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On the other side, the last divisions of Hill's and Ewell's corps That no decisive success had been obtained by Lee was clear formed up opposite the new Federal position, and Longstreet's to all, but Ewell's men on Culp's Hill, and Longstreet's corps corps prepared to attack its left.
below Round Top, threatened to turn both flanks of the Federal Owing, however, to misunderstandings between Lee and position, which was no longer a compact horschoe but had been Longstreet (9.0.), the Confederates did not attack carly on the considerably prolonged to the left; and many of the units in the morning of the 2nd, so that Meade's army had plenty of time to Federal army had been severely handled in the two days' fighting. make its dispositions. The Federal line at this time occupied Meade, however, after discussing the eventuality of a retreat the horse-shoe ridge, the right of which was formed by Culp's with his corps commanders, made up his mind to hold his ground. Hill, and the centre by the Cemetery hill, whence the left wing Lee now decided to alter his tactics. The broken ground near stretched southward, the III. corps on the left, however, being Round Top offered so many obstacles that he decided not to press thrown forward considerably. The XII. hcld Culp's, the remnant Longstrect's attack further. Ewell was to resume his attack of the I. and XI. the Cemetery hills. On the left was the II., on Meade's extreme right, while the decisive blow was to be given and in its advanced position the famous “ Salient”-the III., in the centre (between Cemetery Hill and Trostle's) by an assault soon to be supported by the V.; the VI., with the reserve artillery, delivered in the Napolconic manner by the fresh troops of Pickett's formed the general reserve. It was late in the day when the division (Longstreet's corps). Meade, however, was not disConfederate attack was made, and valuable time had been lost, posed to resign Culp's Hill, and with it the command of the but Longstreet's troops advanced with great spirit. The III. Federal line of retreat, to Ewell, and at early dawn on the 3rd
a division of the XII. corps, well supported by artillery, opened the Federal counter-attack; the Confederates made a strenuous resistance, but after four hours' hard fighting the other division of the XII. corps, and a brigade of the VI., intervened with decisive effect, and the Confederates were driven off the hill. The defeat of Ewell did not, however, cause Lee to alter his plans. Pickett's division was to lead in the great assault, supported by part of Hill's corps (the latter, however, had already been
engaged). Colonel E. P. Alexander, Longstreet's chief of arGettysburg
tillery, formed up one long line of seventy-five guns, and sixty. five guns of Hill's corps came into action on his left. To the converging fire of these 140 guns the Federals, cramped for space, could only oppose seventy-seven. The attacking troops formed up before 9 A.M., yet it was long before Longstreet could bring himself to order the advance, upon which so much depended, and it was not till about 1 P.M. that the guns at last opened fire to prepare the grand attack. The Federal artillery promptly replicd, but after thirty minutes' cannonade its commander, Gen. H. J. Hunt, ordered his batteries to cease fire in order to reserve their
ammunition to meet the infantry attack. Ten minutes later Rogers
Pickett asked and received permission to advance, and the infantry
moved forward to cross the 1800 yds. which separated them from Peach Orchard
the Federal line. Their own artillery was short of ammunition, the projectiles of that day were not sufficiently effective to cover the advance at long ranges, and thus the Confederates, as they
came closer to the enemy, met a tremendous fire of unshaken little Round
infantry and artillery. GETTYSBURG The charge of Pickett's division is one of the most famous
episodes of military history. In the teeth of an appalling fire from the rifles of the defending infantry, who were well sheltered, and from the guns which Hunt had reserved for the crisis, the
Virginian regiments pressed on, and with a final effort broke corps Salient was the scene of desperate fighting; and the Meade's first line. But the strain was too great for the support.
Peach Orchard” and the “ Devil's Den " became as famous ing brigades, and Pickett was left without assistance. Hancock as the “ Bloody Angle " -of Spottsylvania or the Hornets' made a fierce counterstroke, and the remnant of the Confederates Nest” of Shiloh. While the Confederate attack was developing, retreated. Of Pickett's own division over three-quarters, the important positions of Round Top and Little Round Top 3393 officers and men out of 4500, were left on the field, two of his were unoccupied by the defenders--an omission which was three brigadiers were killed and the third wounded, and of fifteen repaired only in the nick of time by the commanding engineer regimental commanders ten were killed and five wounded. One of the army, General G. K. Warren, who hastily called up troops regiment lost 90% of its numbers. The failure of this assault of the V. corps. The attack of a Confederate division was, practically ended the battle; but Lee's line was so formidable after a hard struggle, repulsed, and the Federals retained inat Meade did not in his turn send forward the Army of the possession of the Round Tops. The III. corps in the meantime, Potomac. By the morning of the 5th of July Lee's army was furiously attacked by troops of Hill's and Longstreet's corps, in full retreat for Virginia. He had lost about 30,000 men in was steadily pressed back, and the Confederates actually pene- killed, wounded and missing out of a total force of perhaps trated the main line of the defenders, though for want of support 75,000. Meade's losses were over 23,000 out of about 82,000 on the brigades which achieved this were quickly driven out. Ewell, the field. The main body of the cavalry on both sides was absent on the Confederate left, waited for the sound of Longstreet's from the field, but a determined cavalry action was fought on guns, and thus no attack was made by him until late in the day. the 3rd of July between.the Confederate cavalry under J. E. B. Here Culp's Hill was carried with ease by one of Ewell's divisions, Stuart and that of the Federals under D. McM. Gregg some most of the Federal XII. corps having been withdrawn to aid miles E. of the battlefield, and other Federal cavalry made a in the fight on the other wing; but Early's division was re- dashing charge in the broken ground south-west of Round Top pulsed in its efforts to storm Cemetery Hill, and the two divi- on the third day, inflicting thereby, though at great loss to them. sions of the centre (one of Hill's, one of Ewell's corps) remained selves, a temporary check on the right wing of Longstreet's inactive.gid
GEULINOX, ARNOLD (1634-1669), Belgian philosopher, was same editor's Arnold Geulincs und seine Philosophie (1895), and born at Antwerp on the 31st of January 1624. He studied article (translated) in Mind, xvi. 223 seq.; V. van der Haeghen. philosophy and medicine at the university of Louvain, where
he Geulince Etude sur sa vie, sa philosophie,'et ses ouvrages (Ghent,
1886); E. Grimm, A. Geulincx' Erkenntnisstheorie und Occasionaremained as a lecturer for several years. Having given offence by lismus (1875); E. Pfleiderer. A. G. als Hauptvertreter der okkasiona.. his unorthodox views, he left Louvain, and took refuge in Leiden, listischen Metaphysik und Ethik (1882); G. Samtleben, Geulinex, where he appears to have been in the utmost distress. He entered in Vorgänger. Spinozas (1885): also Falckenberg. Hist of Mod. the Protestant Church, and in 1663, through the influence of his nisme en Belgique (Brussels, 1886); H. Höffding, Hist. of Mod. Philos. friend Abraham Heidanus, who had assisted him in his greatest (Eng. trans., 1900), i. 245. need, he obtained a poorly paid lectureship at the university. He died at Leiden in November 1669. His most important GEUM, in botany, a genus of hardy perennial herbs (natural works were published posthumously. The Metaphysica vera order Rosaceae) containing about thirty species, widely dis(1691), and the rvwbl oeautóv, sive Elhica (under the pseudonym tributed in temperate and arctic regions. The erect flowering "Philaretus," 1675), are the works by which he is chiefly shoots spring from a cluster of radical leaves, which are deeply known. Mention may also be made of Physica vera (1688), cut or lobed, the largest division being at the top of the leaf. Logica restituts (1662) and Annolata ir Principio philosophiae The flowers are borne singly on long stalks at the end of the stem R. Cartesii (1691).
or its branches. They are white, yellow or red in colour, and Geulincx principally deals with the question, left in an obscure shallowly cup-shaped. The fruit consists of a number of dry and unsatisfactory state by Descartes, of the relation between achenes, each of which bears a hook formed from the persistent soul and body. Whereas Descartes made the union between them lower portion of the style, and admirably adapted for ensuring a violent collocation, Geulincx practically called it a miracle. distribution. Two species occur in Britain under the popular Extension and thought, the essences of corporeal and spiritual náme "avens." G. urbonum is a very common hedge-bank natures, are absolutely distinct, and cannot act upon one another. plant with small yellow flowers; G. rivale (water avens) is a rarer External facts are not the causes of mental states, nor are mental plant found by streams, and has larger yellow flowers an inch states the causes of physical facts. So far as the physical universe or more across. The species are easy to cultivate and well adapted is concerned, we are merely spectators; the only action that for borders or the rock-garden. They are propagated by seeds remains for us is contemplation. The influence we seem to exer- or by division. The most popular garden species are G. chiloense cise over bodies by will is only apparent; volition and action and its varieties, G. coccineum and G. montanum. only accompany one another. Since true activity consists in GEVELSBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine knowing what one does and how one does it, I cannot be the Province, 6 m. S.W. from Hagen, on the railway to Düsseldorf. author of any state of which I am unconscious; I am not con- It has two churches, schools and a hospital, and considerable scious of the mechanism by which bodily motion is produced, manufactures of cutlery. Pop. (1905) 15,838 hence I am not the author of bodily motion (“ Quod nescis GEX, a town of eastern France, chief town of an arrondissequomodo fiat, id non facis "). Body and mind are like two clocks ment in the department of Ain, 10 m. N.W. of Geneva and which act together, because both have been set together by God. 3 m. from the Swiss frontier. Pop. (1906) town, 1385; commune, A physical occurrence is but the occasion (opportunity, occasional 2727. The town is beautifully situated 2000 ft. above sea level cause) on which God excites in me a corresponding mental state; | at the base of the most easterly and highest chain of the Jura. the exercise of my will is the occasion on which God moves my It is the seat of a subprefect and has a tribunal of first instance, body. Every operation in which mind and matter are both and carries on considerable trade in wine, cheese and other concerned is an effect of neither, but the direct act of God. provisions, chiefly with Geneva. It gives its name to the old Geulinex was thus the first definitely to systematize the theory Pays de Gex, situated between the Alps and the Jura, which called Occasionalism, which had already been propounded by was at various times under the protection of the Swiss, the Gérauld de Cordemoy (d. 1684), a Parisian lawyer, and Louis Genevese and the counts of Savoy, until in 1601 it came into de la Forge, a physician of Saumur. But the principles on the possession of France, retaining, however, until the Revoluwhich the theory was founded compelled a further advance. tion its old independent jurisdiction, with Gex as its chief town. God, who is the cause of the concomitance of bodily and mental The Pays de Gex is isolated by the Jura from the rest of French facts, is in truth the sole cause in the universe. No fact contains territory, and comes within the circumscription of the Swiss in itself the ground of any other; the existence of the facts is customs, certain restrictions being imposed on its products by due to God, their sequence and coexistence are also due to him. the French customs. He is the ground of all that is. My desires, volitions and GEYSER, GEISER, or GEISIR, a natural spring or fountain thoughts are thus the desires, volitions and thoughts of God. which dischargés into the air, at more or less regular intervals Apart from God, the finite being has no reality, and we only of time, a column of heated water and steam; it may consehave the idea of it from God. Descartes had left untouched, quently be regarded as an intermittent hot spring. The word is or nearly so, the difficult problem of the relation between the the Icelandic geysir, gusher or rager, from the verb geysa, a universal element or thought and the particular desires or in- derivative of gjosa, to gush. In native usage it is the proper clinations. All these are regarded by Geulincx as modes of the name of the Great Geyser, and not an appellative—the general divine thought and action, and accordingly the end of human term hver, a hot spring, making the nearest approach to the endeavour is the end of the divine will or the realization of reason. European sense of the word (see Cleasby and Vigfusson, Icelandic The love of right reason is the supreme virtue, whence flow the English Dictionary, s.v.). cardinal virtues, diligence, obedience, justice and humility. Any hot spring capable of depositing siliceous material by Since it is impossible for us to make any alteration in the world the evaporation of its water may in course of time transform of matter, all we can do is to submit. Chief of the cardinal itself into a geyser, a tube being gradually built up as the level virtues is humility, a confession of our own helplessness and sub- of the basin is raised, much in the same manner as a volcanic mission to God. Geulincx's idea of life is " a resigned optimism.” cone is produced. Every geyser 'continuing to deposit siliceous
Geulincx carried out to their extreme consequences the irre- material is preparing its own destruction; for as soon as the concilable elements in the Cartesian metaphysics, and his works tube becomes deep enough to contain a column of water bave the peculiar value attaching to the vigorous development sufficiently heavy to prevent the lower stratà altaining their of a one-sided principle. The abrupt contradictions to which boiling points, the whole mechanism is deranged. The deposition such development leads of necessity compels revision of the of the sinter is due in part to the cooling and evaporation of the principle itself. He was thus important as the precursor of siliccous waters, and in part to the presence of living algae. In Malebranche and Spinoza.
geyser districts it is easy to find thermal springs busy with the Edition of his philosophical works by J. P. N. Land (1891-1893, construction of the tube; warm pools, or longs, as the Icelanders for which recently discovered MS. was consulted); see also the call them, on the top of siliccous mounds, with the mouth of
the shalt still open in the middle; and dry basins from which at 6.20 metres, 109-3o. On the oth, at 0.35 metres from the the water has receded with their shafts now choked with rubbish. boltom, the reading gave 113.9°; at 4-65 metres, 113.7°; and
Geysers exist at the present time in many volcanic regions, at 8.85 metres, 99.9o. as in the Malay Archipelago, Japan and South America; but The great geyser-district of New Zealand is situated in the the three localities where they attain their highest development soutb of the province of Auckland in or near the upper basin are Iceland, New Zealand and the Yellowstone Park, U.S.A. of the Waikato river, to the N.E. of Lake Taupo. The scene The very name by which we call them indicates the bistorical presented in various parts of the districts is far more striking priority of the Iceland group.
and beautiful than anything of the same kind to be found in The Iceland geysers, mentioned by Saxo Grammaticus, are Iceland, but this is due not so situated about 30 m. N.W. of Hecla, in a broad valley at the foot much to the grandeur of the of a range of hills from 300 to 400 ft. in height. Within a circuit geysers proper as to the bewilderof about 2 m., upwards of one hundred hot springs may be ing profusion of boiling springs, counted, varying greatly both in character and dimensions. steam-jets and mud-volcanoes, The Great Geyser in its calm periods appears as a circular pool and to the fantastic effects proabout 60 ft. in diameter and 4 ft. in depth, occupying a basin on, duced on the rocks by the siliceous the summit of a mound of siliceous concretion; and in the centre deposits and by the action of the of the basin is a shaft, about 10 st. in diameter and 7o ft. in depth, boiling water. In about 1880 the me lined with the same siliceous material. The clear sea-green geysers were no longer active, and
FIG. I. water flows over the eastern rim of the basin in little runnels. this condition prevailed until the On the surface it has a temperature of from 76° to 89° C., or from Tarawera eruption of 1886, when seven gigantic geysers came 168° to 188° F. Within the shaft there is of course a continual | into existence; water, steam, mud and stones were discharged shifting both of the average temperature of the column and of to a height of 600 to 800 ft. for a period of about four hours, the relative temperatures of the several strata. The results of when quieter conditions set in Waikite near Lake Rotorua the observations of Bunsen and A. L. O. Descloizeaux in 1847 were throws the column to a height of 30 or 35 ft. as follows (cf. Pogg. Ann., vol. 72 and Comples rendus, vol. 19): In the Yellowstone National Park, in the north-west corner of About three hours after a great eruption on July 6, the tem- Wyoming, the various phenomena of the geysers can be observed perature 6 metres from the bottom of the shaft was 121.6° C.; on the most portentous scale. The geysers proper are about one at 9.50 metres, 121•1°; at 16.30 metres, 109° (?); and at 19.70 hundred in number; the non-eruptive hot springs are much metres, 95° (?). About nine hours after a great eruption on more numerous, there being more than 3000. The dimensions July 6, at about 0.3 metres from the bottom, it was 123°; and activity of several of the geysers render those of Iceland and at 4.8 metres it was 122.7°; at 9.6 metres, 113°; at 14.4 metres, New Zealand almost insignificant in comparison. The principal 85.8°; at 19.2 metres, 82.6“. On the 7th, there having been no groups are situated along the course of that tributary of the eruption since the previous forenoon, the temperature at the Upper Madison which bears the name of Fire Hole River. Many bottom was 127.5°; at 5 metres from the bottom, 123°; at 9 of the individual geysers have very distinctive characteristics metres, 120.4°; at 14.75 metres, 106.4°; and at 19' metres, in the form and colour of the mound, in the style of the eruption 55°. About three hours after a small eruption, which took and in the shape of the column. The "Giantess " lifts the main place at forty minutes past three o'clock in the afternoon of column to a height of only 50 or 60 st., but shoots a thin spire. the 7th, the temperature at the bottom was 126.5°; at 6.851 to po less than 250 ft. The “ Castle" varies in height from 10 metres up it was 121.8°; at 14.75 metres, 110°; and at 19 or 15 to 250 ft.; and on the occasions of greatest effort the noise metres, 55o. Thus, continues Bunsen, it is evident that the is appalling, and shakes the ground like an earthquake. “Old temperature of the column diminishes from the bottom upwards; Faithful” owes its name to the regu. that, leaving out of view small irregularities, the temperature in larity of its action. Its eruptions, which all parts of the column is found to be steadily on the increase raise the water to a height of 100 or in proportion to the time that has elapsed since the previous 150 ft., last for about five minutes, and eruption; that even a few minutes before the great eruption recur every hour or thereabouts. The the temperature at no point of the water column reached the “ Beehive ” sometimes attains a height boiling point corresponding to the atmospheric pressure at that of 219 ft.; and the water, instead of part; and finally, that the temperature about half-way up the falling back into the basin, is dissipated in shaft made the nearest approach to the appropriate boiling point, spray and vapour. Very various accounts and that this approach was closer in proportion as an eruption are given of the “ Giant.” F. V. Hayden was at hand. The Great Geyser has varied very much in the saw it playing for an hour and twenty nature and frequency of its eruptions since it began to be observed. minutes, and reaching a height of 140 st., In 1809 and 1810, according to Sir W. J. Hooker and Sir George and Doane says it continued in action for S. Mackenzie, its columns were 100 or go ft. high, and rose at, three hours and a half, and had a maxiintervals of 30 hours, while, according to Henderson, in 1815 mum of 200 ft.; but at the earl of the intervals were of 6 bours and the altitude from 80 to 150 ft. Dunraven's visit the eruption lasted only
About 100 paces from the Great Geyser is the Strokkr or churn, a few minutes. which was first described by Stanlay in 1789. The shaft in this
Theory of Geysers.- No satisfactory excase is about 44 ft. deep, and, instead of being cylindrical, is planation of the phenomena of geysers was fungel-shaped, having a width of about 8 ft. at the mouth, but advanced till near the middle of the 19th cencontracting to about 10 in. near the centre. By casting stones tury, when Bunsen elucidated their nature. or turf into the shaft so as to stopper the narrow neck, eruptions Iceland (2nd ed., 1812), submitted a theory can be accelerated, and they often exceed in magnitude those which partially explained the phenomena of the Great Geyser itself. During quiescence the column of met with. "Let us suppose a cavity C water fills only the lower part of the shaft, its surface usually (fig: 1), communicating with the pipe PO, lying from 9 to 12 ft. below the level of the soil Unlike that of
filled with boiling water to the height AB,
and that the steam above this line is conthe Great Geyser, it is always in ebullition, and its temperature fined so that it sustains the water to the FIG. 2. is subject to comparatively slight differences. On the 8th of July height P. If we suppose a sudden addition 1847 Bunsen found the temperature at the bottom 112.9° C.; of heat to be applied under the cavity C, a quantity of steam at 3 metres from the bottom,, 111.4°; and at 6 metres, 108°; } evolved in starts, causing the noises like discharges of artillery and the whole depth of water was on that occasion 10-15 metres. the shaking of the ground." He admitted that this could be only On the 6th, at 2.90 metres from the bottom it was 114:2°; and l a partial explanation of the facts of the case, and that he was
to account for the frequent and periodical production of the necessary | 1803, and at the close of his preliminary studies at the seminary heat; but he has the credit of hitting on what is certainly the of Blaubeuren entered the university of Tübingen in 1871 as a proximate cause—the sudden evolution of steam. theory the whole difficulty is solved, as is beautifully demonstrated student of evangelical theology. After passing his final examinaby the artificial geyser designed by J. H. J. Müller of Freiburg tions in 1825, he spent a year in Switzerland, during part of the (hg. 2). If the tube ab be filled with water and heated at two points, time acting as companion and secretary to C. von Bonstetten first at a and then at b, the following succession of changes is pro(1745-1837); the year 1827 was spent chiefly in Rome. Recolumn is consequently raised, and the stratum of water which was turning to Württemberg in 1828, he first undertook the duties of on the point of boiling at b being raised to d is there subjected to a repetent or theological tutor in Tübingen, and afterwards accepted diminished pressure; a sudden evolution of steam accordingly a curacy in Stuttgart; but having in 1830 received an appointtakes place at d, and the superincumbent water is violently ejected. ment in the royal public library at Stuttgart, he thenceforth gave Received in the basin c, the air-cooled water sinks back into the tube: himself exclusively to literature and historical science. His and the temperature of the whole column is consequently lowered; but the under strata of water are naturally those which are least first work on Philo (Philo u. die jüdisch-alexandrinische Theoaffected by the cooling process; the boiling begins again at a, and the sophie, Stuttgart, 1831) was rapidly followed by an elaborate same succession of events is the result (see R. Bunsen, . Physikalische biography, in two volumes, of Gustavus Adolphus (Gustav Beobachtungen über die hauptsächlichsten Geisire Islands, IcPpe Adols, König von Schweden, und seine Zeit, Stuttgart, 1835-1837), Ann., 1847, vol. 72; and Müller, “ Über Bunsen's Geysertheorie, ibid., 1850, vol. 79).
and by a critical history of primitive Christianity (Kritische The principal difference between the artificial and the natura! Geschichte des Urchristenthums, 3 vols., Stuttgart, 1838). Here geyser-tube is that in the latter the effect is not necessarily
produced Gfrörer had manifested opinions unfavourable to Protestantism, by two distinct sources of heat like the two fires of the experimental
apparatus, but by the continual influx of which, however, were not openly avowed until fully developed Observed. A Calculated,
heat from the bottom of the shaft, and the in his church history (Allgemeine Kirchengeschickte bis Beginn
illustrated:of Freiburg, where he continued to teach until his death at 249°
AB is the column of water; on the right Carlsbad on the 6th of July 1861. In 1848 he sat as a repre251°
side the figures represent approximately sentative in the Frankfort parliament, where he supported the
the boiling points (Fahr.) calculated accord-High German" party, and in 1853 he publicly went over to the 255
the left the actual temperature of the same Church of Rome. He was a bitter opponent of Prussia and an places.
Both gradually increase as we ardent controversialist. I vodi descend, but the relation between the two Among his later historical works the most important is the Geis very different at different heights. At schichte der ost- u. westfränkischen Karolinger (Freiburg, 1848); but
the top the water is still 39° from its boiling those on the pseudo-Isidorian Decretals (Untersuchung über Aller, point, and even at the bottom it is 19°; but at the deficiency is Ursprung, u. Werth der Decretalen des falschen Isidorus, 1848), on the only 4.:. If, then, the stratum at D be suddenly listed as high as primitive history of mankind (Urgeschichte des menschlichen GeC, it will be 2° above the boiling point there, and will consequently schlechts, 1855), on Hildebrand (Papst Gregorius VII. u. sein Zeitalter, expend those 2° in the formation of steam.
7 vols., 1859-1861), on the history of the 18th century (Geschichte GEZER (the Kazir of Tethmosis (Thothmes) III.'s list of des 18ten Jahrhunderts, 1862-1873), on German popular rights (Zur
Geschichte deulscher Volksrechte im Mittelalter, Basel, 1865-1866) Palestinian cities and the Gazri of the Amarna tablets), a royal and on Byzantine history (Byzantinische Geschichten, 1872-1874), Canaanite city on the boundary of Ephraim, in the maritime are also of real value.
VA plain (Josh. xvi. 3-10), and near the Philistine border (2 Sam. GHADAMES, GADAMES or RHADĀMES, a town in an oasis of v. 25). It was allotted to the Levites, but its original inhabitants the same name, in that part of the Sahara which forms part of the were not driven out until the time of Solomon, when “ Pharaoh, Turkish vilayet of Tripoli. It is about 300 m. S.W. of the city king of Egypt” took the city and gave it as a dowry to his of Tripoli and some 10 m. E. of the Algerian frontier. According daughter, Solomon's wife (1 Kings ix. 16). Under the form to Gerhard Rohlfs, the last form given to the word most correctly Gazera it is mentioned (1 Macc. iv. 15) as being in the neighbour- represents the Arabic pronunciation, but the other forms are hood of Emmaus-Nicopolis ('Amwās) and Jamnia (Yebnah). more often used in Europe. The streets of the town are narrow Throughout the history of the Maccabean wars Gezer or Gazara and vaulted and have been likened to the bewildering galleries plays the part of an important frontier post. It was first taken of a coalpit. The roofs are laid out as gardens and preserved from the Syrians by Simon the Asmonean (1 Macc. xiv. 7). for the exclusive use of the women. The Ghadamsi merchants Josephus also mentions that the city was “naturally strong " have been known for centuries as keen and adventurous traders, (Antiq. viii. 6. 1). The position of Gezer is defined by Jerome and their agents are to be found in the more important places (Onomasticon, s.v.) as four Roman miles north (contra sepleno. of the western and central Sudan, such as Kano, Katsena, Kanem, Irionem) of Nicopolis ('Amwās). This points to the mound of Bornu, Timbuktu, as well as at Ghat and Tripoli. Ghadames debris called Tell-c-Jesari near the village of Aba Shūsheh. itself is the centre of a large number of caravan routes, and in The site is naturally very strong, the town standing on an isolated the early part of the 19th century about 30,000 laden camels hill, commanding the western road to Jerusalem just where it entered its markets every year. The caravan trade was created begins to enter the mountains of Judea. This identification has by the Ghadamsi merchants who, aided by their superior intellibeen confirmed by the discovery of a series of boundary inscrip- gence, capacity and honesty, long enjoyed a monopoly. In tions, apparently marking the limit of the city's lands, which have 1873 Tripolitan merchants began to compete with them. In been found cut in rock-outcrops partly surrounding the site. 1893 came the invasion of Bornu by Rabah, and the totalstoppage They read in every case a lonn, "the boundary of Gezer," of this caravan route for nearly ten years to the great detriment with the name Alkios in Greek, probably that of the governor of the merchants of Ghadames. The caravans from Kano were under whom the inscriptions were cut. The site has been also frequently pillaged by the Tuareg, so that the prosperity partially excavated by the Palestine Exploration Fund, and an of the town declined. Later on, the opening of rapid means of enormous mass of material for the history of Palestine recovered transport from Kano and other cities to the Gulf of Guinea also from it, including remains of a pre-Semitic aboriginal race, affected Ghadames, which, however, maintains a considerable a remarkably perfect High Place, the castle built by Simon, trade. The chief articles brought by the caravans are ostrich and other remains of the first importance.
feathers, skins and ivory and one of the principal imports is See R. A. S. Macalister's reports in Palestine Exploration Fund tea. In 1845 the population was estimated at 3000, of whom Quarterly Slatement (October 1902 onwards). Also Bible Sidelighis about soo were slaves and strangers, and upwards of 1200 from the Mound of Gezer, by the same writer. (R. A. S. M.) children; in 1905 it amounted in round numbers to 7000. The
GFRÖRER, AUGUST FRIEDRICH (1803-1861), German inhabitants are chiefly Berbers and Arabs. A Turkish garrison bistorian, was born at Calw, Württemberg, on the 5th of March is maintained in the town. 1 So written; with a medial mem (o) instead of the final (O)
Before the Christian era Ghadames was a stronghold of the
Garamantes whose power was overthrown in the days of Augustus | Imam ul-Haramain) until 1085, when he visited the celebrated by L. Cornelius Balbus Minor,who captured Ghadames(Cydamus). vizier Nizām ul-Mulk, who appointed him to a professorship in It is not unlikely that Roman settlers may have been attracted his college at Bagdad in 1991. Here he was engaged in writing to the spot by the presence of the warm springs which still rise against the Isma'ilites (Assassins). After four years of this in the heart of the town, and spread fertility in the surrounding work he suddenly gave up his chair, left home and family and gardens. In the 7th century Ghadames was conquered by the gave himself to an ascctic life. This was due to a growing sceptiArabs. It appears afterwards to have fallen under the power cism, which caused him much mental unrest and which gradually of the rulers of Tunisia, then to a native dynasty which reigned gave way to mysticism. Having secured his chair for his brother at Tripoli, and in the 16th century it became part of the Turkish he went to Damascus, Jerusalem, Hebron, Mecca, Medina and vilayet of Tripoli. It has since then shared the political fortunes Alexandria, studying, meditating and writing in these cities. of that country. In the first half of the 19th century it was In 1106 he was tempted to go to the West, where the Moravid visited by several British explorers and later by German and (Almoravid) reformation was being led by Yûsuf ibn Tashfin, French travellers.
with whom he had been in correspondence earlier. Yusuf, See J. Richardson, Travels in the Greal Deserl of Sahara in 1845- however, died in this year, and Ghazālī abandoned his idea. 1846 ... including a Descriplion of. Ghadames (London, 1848): At the wish of the sultan Malik Shah he again undertook proG. Rohlís, Reise durch Marokko und Reise durch die Grosse Wüste über Rhadames nach Tripoli (Bremen, 1868).
sessorial work, this time in the college of Nizām ul-Mulk at GHAT, or Rhat, an oasis and town, forming part of the Turkish Nishāpūr, but returned soon after to Tüs, where he died in vilayet of Tripoli. Ghat is an important centre of the caravan December 1111. trade between the Nigerian states and the seaports of the
Sixty-nine works are ascribed to Ghazali (cf. C. Brockelmann's Mediterranean (see TRIPOLI).
Gesch. d. arabischen Lilleratur, i. 421-426, Weimar, 1898). The GHATS, or GHAUTS (literally “ the Landing Stairs ” from the most important of those which have been published are: a treatise
on eschatology called Ad-durra ul-főkhira "The precious pearl "). sea, or “ Passes "), two ranges of mountains extending along ed. L. Gautier (Geneva, 1878); the great work, Ihya ul."Ulūm the eastern and western shores of the Indian peninsula. The (" Revival of the sciences ") (Bulag, 1872; Cairo, 1889); sec a word properly applies to the passes through the mountains, commentary by al-Murtada called the Ithaf, published in 13 vols. but from an early date was transferred by Europeans to the Hidāya (Bulaq, 1870, and often at Cairo); a compendium of ethics, mountains themselves.
Mizan ul-'Amal, translated into Hebrew, ed. J. Goldenthal (Paris, The Eastern Ghats run in fragmentary spurs and ranges 1839); a more popular treatise on ethics, the Kimiya us-Sa'ada, down the Madras coast. They begin in the Orissa district of published at Lucknow, Bombay and Constantinople, ed. H. A.
Homes as The Alchemy of Happiness (Albany, N.Y., 1873); the Balasore, pass southwards through Cuttack and Puri, enter the
ethical work O Child, ed. by Hammer-Purgstall in Arabic and German Madras presidency in Ganjam, and sweep southwards through (Vienna, 1838); the Destruction of Philosophers (Tahafüt ul-Falāsifa) the districts of Vizagapatam, Godavari, Nellore, Chingleput, (Cairo, 1885, and Bombay, 1887). Of this work a French translation South Arcot, Trichinopoly and Tinnevelly. They run at a
was begun by. Carra de Vaux in Muséon, vol. xvüi. (1899); the distance of 50 to 150 m. from the coast, except in Ganjam and into Latin by Dom. Gundisalvi (Venice, 1506), ed. with notes by
Maqaşid ul. Faläsisa, of which the first part on logic was translated Vizagapatam, where in places they almost abut on the Bay of G. Beer (Leiden, 1888); the Kitāb ul-Mungid, giving an account of Bengal
. Their geological formation is granite, with gneiss and the changes in his philosophical ideas, ed. by F. A. Schmölders in his mica slate, with clay slate, hornblende and primitive limestone Essai sur les écoles philosophiques chez les Arabes (Paris, 1842), also overlying. The average elevation is about 1500 ft., but several | Barbier de Meynard in the Journal asiatique (1877, I. 1-93):
printed at Constantinople, 1876, and translated into French by hills in Ganjam are between 4000 and sooo ft. high. For the answers to questions asked of him ed. in Arabic and Hebrew, with most part there is a broad expanse of low land between their German translation and notes by H. Malter (Frankfort, 1896); Eng. base and the sea, and their line is pierced by the Godavari, trans., Confessions of al-Ghaszali, by Claud Field (1909).
For Ghazāli's life see McG. de Slane's translation of Hon Khallikan, Kistna and Cauvery rivers.
ii. 621 ff.; R. Gösche's Uber Ghazzoli's Leben und Werke (Berlin, The Western Ghats (Sahyadri in Sanskrit) start from the 1859); D. B. Macdonald's "Life of al-Ghazzali," in Journal of south of the Tapti valley, and run south through the districts American Oriental Society. vol. xx. (1899), and Carra de Vaux's of Khandesh, Nasik, Thana, Satara, Ratnagiri, Kanara and Gazali (Paris, 1902); sce ARABIAN PHILOSOPHY. (G. W. T.) Malabar, and the states of Cochin and Travancore, meeting the GHAZI (an Arabic word, from ghazi, to fight), the name Eastern Ghats at an angle near Cape Comorin. The range of the given to Mabommedans. who have vowed to exterminate unWestern Ghats extends uninterruptedly, with the exception of a believers by the sword. It is also used as a title of honour, gap or valley 25 m. across, known as the Palghat gap, through generally translated " the Victorious," in the Ottoman empire which runs the principal railway of the south of India. The for military officers of high rank, who have distinguished them. length of the range is 800 m. from the Tapti to the Palghat gap, selves in the field against non Moslem enemies; thus it was and south of this about 200 m, to the extreme south of the conferred on Osman Pasha after his famous defence of Plevna. peninsula. In many parts there is only a narrow strip of coast GHAZIABAD, a town of British India in Meerut district of the between the hills and the sea; at one point they rise in magnifi- United Provinces, 12 m. from Delhi and 28 m. from Meerut. cent precipices and headlands out of the ocean. The average Pop. (1901) 11,275. The town was founded in 1740 by Ghazi-udelevation is 3000 ft., precipitous on the western side facing the din, son of Azal Jah, first nizam of the Deccan, and takes its sea, but with a more gradual slope on the east to the plains below. name from its founder. It has considerably risen in importance The highest peaks in the northern section are Kalsubai, 5427 st.; as the point of junction of the East Indian, the North-Western Harischandragarh, 4691 ft.; and Mahabaleshwar, where is the and the Oudh & Rohilkhand railway systems. The town has a summer capital of the government of Bombay, 4700 ft. South trade in grain and hides. of Mahabaleshwar the elevation diminishes, but again increases, GHAZIPUR, a town and district of British India, in the and attains its maximum towards Coorg, where the highest Benares division of the United Provinces. The town stands on peaks vary from 5500 to 7000 ft., and where the main range the left bank of the Ganges, 44 m. E. of Benares. It is the joins the interior Nilgiri hills. South of the Palghat gap, the headquarters of the government opium department, where all peaks of the Western Ghats rise as high as 8000 ft. The gcological the opium from the United Provinces is collected and manuformation is trap in the northern and gneiss in the southern factured under a monopoly. There are also scent distilleries, section.
using the produce of the rose-gardens in the vicinity. Lord GHAZALI (Muhammad ibn Muhammad Abu Hamid al. Cornwallis, governor-general of India, died at Ghazipur in 1805, Ghazali) (1058-1911), Arabian philosopher and theologian, was and a domed monument and marble statue (by Flaxman) are born at Tus, and belonged to a family of Ghazala (near Tús) erected over his grave. Pop. (1901) 39,429. distinguished for its knowledge of canon law. Educated at The district of Ghazipur has an area of 1389 sq. m. It forms first in Tûs, then in Jorjān, and again in Tūs, he went to college part of the great alluvial plain of the Ganges, which divide's at Nishāpūr, where he studied under Juwaini (known as the lit into two unequal portions. The northern subdivision lies