfy the Protestants. The general discontent found expression in the person of 1|" Maurice of Saxony, a son-in-law of Philip of Hesse, ""1"! whose services to Charles against the league of Schmal- an“ °' kalden had made him very unpopular in his own a.” country. Caring little or nothing about doctrinal disputes, but a great deal about increasing his own importance, Maurice now took the lead in plotting against the emperor. He entered into an alliance with John, margravc of Brandenburg-Castrin, with another Hohenzollern prince, Albert Alcibiades of Bayreuth, and with other Lutheran leaders, and also with Henry II. of France, who eagerly seized this opportunity of profiting by the dissensions in the Empire and who stipulated for a definite reward. Charles knew something of these proceedings, but his recent victory had thrown him partly off his guard. The treaty with France was signed in January 1552; in March Henry I]. invaded Germany as the protector of her liberties, while Maurice seized Augsburg and marched towards Innsbruck, where thcemperor was residing, with the intention of making him a prisoner. An attempt at accommodation failed; Charles fled into Carinthia; and at one stroke all the advantages which he had gained by his triumph at Muhlberg were lost. Masters of the situation, Maurice and his associates met their opponents at Passau in May 1552 and arranged terms of peace, although the emperor did not assent to them until July. The two captive princes were released, but the main point agreed upon was that a. diet should be called for the purpose of settling the religious difficulty, ahd that in the meantime the Lutherans were to enjoy full religious liberty.
Delayed by the war with France and Turkey, the diet for the settlement of the religious difficulty did not meet at Augsburg until February 1555. Ferdinand represented his brother, and after a prolonged discussion conditions peace of Aersburr of peace were arranged. Romanists and Lutherans were placed upon an equal footing, but the toleration which was granted to them was not extended to the Calvinists. Each secular prince had the right to eject from his land all those who would not accept the form of religion established therein; thus the principle of cujus regio ejus religio was set up. Although the Lutherans did not gain all their demands, they won solid advantages and were allowed to keep all ecclesiastical property secularized before the peace of Passau. A source of trouble, however, was the clause in the treaty usually called the ecclesiastical reservation. This required an ecclesiastical prince, if he accepted the teaching of the confession of Augsburg, or in other words became a Lutheran, forthwith to resign his principality. The Lutherans denied the validity of this clause, and notwithstanding the protests of the Roman Catholics several prelates became Lutheran and kept their territories as secular possessions. The peace of Augsburg can hardly be described as a satisfactory settlement. Individual toleration was not allowed, or only allowed in unison with exile, and in the treaty there was abundant material for future discord. After Maurice of Saxony had made terms with Charles at Passau he went to help Ferdinand against the Turks, but one of his allies, Henry II. of France, continued the war in Germany while another, Albert Alcibiades, entered upon a wild campaign of plunder in Franconia. The French king seized Metz, which was part of the spoil promised to him by his allies, and Charles made an attempt to regain the city. For this purpose he took Albert Alcibiades into his service, but after a stubborn fight his troops were compelled to retreat in January 1553. Albert then renewed his raids, and these became so terrible that a league of princes, under Maurice of Saxony, was formed to crush him; although Maurice lost his life at Sievershausen in July 1553, this purpose was accomplished, and Albert was driven from Germany. After the peace of Augsburg, which was published in September 1555, the emperor carried out his intention of abdicating. He entrusted Spain and the Netherlands to Philip, while Ferdinand took over the conduct of affairs in Germany, although it was not until 1558 that he was formally installed as his brother's successor. Ferdinand I., who like all the German sovereigns after him was recognized as emperor without being crowned by the pope, *erdid- made it a prime object of his short reign to defend and 1. and enforce the religious peace of Augsburg for which he was largely responsible. Although in all probability numerically superior at this time to the Romanists, the Protestants were weakened by divisions, which were becoming daily more pronounced and more serious, and partly owing to this fact the emperor was able to resist the demands of each party and to moderate their excesses. He was continually harassed by the Turks until peace was made in 1562, and connected therewith were troubles in Bohemia and especially in Hungary, two countries which he had acquired through marriage, while North Germany was disturbed by the wild schemes of Wilhelm von Grumbach (q.v.) and his associate John Frederick, duke of Saxony. With regard to the religious question efforts were made to compose the differences among the Protestants; but while these ended in failure the Roman Catholics werc gaining ground. Ferdinand sought earnestly to reform the thurch from within, and before he dicd in July 1564 the CounterReformation, fortifica by the entrance of the Jesuits into Germany end by the issue of the decrees of the council of Trent, had beguf. Under Ferdinand's rule there were some changes in the administration of the Empire. Lutherans sat among the judges Adminis. of the Reichskammergericht, and the Aulic Council, or trative Hofrat, established by Maximilian I. for the Austrian ***** lands, extended its authority over the Empire and was known as the Reichshofrat. Side by side with these
End of the reign.
changes the imperial diet was becoming more useless and unwieldy, and the electors were gaining power, owing partly to the Wahlkapitulation, by which on election they circumscribed the power of each occupant of the imperial throne. Ferdinand's son and successor, the emperor Maximilian II., was a man of tolerant views; in fact at one time he was suspected of being a Lutheran, a circumstance which Afari greatly annoyed the Habsburgs and delayed his own £ ll. election as king of the Romans. However, having given to the electors assurances of his fidelity to the Roman Church, he was chosen king in November 1562, and became ruler of Germany on his father's death nearly two years later. Like other German sovereigns Maximilian pursued the phantom of religious union. His first diet, which met at Augsburg in 1566, was, however, unable, or unwilling, to take any steps in this direction, and while the Roman Catholics urged the enforcement of the decrees of the council of Trent the serious differences among the Protestants received fresh proof from the attempt made to exclude the Calvinist prince Frederick III., elector palatine of the Rhine, from the benefits of the peace of Augsburg. After this Frederick and the Calvinists looked for sympathy more and more to the Protestants in France and the Netherlands, whom they assisted with troops, while the Lutherans, whose chief prince was Augustus, elector of Saxony, adopted a more cautious policy and were anxious not to offend the emperor. There were, moreover, troubles of a personal and private nature between these two electors and their families, and these embittercol their religious differences. But these divergences of opinion were not only between Roman Catholic and Lutheran or between Lutheran and Calvinist, they were, in electoral and ducal Saxony at least, between Lutheran and Lutheran. Thus the Protestant cause was weakened just when it needed strengthening, as, on the other side, the Roman Catholics, especially Albert, duke of Bavaria, were eagerly forwarding the progress of the older faith, which towards the end of this reign was restored in the important abbey of Fulda. In secular affairs Maximilian had, just after his accession, to face a renewal of the Turkish war. Although his first diet voted liberal assistance for the defence of the country, and a large and splendid army was collected, he had gained no advantage when the campaign ended. The dict of Spires, which met in 1570, was mainly occupied in discussing measures for preventing the abuses caused by the enlistment by foreigners of German mercenary troops, but nothing was done to redress this grievance, as the estates were unwilling to accept proposals which placed more power in the emperor's hands. Maximilian found time to make earnest but unavailing efforts to mediate between his cousin, Philip II. of Spain, and the revolted Nctherlands, and also to interfere in thc affairs of Poland, where a faction elected him as thcir king. He was still dealing with this matter and hoping to gain support for it from the dict of Regensburg when he died (October 1576). Maximilian's successor was his son, Rudolph II., who had been chosen king of the Romans in October 1575, and who in his later years showed marked traces of insanity. The new cmperor had little of his father's tolerant spirit, i. and under his feeble and erratic rule religious and political considerations alike tended to increase the disorder in Germany. The death of the Calvinist leader, the elector palatine Frederick III., in October 1576 and the accession of his son Louis, a prince who held Lutheran opinions, obviously afforded a favourable opportunity for making another attempt to unite the Protestants. Under the guidance of Augustus of Saxony a Lutheran confession of faith, the Formula concordiae, was drawn up; but, although this was accepted by 51 princes and 35 towns, others—like the landgraves of Hesse and the cities of Madgeburg and Strassburg—refused to sign it, and thus it served only to emphasize the divisions among the Protestants. Moreover, the friendship between the Saxon and the Palatine houses was soon destroyed; for, when the elector Louis died in 1583, he was succeeded by a minor, his son Frederick IV., who was under the guardianship of his uncle John Casimir