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mainly agricultural, and in parts purely feudal, was changed into In addition to the political strife and anxiety due to this one of vast industries and of great concentrations of population; fundamental cleavage within the nation, Germany was troubled and for the ferment created by this change there was no such during the first decade of the 20th century by friction safety-valve in the representative system as had existed in England and jealousies arising out of the federal constitution

add the since the Reform Bill. In spite of the election of the Reichstag by of the Empire and the preponderant place in it of

Empire. manhood suffrage, there existed, as Count Bülow pointed out in Prussia. In the work of pressing on the national and 1904, no real parliamentary system in Germany, and “owing to international expansion of Germany the interests and views of the economic, political, social and religious structure of the the lesser constituent states of the Empire were apt to be overnation" there could never be one. Of the numerous groups looked or overridden; and in the southern states there was composing the German parliament no one ever secured a majority, considerable resentment at the unitarian tendency of the north, and in the absence of such a majority the imperial government, which seemed to aim at imposing the Prussian model on the whole practically independent of parliament, knew how to secure its nation. This resentment was especially conspicuous in Bavaria, assent to its measures by à process of bargaining with each which clings more tenaciously than the other states to its separate group in turn. This system had curious and very far-reaching traditions. When, on the ist of April 1902, a new stamp, with the results. The only group which stood outside it, in avowed superscription “ Deutsches Reich," was issued for the Empire, hostility to the whole principle on which the constitution was including Württemberg, Bavaria refused to accept it, retaining based, was that of the Social Democrats, " the only great party the stamp with the Bavarian lion, thus emphasizing her deterin Germany which," so the veteran Mommsen declared in 1901, mination to retain her separate postal establishment. On the " has any claim to political respect.” The consequence was the 23rd of October 1903 Baron Podevils, the new premier, addressing rapid extension and widening of the chasm that divided the the Bavarian diet, declared that his government “ would combat German people. The mass of the working-class population in with all its strength” any tendency to assure the future of the the Protestant parts of Germany belonged to the Social Empire on any lines other than the federative basis laid down Democracy, an inclusive term covering variations of opinion in the imperial constitution. from the doctrinaire system of Marx to a degree of Radicalism This protest was the direct outcome of an instance of the which in England would not be considered a bar to a peerage. tendency of the emperor to interfere in the affairs of the various To make head against this, openly denounced by the emperor governments of the Empire. In 1902 the Clerical himself as a treasonable movement, the government was from majority in the Bavarian diet had refused to vote time to time forced to make concessions to the various groups £20,000 asked by the government for art purposes, veation which placed their sectional interests in the forefront of their whereupon the emperor had telegraphed expressing programmes. To conciliate the Catholic Centre party, numeri- his indignation and offering to give the money himself, -ally the strongest of all, various concessions were from time to an offer that was politely declined. Another instance of the ime made to the Roman Catholic Church, e.g. the repeal in 1904 emperor's interference, constitutionally of more importance as of the clause of the Anti-Jesuit Law forbidding the settlement directly affecting the rights of the German sovereigns, was in of individual members of the order in Germany. The Conserva- the question of the succession to the principality of Lippe (see tive Agrarians were conciliated by a series of tariff acts placing LIPPE). The impulsive character of the emperor, which led him, heavy duties on the importation of agricultural produce and with the best intentions and often with excellent effect, to exempting from duty agricultural implements.

interfere everywhere and in everything and to utter opinions The first of these tariffs, which in order to overcome Socialist often highly inconvenient to his ministers, was the subject of an obstruction was passed en bloc on December 13-14, 1902, led interpellation in the Reichstag on the 20th of January 1903

to an alarming alteration in the balance of parties by the Socialist Herr von Vollmar, himself a Bavarian. Count

in the new Reichstag of 1903, the Socialists—who Bülow, in answer to his criticisms, declared that “the German Demo

had previously numbered 58-winning 81 seats, a gain people desired, not a shadow, but an emperor of flesh and cracy.

of 23. Of the other groups only one, and that hostile blood.” None the less, the continued "indiscretions” of the to the government-the Poles-had gained a seat. This startling emperor so incensed public opinion that, five years later, the victory of the Social Democracy, though to a certain extent chancellor himself was forced to side with it in obtaining from discounted by the dissensions between the two wings of the the emperor an undertaking to submit all his public utterances party which were revealed at the congress at Dresden in the same previously to his ministers for approval (see WILLIAM II., year, was in the highest degree disconcerting to the government; German emperor). but in the actual manipulation of the Reichstag it facilitated Meanwhile, the attempt to complete the Germanization of the the work of the chancellor by enabling him to unite the other frontier provinces of the Empire by conciliation or repression congroups more readily against the common enemy. The most tinued. In this respect progress was made especially The 20g. striking effect of the development of this antagonism was the in Alsace-Lorraine, In May 1902, in return for the German gradual disappearance as a factor in politics of the Liberals, money granted by the Reichsländer for the restoration the chief builders of the Empire. Their part henceforth was of the imperial castle of Hohekönigsburg in the Vosges, to vote blindly with the Conservative groups, in a common fear the emperor promised to abolish the Diklaturparagraphen; the of the Social Democracy, or to indulge in protests, futile because proposal was accepted by the Reichstag, and the exceptional backed by no power inside or outside the parliament; their laws relating to Alsace-Lorraine were repealed. Less happy impotence was equally revealed when in December 1902 they were the efforts of the Prussian government at the Germanizavoted with the Agrarians for the tariff, and in May 1909 when tion of Prussian Poland and Schleswig. In the former, in spite they withdrew in dudgeon from the new tariff committee, and of, or perhaps because of the attempt to crush the Polish language allowed the reactionary elements a free hand. The political and spirit, the Polish element continuously increased, reinforced struggle of the future lay between the Conservative and Clerical by immigrants from across the frontier; in the latter the Danish elements in the state, alike powerful forces, and the organized language more than held its own, for similar reasons, but the power of the Social Democracy. In the elections of 1907, indeed, treaty signed on the urth of January 1907 between Prussia and the Social Democratic party, owing to the unparalleled exertion Denmark, as to the status of the Danish " optants" in the duchies, of the government, had a set-back, its representation in parlia- removed the worst grievance from which the province was suffer. ment sinking to 43; but at the International Socialist Congress, ing (see SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN QUESTION). which met at Stuttgart on the 18th of August, Herr Bebel was Of more serious import were the yearly and increasing deficits able to point out that, in spite of its defeat at the polls, the in the imperial budget, and the consequent enormous growth of Socialist cause had actually gained strength in the country, the debt. This was partly due to the commercial and industrial their total poll baving increased from 3,010,771 in 1903 to depression of the early years of the century, partly was another 3,250,000.

outcome of the federal constitution, which made it difficult to

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Bülow.

adjust the budget to the growing needs of the Empire without those of the monastery itself. ' The Saxon Widukind, for instance, disarranging the finances of its constitutent states. The crisis gives more space to the tale of the martyrdom of St Vitus than Resigna. became acute when the estimates for the year 1909 he does to several of the important campaigns of Henry the

showed that some £25,000,000 would have to be raised Fowler. Lastly, the annalist is a partisan. One is conPalace vos by additional taxes, largely to meet the cost of the ex- cerned to glorify at all costs the Carolingian house; another

panded naval programme. The budget presented to sacrifices almost everything to attack the emperor Henry IV. the Reichstag by Prince Bülow, which laid new burdens upon the and to defend the Papacy; while a third holds a brief for landed and capitalist classes, was fiercely opposed bythe Agrarians, some king or emperor, like Louis the Pious or Otto the and led to the break-up of the Liberal-Conservative bloc on whose Great. support the chancellor had relicd since the elections of 1906. Two difficulties are met with in giving an account of the The budget was torn to pieces in the committee selected to report sources of German history. In the 7th, 8th and 9th centuries on it; the Liberal members, after a vain protest, seceded; and it is hard, if not impossible, to disentangle the history of Germany the Conservative majority had a free hand io amend it in accord from that of the rest of the Frankish empire of which it formed ance with their views. In the long and acrimonious debates that part; in fact it is not until the time of the dissensions between followed in the Reichstag itself the strange spectacle was pre- the sons of the emperor Louis I. that there are any signs of sented of the chancellor fighting a coalition of the Conservatives demarcation between the East and the West Franks, or, in other and the Catholic Centre with the aid of the Socialists and Liberals. words, any separate history of Germany. The second difficulty The contest was from the first hopeless, and, but for the personal arises later and is due to the connexion of Germany with the request of the emperor that he would pilot the Finance Bill Empire. Germany was always the great pillar of the imperial through the House in some shape or other, Prince Bülow power; for several centuries it was the Empire in everything would have resigned early in the year. So soon as the budget but in name, and yet its political history is often overshadowed was passed he once more tendered his resignation, and on the by the glamour of events in Italy. While the chroniclers were 14th of July a special edition of the Imperial Gazelte announced recording the deeds of Frederick I. and of Frederick II. in the that it had been accepted by the emperor. The post of imperial | peninsula, the domestic history of Germany remained to a large chancellor was at the same time conferred on Theobald von extent unwritten. Bethmann-Hollweg, the imperial secretary of state for the Among the early German chroniclers the Saxon Widukind, the interior.

(W. A. P.) author of the Res gestae Saxonicae, is worthy of mention. He was Bibliography of German History.-Although the authorities a monk of Corvey, and his work is the best authority for the early for the history of Germany may be said to begin with Caesar, it history of Saxony. Lambert, a monk of Hersfeld, and Widuis Tacitus who is especially useful, his Germania being an in-kind's countryman, Bruno, in his De bello Saxonico, tell the story valuable mine of information about the early inhabitants of the of the great contest between the emperor Henry IV. and Pope country. In the dark and disordered centuries which followed Gregory VII., with special reference to the Saxon part of the there are only a few scanty notices of the Germans, mainly in struggle. But perhaps the ablest and the most serviceable of the works of foreign writers like Gregory of Tours and Jordanes; these early writers is Otto of Freising, a member of the Babenand then the 8th and 9th centuries, the time of the revival of berg family. Otto was also related to the great house of Hohenlearning which is associated with the name of Charlemagne, is staufen, a relationship which gave him access to sources of reached. By the end of this period Christianity had been firmly information usually withheld from the ordinary monastic annalist, established among most of the German tribes; the monks were and his work is very valuable for the carlier part of the career the trustees of the new learning, and we must look mainly, of Frederick I. Something is learned, too, from biographies although not exclusively, to the monasteries for our authorities. written by the monks, of which Einhard's Vila Karoli Magni The work of the monks generally took the form of Annales or is the greatest and the best, and Wipo's life of the emperor Chronica, and among the numerous German monasteries which Conrad II. is valuable, while another Carolingian courtier, are famous in this connexion may be mentioned Fulda, Reichenau, Nithard, has a special interest as, almost alone among these St Gall and Lorsch. For contemporary history and also for the early chroniclers, being a soldier and not a monk. century or so which preceded the lifetimes of their authors these The monastic writers remain our chief authorities until the writings are fairly trustworthy, but beyond this they are little great change brought about by the invention of printing, although more than collections of legends. There are also a large number a certain amount of work was done by clerical writers attached of lives of saints and churchmen, in which the legendary clement to the courts of various rulers. Parallel with this event the is still more conspicuous.

revival of learning was producing a great number of men who could With regard to the Annales and Chronica three important write, and, more important still, of men who were throwing off considerations must be mentioned. They are local, they are the monastic habits of thought and passing into a new intellectual monastic, and they are partisan. The writer in the Saxon abbey atmosphere. The Renaissance was followed by the fierce conof Corvey, or in the Franconian abbey of Fulda, knows only about troversies aroused by the Reformation, and the result was the events which happened near his own doors; he records, it is true, output of an enormous mass of writings covering every, phase occurrences which rumour has brought to his ears, but in general of the mighty combat and possessing every literary virtue save he is trust worthy only for the history of his own neighbourhood, that of impartiality. But apart from these polemical writings, The Saxon and the Franconian annalists know nothing of the many of which had only an ephemeral value, the Renaissance distant Bavarians; there is even a gulf between the Bavarian was ihe source of another stream of historical literature. Several and the Swabian. Then the Annals are monastic. To their princes and other leading personages, foremost among whom writers the affairs of the great world are of less importance than was the emperor Maximilian I., bad spent a good deal of time

He was born on November 29, 1856, the son of a wealthy and money in collecting the manuscripts of the medieval Rhenish landowner, and grandson of Moritz August von Bethmann chroniclers, and these now began to be printed. The chronicle Hollweg (1795–1877), professor of law at Bonn, ennobled in 1840, of Otto of Freising, which appeared in 1515, and the Vila of and from 1858 to 1862 minister of education and religion at Berlin Einhard, which appeared six years later, are only two among Herr. von Bethmann-Hollweg studied law at Strassburg, Leipzig and the many printed at this time. The publication of collections Berlin, entered the Prussian civil service in 1882, and, passing of chronicles began in 1529, and the uncritical fashion in which career, became governor (Oberpräsident) of the province of Branden- these were reproduced made forgeries easy and frequent. There burg in 1899. In 1905 he became Prussian minister of the interior. was, indeed, more than a zeal for pure learning behind this new Two years later he succceded Count Posadowskyas imperial secretary movement; for both parties in the great religious controversy of state for the interior and representative of the imperial chancellor of the time used these records of the past as a storehouse of Prussian ministers, an office and title which had been in abeyance weapons of offence. The Protestants eagerly sought out the for some years and were now again suppressed.

writings which exposed and denounced the arrogance of the

popes, while the Romanists attempted to counter them with Germans were the pioneers, and in it they are still pre-eminent, the numerous lives of the saints.

with Ranke as their most famous name and the Monumenta But before the raw material of history thus began to increase Germanice historica as their greatest production. The Monuenormously in bulk, it had already begun to change its character menta is a critical and ordered collection of documents relating and to assume its modern form. The Chronicle still survived as to the history of Germany between soo and 1500. It owes its a medium of conveying information, though more often than not origin mainly to the efforts of the statesman Stein, who was this was now written by a layman; but new stores of information responsible for the foundation of the Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche were coming into existence, or rather the old stores were expanding Geschichtskunde, under the auspices of which the work was begun. and taking a different form. Very roughly these may be divided The Gesellschaft was established in 18r9, and, the editorial work into six sections. (1) Official documents issued by the emperors having been entrusted to G. H. Pertz, the first volume of and other German rulers. (2) Treaties concluded between the Monumenta was published in 1826. The work was divided Germany and other powers and also between one German state into five sections: Scriptores, Leges, Diplomata, Epistolae and and another. (3) Despatches sent to England, Spain and other Antiquitates, but it was many years before anything was done countries by their representatives in various parts of Germany. with regard to the two last-named sections. In the three (4) Controversial writings or treatises written to attack or desend remaining ones, however, folio volumes were published regularly, a given position, largely the product of the Reformation period. and by 1909 thirty folio volumes of Scriptores, five of Leges (5) The correspondence of eminent and observant persons. (6) and one of Diplomata imperii had appeared. But meanwhile An enormous mass of personal impressions taking the form of a change of organization had taken place. When Pertz resigned Commentaries, Memoirs and Diaries (Tagebücher). Moreover, his editorial position in 1874 and the Gesellschaft was dissolved, important personages still find eulogistic biographers and twenty-four folio volumes had been published. The Prussian defenders, e.g. the fanciful writings about the emperor Maxi- Academy of Sciences now made itself responsible for the continumilian I. or Pufendorf's De rebus gestis Friderici Wilhelmi Magni ance of the work, and a board of direction was appointed, the electoris Brandenburgici.

presidents of which were successively G. Waitz, W. Wattenbach, Through the dust aroused by the great Reformation controversy E. Dümmler and 0. Holder-Egger. Soon afterwards as money appear the dim beginnings of the scientific spirit in the writing became more plentiful the scope of work was extended; the of history, and in this connexion the name of Aventinus, “the production of the folio volumes continued, but the five sections Bavarian Herodotus,” may be mentioned. But for many years were subdivided and in each of these a series of quarto volumes hardly any progress was made in this direction. Even if they was issued. The titles of these new sections give a sufficient possessed i he requisite qualifications the historiographers attached idea of their contents. The Scriplores are divided into Auctores to the courts of the emperor Charles V. and of lesser potentates antiquissimi, Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum, Scriplores rerum could not afford to be impartial. Thus new histories were written Langobardicarum et Italicarum, Libelli de hile imperatorum et and old ones unearthed, collected and printed, but no attempt pontificum, Gesta pontificum Romanorum and Deutsche Chroniken, was made to criticize and collate the manuscripts of the past, or Scri plores qui vernacula lingua usi sunt. The Leges are divided or to present two sides of a question in the writings of the present. into Leges nationum Germanicarum, Capitularia regum Francorum, Among the collections of authorities made during ibe zóth and Concilia, Constitutiones imperalorum el regum and Formulae. 17th centuries those of J. Pistorius (Frankfort, 1583-1607), Three quarto volumes of Diplomala regum el imperatorum of E. Lindenbrog (Frankfort, 1609) and of M. Freher (Frankfort, Germaniae and one of Diplomala Karolingorum had been pub1600-1611), may be noticed, although these were only put lished by 1909. Work was also begun upon the Antiquilales together and printed in the most haphazard and unconnected and the Epistolae. The sections of the former are Poëlae Latini fashion. Passing thus through these two centuries we reach the medii aevi, Libri confraternitatum and Necrologia Germaniae, beginning of the 18th century and the work done for German and of the latter Epistolae saeculi XIII. and Epistolae Meros historical scholarship by the philosopher Leibnitz, who sought vingici el Karolini devi. Meanwhile the publication of the to do for his own country what Muratori was doing for Italy. Scriptores proper continues, although the thirty-first and subFor some years it had been recognized that the collection and sequent volumes are in quarto and not in folio, and the number of arrangement of the authorities for German history was too great volumes in the whole undertaking is continually being increased. an undertaking for any one man, and societies under very The archives of the Gesellschaft have been published in twelve influential patronage were founded for this purpose. But very volumes, and a large number of volumes of the Neues Archis slight results attended these elaborate schemes, although their have appeared. Some of the MSS. have been printed in facsimile, failure did not deter Leibnitz from pursuing the same end. and an index to the Monumenta, edited by 0. Holder-Egger and The two chief collections which were issued by the philosopher K. Zeumer, appeared in 1890. The writings of the more im: are the Accessiones historicae (1698-1700) and the Scriplores portant chroniclers have been published separately, and many rerum Brunsvicensium; the latter of these, containing docu- of them have been translated into German. ments centring round the history of the Welf family, was pub It will thus be seen that the ground covered by the Monumenta lished in three volumes at Hanover (1707-1711). Leibnitz is enormous. The volumes of the Scriplores contain not only the worked at another collection, the Origines Guelficae, which was domestic chroniclers, but also selections from the work of foreign completed and issued by his pupils (Hanover, 1750-1780), and writers who give information about the history of Germany-for also at Annales imperii occidentis Brunsvicenses, which, although example, the Englishman Matthew Paris. In the main these the most valuable collection of the kind yet made, was not pub- writings are arranged in chronological order. Each has been lished until edited by G. H. Pertz (Hanover, 1843-1846). Other edited by an expert, and the various introductions give evidence collections followed those of Leibnitz, among which may be of the number of MSS. collated and the great pains taken 10 mentioned the Corpus historicum medii aevi of J. G. Eccard ensure textual accuracy on the part of the different editors, (Leipzig, 1723) and the Scriptores rerum Germanicarum of J. B. among whom may be mentioned Mommsen aud Lappenberg, Mencke (Leipzig, 1928). But these collections are merely Other great names in German historical scholarship have also heaps of historical material, good and bad; the documents assisted in this work. In addition to Waitz the Leges section has therein were not examined and they are now quite superseded. enjoyed the services of F. Blubme and of H. Brunner, and the They give, however, evidence of the great industry of their Diplomata section of T. Sickel, H. Bresslau and E. Mühlbacher, authors, and are the foundations upon which modern German The progress of the Monumenta stimulated the production of scholarship has built.

Olher works of a like nature, and among the smaller collections In the 19th century the scientific spirit received a great of authorities which appeared during the 19th century two are impetus from the German system of education, one feature of worthy of mention. These are the Fontes rerum Germanicarum, which was that the universities began to require original work edited by J. F. Böhmer (Stuttgart, 1843-1868), a collection of for some of their degrees. In this field of scientific research the sources of the 12th, 13th and 14th centuries, and the Bibliotheca

rerum Germanicarum, edited by Ph. Jaffé (Berlin, 1864-1873). I (Leipzig, 1871-1872); K. Biedermann, Deutschland im 18. Johr. Another development followed the production of the Monumento, 1 des Grossen Berlin, 1880-1882); A. von Arneth, Geschichte

Maria this being the establishment in most of the German states of Theresias (Vienna, 1863-1879); L. Häusser, Deulsche Geschichte societies the object of which was to foster the study of local vom Tode Friedrichs des Grossen bis zur Gründung des Deutschen history. Reference may be made to a Vercin for this purpose in Bundes (Berlin, 1861-1863), and K.T. von Heigel, Deutsche Geschichte Saxony and to others in Silesia and in Mecklenburg. Much has vom Tode Friedrichs des Grossen bis zur Auflösung des allen Reichs

(Stuttgart, 1899, fol.). also been done in Prussia, in Brandenburg, in Bavaria, in Hanover,

For the 19th century we may mention: H. von Treitschke, in Württemberg and in Baden, and collections of authorities Deutsche Geschichte im 19. Jahrhundert (Leipzig, 1879-1894); H. von have been made by competent scholars, of which the Geschichts- Sybel, Die Begründung des deutschen Reiches durch Wilhelm 1. quellen der Provinz Sachsen und angrenzender Gebiete (Halle, lands im 19. Jahrhundert (Berlin, 1900), and H. von Zwiedeneck1870, fol.), which extends to forty volumes, the smaller Scriplores Südenhorst, Deutsche Geschichte von der Auflösung des alten bis zur rerum Prussicarum (Leipzig, 1861-1874), and the seventy-seven Gründung des neuen Reiches (Stuttgart, 1897-1905). These are volumes of the Publikationen aus den königlichen preussischen perhaps the most important, but there are many others of which the Slaalsarchiven, veranlasst und unterstützt durch die königliche following is a selection: K. Fischer, Die Nation und der Bundestag Archivverwaltung (Leipzig, 1878, fol.), may be cited as examples. bestrebungen bis zu ihrer Erfüllung (Berlin, 1872-1873); H. Blum,

(Leipzig, 1880); K. Klüpfel, Geschichte der deulschen EinheitsThe cities have followed the same path and their archives are Die deutsche Revolution 1848-1849 (Florence, 1897) and Das deutsche being thoroughly examined. In 1836 an Urkundenbuch of Frank Reich zur Zeit Bismarcks. (Leipzig, 1893): W. Maurenbrecher, fort was published, and this example has been widely followed, Kampf um die Vorherrschaft in Deutschland 1859-1866 (Stuttgart,

Gründung des deutschen Reiches (Leipzig, 1892); H. Friedjung. Der the work done in Cologne, in Bremen and in Mainz being perhaps 18973: C. von Kaltenborn, Geschichte der deutschen Bundesverhält specially noticeable. Moreover an historical commission at

nisse und Einheitsbestrebungen von 1806-1856 (Berlin, 1857); J. Munich has published twenty-eight volumes in the series Dic Jastrow, Geschichte des deutschen Einheilstraumes und seiner Erfüllung Chroniken der deutschen Städie vom 14. bis ins 16. Jahrhundert (Berlin, 1885), and P. Klöppel, Dreissig Jahre deutscher Verfassungs

geschichte (Leipzig, 1900). (Leipzig, 1862, fol.). Lastly, many documents relating to the

For the most recent developments of German politics see H. great families of Germany, among them those of Hohenzollern Schulthess, Europäischer Geschichtskalender (Nördlingen, 1861, fol., and of Wittelsbach, have been carefully edited and given to the a work similar to the English Annual Register); W. Müller and world.

K. Wippermann, Politische Geschichte der Gegenwart (Berlin, 1868, With this great mass of material collected, sisted and edited fol.); the Statistisches Jahrbuch des deutschen Reichs, and A. L.

Lowell, Governments and Parties in Continental Europe (1896). by scholars of the highest standing it is not surprising that A good general history of Germany is the Bibliothek deutscher modern works on the history of Germany are stupendous in Geschichte, edited by H. von Zwiedeneck-Südenhorst (Stuttgart, number and are generally of profound learning, and this in 1876, fol.). Other general histories,

although on a smaller scale, are spite of the fact that some German historians--Gregorovius, Deutsche Geschichte (Dresden, 1889); K. Biedermann, Deutsche

K. Lamprecht, Deutsche Geschichte (Berlin, 1891-1896);0. Kämmel, Pauli and Lappenberg, for example—have devoted their time to Volks- und Kulturgeschichte (Wiesbaden, 1885); T. Lindner, Geresearches into the history of foreign lands.

schichte des deulschen Volks (Stuttgart, 1894); the Handbuch der

deutschen Geschichte, edited by B. Gebhardt (Stuttgart, 1901), and The carliest period is dealt with by K. Zeuss in Die Deutschen und K. W. Nitzsch, Geschichte des deutschen Volkes bis zum Augsburger die Nachbarstämme (Munich, 1837; new ed., Göttingen, 1904); and Religionsfrieden (Leipzig, 1883-1885). then by F. Dabn in his Urgeschichte der germanischen und rome Special reference is deservedly made to three works of the highest nischen Völker (Berlin, 1880-1889) and his Die Könige der Germanen, value. These are J. G. Droysen's great Geschichte der preussischen volumes of which have appeared at intervals between 1861 and 1909. Politik (Berlin, 1855-1886); the Deutsche Reichstagsakien, the first

The Carolingian time is covered by E. Dümmler's Geschichte series of which was published at Munich (1867, fol.) and the second des ostfränkischen Reichs. (Leipzig 1887-1888), and then follow at Gotha (1893-1901); and the collection known as the Regesta Ranke's Jahrbücher des deutschen Reichs unter dem sächsischen imperii, which owes its existence to the tabours of J. F. Böhmer. Hause (Berlin, 1837-1840), W. von Giesebrecht's Geschichte der Nearly the whole of the period between 751 and 1347 is covered by deutschen Kaiserzeit (1855–1888), and F. Raumer's Geschichte der these volumes; the charters and other documents of some of the Hohenstaufen.

German kings being edited by Böhmer himself, and new and enlarged For the reigns of Lothait the Saxon and Conrad III. P. Jaffé's editions of certain sections have been brought out by J. Ficker, books, Geschichte des deutschen Reiches unter Lothar den Sachsen E. Winkelmann and others. Much useful information on the (Berlin, 1843) and Geschichte des deutschen Reiches unter Conrad III. history of different periods is contained in the lives of individual (Hanover, 1845), may be consulted.

emperors and others. Among thschirmacher, Kaiser Friedrich II

. The chief histories on the period between the fall of the Hohen. (Danzig, 1871-1874); F. staufen and the Renaissance are: T. Lindner, Deutsche Geschichte (Göttingen, 1859-1865); H. Ulmann, Kaiser Maximilian 1. (Stutt. unter den Habsburgern und Luxemburgern (Stuttgart, 1888–1893): gart, 1884–1891); F. von Hurter, Geschichte Kaiser Ferdinands 11. 0. Lorenz, Deutsche Geschichte im 13, und 14. Jahrhundert (Vienna, (Schaffhausen, 1857-1864), and H. Blum, Fürst Bismarck und seine 1863-1867); J. Aschbach, Geschichte Kaiser Sigmunds (Hamburg, Zeit (Munich, 1895). There is also the great series of volumes, 1838-1845): K. Fischer, Deutsches Leben und deutsche Zustände primary and supplementary; forming the Allgemcine deutsche von der Hohenstaufenzeit bis ins Reformationszeitalter (Gotha, 1884); | Biographie (Leipzig, 1875, fol.), in which the word deutsche is inter V. von Kraus, Deutsche Geschichte im Ausgange des Mittelalters preted in the widest possible sense. (Stuttgart, 1888-1905), and A. Bachmann, Deutsche Reichsgeschichte Apart from political histories there are useful collections of laws im Zeitalter Friedrichs III. und Maximilians I. (Leipzig, 1884-1894). and other official documents of importance, and also a large number

The two grcatest works on the Reformation period are L. von of valuable works on the laws and constitutions of the Germans Ranke's Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Reformation (Leipzig, and on German institutions generally. Among the collections are 1882) and J. Janssen's Geschichte des deutschen Volkes seit dem M. Goldast, Collectio constitutionum imperialium (1613; new and Ausgang des Mittelalters (1897-1903); Other works which may be enlarged edition, 1673): the Capitulationes imperatorum el regum mentioned are: F. B. von Bucholtz, Geschichte der Regierung Romano-Germanorum (Strassburg, 1851) of Johann Limnäus, and Ferdinands I. (Vienna, 1831-1838); C. Egelhaaf, Deutsche Geschichte the Corpus juris Germanici anliqui Berlin, 1824) of F. Walter. im Zeitalter der Reformation (Berlin, 1893), and F. von Bezold, Collections dealing with more recent history are J. C. Glaser's Archio Geschichte der deutschen Reformation (Berlin, 1890).

des norddeutschen Bundes. Sammlung aller Gesetze, Verträge und For the years after the Reformation we have Ranke, Zur deutschen Aktenslücke, die Verhällnisse des norddeutschen Bundes betreffend Geschichte vom Religionsfrieden bis zum 30jährigen Kriege (Leipzig, (Berlin, 1867); W. Jungermann's Archiv des deulschen Reiches 1888); M. Ritter, Deutsche Geschichte im Zeitalter der Gegenrefor-1 (Berlin, 1873,fol.), and the Acta Borussica. Denkmäler der preussischen mation und des dreissigjährigen Krieges (Stuttgart, 1887, fol.); G. Staatsverwaltung im 18. Jahrhunderi (Berlin, 1892, fol.). Mention may Droysen, Geschichte der Gegenreformalion Berlin, 1893): A. Gindely, also be made of C. C. Homeyer's edition of the Sachsenspiegel and Rudolf II, und seine Zeit (Prague, 1863-1868) and Geschichte des L. A. von Lassberg's edition of the Schwabenspiegel; the many dreissigjährigen Krieges (Prague, 1869-1880). Gindely's book is, of volumes of Wallenstein's letters and papers; the eighteen volumes course, only one among an enormous number of works on the Thirty of the Urkunden und Aktenstücke zur Geschichte des Kurfürsten Years' War.

Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg (Berlin, 1864, fol.); and the thirty For the period leading up to the time of Frederick the Great we volumes of the Politische Korrespondens Friedrichs des Grossen have B. Erdmannsdörffer, Deutsche Geschichte vom Westfälischen (Berlin, 1879–1905). Modern writers on these subjects distinguished Frieden bis zum Regierungsantritt Friedrichs des Groşsen (Berlin, for their learning are G. Waitz (Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, Kiel 1892–1893); and then follow Ranke, Zur Geschichte von Österreich und and Berlin, 1844. fol.)

and G. L. von Maurer (Geschichte der Städte Preussen zwischen den Friedensschlüssen von Aachen und Hubertus verfassung in Deutschland, Erlangen, 1869-1871, and other cognate burg (Leipzig, 1875) and Die deutschen Mächte und der Fürstenbund I writings), their works being valuable not only for the early institutions

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