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transformed, from a mere principle of criticism, till it comes to obliged to import à considerable amount of corn. The exceptiona! be regarded as the harbinger of a possible Utopia. It was in this weakness, as well as the exceptional strength, of Great Britain, fashion that it was put forward by French economists and proved among European countries, made it seem desirable to adopt the attractive to some leading American statesmeninthe 18th century. principle of unrestricted commercial intercourse, not merely Turgot regarded the colonial systems of the European countries in the tentative fashion in which it had been put in operation as at once unfair to their dependencies and dangerous to the peace by Huskisson, but in the thoroughgoing fashion in which of the world. “It will be a wise and happy thing for the nation it at last commended itself to the minds of Peel and Gladstone. which shall be the first to modify its policy according to the new The “ Manchester men " saw clearly where their interest lay; conditions, and be content to regard its colonies as if they were and the fashionable political economy was ready to demonstrate allied provinces and not subjects of the mother country." It that in pursuing their own interest they were conferring the will be a wise and happy thing for the nation which is the first benefit of cheap clothing on all the most poverty-stricken races to be convinced that the secret of "success, so far as commercial of mankind. It seemed probable, in the "forties and early 'fifties, policy is concerned, consists in employing all its land in the that other countries would take a similar view of their own manner most profitable for the proprietary, all the hands in the interests and would follow the example which Great Britain had manner most advantageous to the workman personally, that is set. That they have not done so, is partly due to the fact that to say, in the manner in which each would employ them, if we none of them had such a direct, or such a widely diffused, interest could let him be simply directed by his own interest, and that in increased commercial intercourse as existed in Great Britain; all the rest of the mercantile policy is vanity and vexation of but their reluctance has been partly the result of the criticism spirit. When the entire separation of America shall have forced to which the free-trade doctrine has been subjected. The the whole world to recognize this truth and purged the European principles expressed in the writings of Friedrich List have taken nations of commercial jealousy there will be one great cause of such firm hold, both in America and in Germany, that these war less in the world." Pitt, under the influence of Adam countries have preferred to follow on the lines by which Great Smith, was prepared to admit the United States to the benefit Britain successfully built up her industrial prosperity in the 17th of trade with the West Indian Colonies; and Jefferson, accepting and 18th century, rather than on those by which they have seen the principles of bis French teachers, would (in contradistinction her striving to maintain it since 1846. to Alexander Hamilton) have been willing to see his country re Free trade was attractive as an ideal, because it appeared nounce the attempt to develop manufactures of her own. It to offer the greatest production of goods to the world as a whole, seemed as if a long step might be taken towards realizing the free and the largest share of material goods to cach consumer; it is trade ideal for the Anglo-Saxon race; but British shipowners cosmopolitan, and it treats consumption, and the interest of the insisted on the retention of their privileges, and the propitious consumer, as such, as the end to be considered. Hence it lics moment passed away with the failure of the negotiations of open to objections which are partly political and partly economic. 1783. Free trade ceased to be regarded as a gospel, even in As cosmopolitan, free-trade doctrine is apt to be indifferent France, till the ideal was revived in the writings of Bastiat, to national tradition and aspiration. In so far indeed as and helped to mould the enthusiasm of Richard Cobden. patriotism is a mere aesthetic sentiment, it may be tolerated, Through his zealous advocacy, the doctrine secured converts in but in so far as it implies a genuine wish and intention to preserve almost every part of the world; though it was only in Great and defend the national habits and character to the exclusion Britain that a great majority of the citizens became so far of alien elements, the cosmopolitan mind will condemn it as satisfied with it that they adopted it as the foundation of the narrow and mischievous. In the first half of the 19th century economic policy of the country.

there were many men who believed that national ambitions It is not difficult to account for the conversion of Great Britain and jealousies of every kind were essentially dynastic, and that if to this doctrine; in the special circumstances of the first half of monarchies were abolished there would be fewer occasions of the 19th century it was to the interest of the most vigorous war, so that the expenses of the business of government would factors in the economic life of the country to secure the greatest be enormously curtailed. For Cobden and his contemporaries possible freedom for commercial intercourse. Great Britain had, it was natural to. regard the national administrative institutions through her shipping, access to all the markets of the world; as maintained for the benefit of the “ classes ” and without much she had obtained such a lead in the application of machinery to advantage to the“ masses.” But in point of fact, modern times manufactures that she had a practical monopoly in textile have shown the existence in democracies of a patriotic sentiment manufactures and in the hardware trades; by removing every which is both exclusive and aggressive; and the burden of restriction, she could push her advantage to its farthest extent, armaments has steadily increased. It was by means of a civil and not only undersell native manufactures in other lands, war that the United States attained to a consciousness of national but secure food, and the raw materials for her manufactures, on lise; while such later symptoms as the recent interpretations the cheapest possible terms. Free trade thus seemed to offer the of the Monroe doctrine, or the war with Spain, have proved that means of placing an increasing distance between Britain and her the citizens of that democratic country cannot be regarded as rivals, and of rendering the industrial monopoly which she had destitute of self-aggrandizing national ambition. attained impregnable. The capitalist employer had superseded In Germany the growth of militarism and nationalism have the landowner as the mainstay of the resources and revenue gone on side by side under constitutional government, and of the realm, and insisted that the prosperity of manufactures certainly in harmony with predominant public opinion. Neither was the primary interest of the community as a whole. The of these communities is willing to sink its individual conception expectation, that a thoroughgoing policy of free trade would not of progress in those of the world at large; each is jealous of the only favour an increase of employment, but also the cheapening intrusion of alien elements which cannot be reconciled with its of food, could only have been roused in a country which was own political and social system. And a similar recrudescence :!“ Mémoire," 6 April 1776, in Euvres, viii. 460.

of patriotic feeling has been observable in other countries, such • Jefferson, Notes on Virginia, 275. See also the articles on as Norway and Hungary: the growth of national sentiment JEFFERSON and HAMILTON, ALEXANDER.

is shown, not only in the attempts to revive and popularize the * One incidental effect of the failure to secure free trade was that the African slave trade, with West Indies as a depot for supplying mination to have a real control over the economic life of the

use of a national language, but still more decidedly in the deter: the American market, ceased to be remunerative, and the opposition to the abolition of the trade was very much weaker than it would country. It is here that the new patriotism comes into direct otherwise have been; see Hochstetter, Die wirtschaftlichen und conflict with the political principles of free trade as advocated politischen Motive für die Abschaffung des britischen Sklaven- by Bastiat and Cobden; for them the important point was that handels," in Schmoller, Slaats und Sozialwissenschaftliche For. countries, by becoming dependent on one another, would be schungen, xxv. i.

J. Welsford, ''Cobden's Foreign Teacher," in National Review prevented from engaging in hostilities. The new nations are (December 1905).

Compatriot Club Lectures (1965), p. 306.

determined that they will not allow other countries to have such 1 is some reason, however, for raising the question whether free control over their economic condition, as to be able to exercise trade has been equally successful, not only in its economic, but a powerful influence on their political life. Each is determined in its social results, in all the large political communities where to be the master in his own house, and each has rejected free it has been introduced. In a region like the United States of trade because of the cosmopolitanism which it involves. America, it is probably seen at its best; there is an immense

Economically, free trade lays stress on consumption as the variety of different products throughout that great zone of the chief criterion of prosperity. It is, of course, true that goods are continent, so that the mutual co-operation of the various parts produced with the object of being consumed, and it is plausible is most beneficial, while the standard of habit and comfort is so to insist on taking this test; but it is also true that consumption far uniformo throughout the whole region, and the facilities for and production are mutually interdependent, and that in some the change of employment are so many, that there is little inways production is the more important of the two. Consumption jurious competition between different districts. In the British looks to the present, and the disposal of actual goods; production empire the conditions are reversed; but though the great selfjooks to the future, and the conditions under which goods can governing colonies have withdrawn from the circle, in the hope continue to be regularly provided and thus become available for of building up their own economic life in their own way, free consumption in the long run. As regards the prosperity of the trade is still maintained over a very large part of the British community in the future it is important that goods should be empire. Throughout this area, there are very varied physical consumed in such a fashion as to secure that they shall be replaced conditions; there is also an extraordinary variety of races, each or increased before they are used up; it is the amount of pro- with its own habits, and own standard of comfort; and in these duction rather than the amount of consumption that demands circumstances it may be doubted whether the free competition, consideration, and gives indication of growth or of decadence. involved in free trade, is really altogether wholesome. Within In these circumstances there is much to be said for looking at this sphere the ideal of Bastiat and his followers is being realized, the economic life of a country from the point of view which free England, as a great manufacturing country, has more than held traders have abandoned or ignorc. It is not on the possibilities her own; India and Ireland are supplied with manufactured of consumption in the present, but on the prospects of production goods by England, and in each case the population is forced to in the future, that the continued wealth of the community depends; look to the soil for its means of support, and for purchasing and this principle is the only one which conforms to the modern power. In each case the preference for tillage, as an occupation, conception of the essential requirements of sociological science has rendered it comparatively easy to keep the people on the in its wider aspect (see SOCIOLOGY). This is most obviously true land; but there is some reason to believe that the law of diminishin regard to countries of which thc i esources are very imperfectly ing returns is already making itself felt, at all events in India, developed. If their policy is directed to securing the greatest and is forcing the people into deeper poverty. It may be doubtful possible comfort for each consumer in the present, it is certain in the case of Ireland how far the superiority of England in inthat progress will be slow; the planting of industries for which dustrial pursuits has prevented the development of manufactures; the country has an advantage may be a tedious process; and the progress in the last decades of the 18th century was too shortin order to stimulate national efficiency temporary protection- lived to be conclusive; but there is at least a strong impression involving what is otherwise unnecessary immediate cost to the, in many quarters that the industries of Ireland might have consumer--may seem to be abundantly justified. Such a free flourished if they had had better opportunities allowed them." trader as John Stuart Mill himself admits that a case may be in the case of India we know that the hereditary artistic skill, made out for treating "infant industries” as exceptions;' which had been built up in bygone generations, has been stamped and if this exception be admitted it is likely to establish a pre-out. It seems possible that the modern unrest in India, and the cedent. After all, the various countries of the world are all in discontent in Ireland, may be connected with the economic different stages of development; some are old and some are conditions in these countries, on which free trade has been imposed new; and even the old countries differ greatly in the progress they without their consent. So far the population which subsists on have made in distinct arts. The introduction of machinery the cheaper food, and has the lower standard of life, has been has everywhere changed the conditions of production, so that the sufferer; but the mischief might operate in another fashion. some countries have lost and others have gained a special advan- The self-governing colonies at all events feel that competition in tage. Most of the countries of the world are convinced that the the same market between races with different standards of comfort wisest economy is to attend to the husbanding of their resources bas infinite possibilities of mischief. It is easy to conjure up of every kind, and to direct their policy not merely with a view conditions under which the standard of comfort of wage-earners to consumption in the present, but rather with regard to the in England would be seriously threatened. possibilities of increased production in the future.

Since the 9th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica was This deliberate rejection of the doctrine of free trade between published it has become clear that the free-trade doctrines of nations, both in its political and economic aspects, has not Bastiat and Cobden have not been gaining ground in the world interfered, however, with the steady progress of free commercial at large, and at the opening of the 20th century it could hardly intercourse within the boundaries of a single though composite be said with confidence that the question was finally settled " political community. "Internal free trade," though the name so far as England was concerned. As to whether the interests of was not then current in this sense, was one of the burning questions Great Britain still demanded that she should continue on the in England in the 17th century; it was perhaps as important a line she adopted in the exceptional conditions of the middle of the factor as puritanism in the fall of Charles I. Internal free trade 19th century, expert opinion was conspicuously divided'; but was secured in France in the 18th century; thanks to Hamilton, there remained no longer the old enthusiasm for free trade as it was embodied in the constitution of the United States; it was introduced into Germany by Bismarck; and was firmly

The standard is, of course, lower among the negroes and mean established in the Dominion of Canada and the Commonwealth whites in the South

than in the North and West.

• F. Beauclerk, “ Free Trade in India," in Economic Review part of the modern federal idea as usually interpreted. There X.12Murray History of the Commercial and Financial Relations are thus great areas, externally self-protecting, where free trade, between England and Ireland, 294. as between internal divisions, has been introduced with little,

* For the tariff reform movement in English politics see the article if any, political difficulty, and with considerable economic (Grundriss der allgemeinen Volkswirtschaftslehre, ii. 641) and A.

on CHAMBERLAIN, J. Among continental writers G. Schmoller advantage. These cases are sometimes quoted as justifying Wagner (Preface to M. Schwab's Chamberlains Handels politik) the expectation that the same principle is likely to be adopted pronounce in favour of a change, as Fuchs did by anticipation sooner or later in regard to external trading relations. There Schulze-Gaevernitz (Britischer Imperialismus und englischer Frei.

L. S. Mill, Principles of Political Economy, book v. chapter x $1. lerre à l'égard de ses colonies), and Blondel (La politique Protectionniste af. S. Oliver, Akxander Hamilton, 142.

en Angleterre un nouveau danger pour la France) are against it.

the harbinger of an Utopia. The old principles of the bourgeois | after its destruction by fire in 1484 and restored in 1893, was manufacturers had been taken up by the proletariat and shaped founded in the 12th century. Of the original church a magnifito suit themselves. Socialism, like free trade, is cosmopolitan in cent German Romanesque doorway, known as the Golden Gate its aims, and is indifferent to patriotism and hostile to militarism. (Goldene Pforie), survives. The church contains numerous Socialism, like free trade, insists on material welfare as the monuments, among others one to Prince Maurice of Saxony. primary object to be aimed at in any policy, and, like free Adjoining the cathedral is the mausoleum (Begräbnisko pelle), trade, socialism tests welfare by reference to possibilities of con- built in 1594 in the Italian Renaissance style, in which are buried sumption. In one respect there is a difference; throughout the remains of Henry the Pious and his successors down to John Cobden's attack on the governing classes there are signs of his George IV., who died in 1694. Of the other four Protestant jealousy of the superior status of the landed gentry, but socialism churches the most noteworthy is the Peterskirche which, has a somewhat wider range of view and demands "equality of with its three towers, is a conspicuous object on the highest opportunity” with the capitalist as well.

point of the town. Among the other public buildings are the old BIBLIOGRAPHY.-Reference has already been made to the prin town-hall, dating from the 15th century, the antiquarian museum, fessor Fawcett's Free Trade is a good exposition of free-trade and the natural history museum. There are a classical and principles; so also is Professor Bastable's Commerce of Nations modern, a commercial and an agricultural school, and numerous Among authors who have restated the principles with special charitable institutions. reference to the revived controversy on the subject may be men Freiberg owes its origin to the discovery of its silver mines tioned Professor W. Smart, The Return to Protection, being a Rai statement of the Case for Free Trade (2nd ed., 1906), and A. c. Pigou, (c. 1163). The town, with the castle of Freudenstein, was built Protective and Preferential Import Duties (1906). (W. Cu.)

by Otto the Rich, margrave of Meissen, in 1175, and its name, PREGELLAE, an ancient town of Latium adiectum, situated which first appears in 1221, is derived from the extensive mining on the Via Latina, 11 m. W.N.W.of Aquinum, near the left branch franchises granted to it about that time. In all the partitions of of the Liris. It is said to have belonged in early times to the the territories of the Saxon house of Wettin, from the latter part Opici or Oscans, and later to the Volscians. It was apparently of the 13th century onward, Freiberg always remained common destroyed by the Samnites a little before 330 B.C., in which year property, and it was not till 1485 (the mines not till 1537) that the people of Fabrateria Vetus (mod. Ceccano) besought the help it was definitively assigned to the Albertine line. The Reformaof Rome against them, and in 328 B.C. a Latin colony was estab- tion was introduced into Freiberg in 1536 by Henry the Pious, lished there. The place was taken in 320 B.C. by the Samnites, who resided here. The town suffered severely during the Thirty but re-established by the Romans in 313 B.C. It continued hence Years' War, and again during the French occupation from 1806 forward to be faithful to Rome; by breaking the bridges over the to 1814, during which time it had to support an army of 700,000 Liris it interposed an obstacle to the advance of Hannibal on men and find forage for 200,000 horses. Rome in 212 B.C., and it was a native of Fregellae who headed the See H. Gerlach, Kleine Chronik von Freiberg (2nd ed., Freiberg, deputation of the non-revolting colonies in 209 B.C. It appears to 1898): H. Ermisch, Das Freiberger, Stadtrechi (Leipzig, 1889); have been a very important and flourishing place owing to its Ermisch and o. Posse, Urkundenbuch der Stadt Freiberg, in Codex command of the crossing of the Liris, and to its position in a Hüllenwesen, published by the Bergmännischer Verein (Freiberg,

diplom. Sax, reg; (3 vols., Leipzig, 1883-1891); Freibergs Berg- und fertile territory, and it was here that, after the rejection of the 1883); Ledebur, Über die Bedeutung der Freiberger Bergakademie proposals of M. Fulvius Flaccus for the extension of Roman (ib. 1903); Steche, Bau- und Kuns.denkmäler der Amtshauptmannburgess-rights in 125.B.C., a revolt against Rome broke out. schaft Freiberg (Dresden, 1884). It was captured by treachery in the same year and destroyed; FREIBURG, a town of Germany in Prussian Silesia, on the but its place was taken in the following year by the colony of Polsnitz, 35 m. S.W. of Breslau, on the railway to Halbstadt. Fabrateria Nova, 3 m. to the S.E. on the opposite bank of the Pop. (1905) 9917. It has an Evangelical and Roman Catholic Liris, while a post station Fregellanum (mod. Ceprano) is church, and its industries include watch-making, linen-weaving mentioned in the itineraries; Fregellae itself, however, continued and distilling. In the neighbourhood are the old and modern to exist as a village even under the empire. The site is clearly castles of the Fürstenstein family, whence the town is sometimes traceable about s m. E. of Ceprano, but the remains of the city distinguished as Freiburg unter dem Fürstenstein. At Freiburg, are scanty.

on the 22nd of July 1762, the Prussians defended themselves See G. Colasanti, Fregellae, storia e topografia (1906). (T. As.) successfully against the superior forces of the Austrians.

FREIBERG, or FREYBERG, a town of Germany in the kingdom FREIBURG IM BREISGAU, an archiepiscopal sce and city of of Saxony, on the Münzbach, near its confluence with the Mulde, Germany in the grand duchy of Baden, 12 m. E. of the Rhine, 19m. S.W.of Dresden on the railway to Chemnitz, with a branch beautifully situated on the Dreisam at the foot of the Schlossberg, to Nossen. Pop. (1905) 30,896. Its situation, on the rugged one of the heights of the Black Forest range, on the railway porthern slope of the Erzgebirge, is somewhat bleak and uninvit- between Basel and Mannheim, 40 m. N. of the former city. ing, but the town is generally well buflt and makes a prosperous Pop. (1905) 76,285. The town is for the most part well built, impression. A part of its ancient walls still remains; the other having several wide and handsome streets and a number of portions have been converted into public walks and gardens. spacious squares. It is kept clean and cool by the waters of Freiberg is the seat of the general administration of the mines the river, which flow through the streets in open channels; and throughout the kingdom, and its celebrated mining academy its old fortifications have been replaced by public walks, and, (Bergakademie), founded in 1765, is frequented by students what is more unusual, by vineyards. It possesses a famous from all parts of the world. Connected with it are extensive university, the Ludovica Albertina, founded by Albert VI., collections of minerals and models, a library of 50,000 volumes, archduke of Austria, in 1457, and attended by, about 2000 and laboratories for chemistry, metallurgy and assaying. Among students. The library contains upwards of 250,000 volumes and its distinguished scholars it reckons Abraham Gottlob Werner 600 MSS., and among the other auxiliary establishments are (1750-1817), who was also a professor there, and Alexander von an anatomical hall and museum and botanical gardens. The Humboldt. Freiberg has extensive manufactures of gold and Freiburg minster is considered one of the finest of all the Gothic silver lace, woollen cloths, linen and cotton goods, iron, copper churches of Germany, being remarkable alike for the symmetry and brass wares, gunpowder and white-lead. It has also several of its proportions, for the taste of its decorations, and for the large breweries. In ihe immediate vicinity are its famous silver fact that it may more correctly be said to be finished than almost and lead mines, thirty in number, and of which the principal ones any other building of the kind. The period of its erection propassed into the property of the state in 1886. The castle of bably lies for the most part between 1122 and 1282; but the Freudenstein or Freistein, as rebuilt by the elector Augustus choir was not built till 1513. The tower, which rises above the in 1572, is situated in one of the suburbs and is now used as a western entrance, is 386 ft. in height, and it presents a skilful military magazine. In its grounds a monument was erected transition from a square base into an octagonal superstructure, to Werner in 1851. The cathedral, rebuilt in late Gothic style I which in its turn is surmounted by a pyramidal spire of the most

exquisite open work in stone. In the interior of the church are the Danube. The French then fell back with their booty and some beautiful stained glass windows, both ancient and modern, prisoners to Breisach, a strong garrison being left in Freiburg. the tombstones of several of the dukes of Zähringen, statues of The Bavarian commander, however, revenged himself by besieging archbishops of Freiburg, and paintings by Holbein and by Freiburg (June 27th), and Turenne's first attempt to relieve the Hans Baldung (c. 1470-1545), commonly called Grün. Among the place failed. During July, as the siege progressed, the French other noteworthy buildings of Freiburg are the palaces of the government sent the duc d'Enghien, who was ten years younger grand duke and the archbishop, the old town-hall

, the theatre, still than Turenne, but had just gained his great victory of the Kaufhaus or merchants' hall, a 16th-century building with Rocroy, to take over the command. Enghien brought with him a handsome façade, the church of St Martin, with a graceful a veteran army, called the “ Army of France,” Turenne remaining spire restored 1880-1881, the new town-ball, completed 1901, in command of the Army of Weimar. The armies met at Breisach in Renaissance style, and the Protestant church, formerly the on the 2nd of August, hy which date Freiburg had surrendered. church of the abbey of Thennenbach, removed hither in 1839. At this point most commanders of the time would have decided In the centre of the fish-market square is a fountain surmounted not to fight, but to manæuvre' Mercy away from Freiburg; by a statue of Duke Berthold III. of Zähringen; in the Franzis. Enghien, however, was a fighting general, and Mercy's entrenched kaner Platz there is a monument to Berthold Schwarz, the lines at Freiburg secmed to him a target rather than an obstacle. traditional discoverer here, in 1259, of gunpowder; the Rotteck A few hours after his arrival, therefore, without waiting for the Platz takes its name from the monument of Karl Wenzeslaus rearmost troops of his columns, he set the combining armies in von Rotteck (1775-1840), the historian, which formerly stood motion for Krozingen, a village on what was then the main road on the site of the Schwarz statue; and in Kaiser Wilhelm between Breisach and Freiburg. The total force immediately Strasse a bronze statue was erected in 1876, to the memory of available numbered only 16,000 combatants. Enghien and Herder, who in the early part of the 19th century founded in Turenne had arranged that the Army of France was to move Freiburg an institute for draughtsmen, engravers and litho- direct upon Freiburg by Wolfenweiter, while the Army of Weimar graphers, and carried on a famous bookselling business. On the was to make its way by hillside tracks to Wittnau and thence Schlossberg above the town there are massive ruins of two to attack the rear of Mercy's lines while Enghien assaulted castles destroyed by the French in 1744; and about '2 m. them in front. Turenne's march (August 3rd, 1644) was slow to the N.E. stands the castle of Zähringen, the original seat of and painful, as had been anticipated, and late in the afternoon, the famous family of the counts of that name. Situated on the on passing Wittnau, he encountered the enemy. The Weimarians ancient road which runs by the Höllenpass between the valleys carried the outer lines of defence without much difficulty, but of the Danube and the Rhine, Freiburg early acquired com- as they pressed on towards Merzhausen the resistance became mercial importance, and it is still the principal centre of the more and more serious. Turenne's force was little more than trade of the Black Forest. It manufactures buttons, chemicals, 6000, and these were wearied with a long day of marching and starch, leather, tobacco, silk thread, paper, and hempen goods, fighting on the steep and wooded hillsides of the Black Forest. as well as beer and wine.

Thus the turning movement came to a standstill far short of Freiburg is of uncertain foundation. In 1120 it became a Uffingen, the village on Mercy's line of retreat that Turenne free town, with privileges similar to those of Cologne; but in was to have seized, nor was a flank attack possible against 1219 it fell into the hands of a branch of the family of Urach. Mercy's main line, from which he was separated by the crest After it had vainly attempted to throw off the yoke by force of the Schönberg. Meanwhile, Enghien's army had at the of arms, it purchased its freedom in 1366; but, unable to prearranged hour (4 P.m.) attacked Mercy's position on the reimburse the creditors who had advanced the money, it was, Ebringen spur. A steep slope, vineyards, low stone walls and in 1368, obliged to recognize the supremacy of the house of abatis had all to bě surmounted, under a galling fire from the Hapsburg. In the 17th and 18th centuries it played a consider- Bavarian musketeers, besore the Army of France found itself, able part as a fortified town. It was captured by the Swedes breathless and in disorder, in front of the actual entrenchments in 1632, 1634 and 1638; and in 1644 it was seized by the of the crest. A first attack failed, as did an attempt to find an Bavarians, who shortly after, under General Mercy, defeated in unguarded path round the shoulder of the Schönberg. The the neighbourhood the French forces under Enghien and Turenne. situation was grave in the extreme, but Enghien resolved on The French were in possession from 1677 to 1697, and again in Turenne's account to renew the attack, although only a quarter 1713-1714 and 1744; and when they left the place in 1748, at of his original force was still capable of making an effori. He the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, they dismantled the fortifications. himself and all the young nobles of his staff dismounted and led The Baden insurgents gained a victory at Freiburg in 1848, and the infantry forward again, the prince threw his baton into the the revolutionary government took refuge in the town in June enemy's lines for the soldiers to retrieve, and in the end, after 1849, but in the following July the Prussian forces took possession a bitter struggle, the Bavarians, whose reserves had been taken and occupied it until 1851. Since 1821 Freiburg has been the away to oppose Turenne in the Merzhausen defile, abandoned seat of an archbishop with jurisdiction over the sees of Mainz, the entrenchments and disappeared into the woods of the Rottenberg and Limburg.

adjoining spur. Enghien hurriedly re-formed his troops, fearing See Schreiber, Geschichte und Beschreibung des Münslers zu Frei- at every moment to be hurled down the hill by a counterstroke; burg (1820 and 1825); Geschichte der Stadi und Universität Frei- but none came. The French bivouacked in the rain, Turenne burgs (1857-1859); Der Schlossberg bei Freiburg (1860); and Albert, making his way across the mountain to confcr with the prince, Die Geschichtsschreibung der Stadı Freiburg (1902).

and meanwhile Mercy quietly drew off his army in the dark to Batlles of Freiburg, 3rd, 5th and roth of August 1644.—During a new set of entrenchments on the ridge on which stood the the Thirty Years' War the neighbourhood of Freiburg was the Loretto Chapel. On the 4th of August the Army of France and scene of a series of engagements between the French under the Army of Weimar met at Merzhausen, the rearmost troops of Louis de Bourbon, duc d'Enghien (afterwards called the great the Army of France came in, and the whole was arranged by Condé), and Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, the major-generals in the plain facing

the Loretto ridge. This and the Bavarians and Austrians commanded by Franz, Freiherr position was attacked on the sth. Enghien had designed his von Mercy.

battlc even more carefully than before, but as the result of a At the close of the campaign of 1643 the French “ Army of series of accidents the two French armies attacked prematurely Weimar," having been defeated and driven into Alsace by the and straight to their front, one brigade after another, and though Bavarians, had there been reorganized under the command of at one moment Enghien, sword in hand, broke the line of defence Turenne, then a young general of thirty-two and newly promoted with his last intact reserve, a brilliant counterstroke, led by to the marshalate. In May 1644 he opened the campaign by Mercy's brother Kaspar (who was killed), drove out the assailants. recrossing the Rhine and raiding the enemy's posts as far as It is said that Enghien lost half his mon on this day and Mercy Überlingen on the lake of Constance and Donaueschingen on one-third of his, so severe was the battle. But the result could

not be gainsaid; it was for the French a complete and costly FREIDANK (VRIDANC), the name by which a Middle Highi failure. Tai nodrla Bhosle d

the German didactic poet of the early 13th century is known. It has For three days after this the armies lay in position without been disputed whether the word, which is equivalent to “ free. fighting, the French well supplied with provisions and comforts thought," is to be regarded as the poet's real name or only as a from Breisach, the Bavarians suffering somewhat severely from pseudonym; the latter is probably the case. Little is known of want of food, and especially forage, as all their supplies had to Freidank's life. He accompanied Frederick II. on his crusade be hauled from Villingen over the rough roads of the Black to the Holy Land, where, in the years 1228-1229, a portion at Forest. Enghien then decided to make use of the Glotter Tal least of his work was composed; and it is said that on his tomb to interrupt altogether this already unsatisfactory line of supply, (if indeed it was not the tomb of another Freidank) at Treviso, and thus to force the Bavarians either to attack him at a serious there was inscribed, with allusion to the character of his style, disadvantage, or to retreat across the hills with the loss of their he always spoke and never sang." Wilhelm Grimm originated artillery and baggage and the disintegration of their army by the hypothesis that Freidank was to be identified with Walther famine and desertion. With this object, the Army of Weimar von der Vogelweide; but this is no longer tenable. Freidank's was drawn off on the morning of the 9th of August and marched work bears the name of Bescheidenheil, i.c.“ practical wisdom," round by Betzenhausen and Lehen to Langen Denzling. The correct judgment," and consists of a collection of proverbs, infantry of the Army of France, then the trains, followed, while pithy sayings, and moral and satirical reflections, arranged under Enghien with his own cavalry faced Freiburg and the Loretto general heads. Its popularity till the end of the 16th century is position. pds dienu that doelir stogais Son shown by the great number of MSS. extant. Before dawn on the oth the advance guard of Turenne's

Sebastian Brant published the Bescheidenheil in a modified form army was ascending the Glotter Tal. But Mercy had divined his in 1508. Wilhelm Grimm's edition appeared in 1834. (2nd ed. 1860).

H. F. Bezzenberger's in 1872. A later edition is by F. Sandvoss (1877). The old Latin translation, Fridongi Discretio, was printed by C. Lemcke in 1868; and there are two translations into modern

German, A. Bacmeister's (1861) and K. Simrock's (1867). See also Langer Denskens

F. Pfeiffer, Über Freidank (Zur deutschen Litercturgeschichte, 1855), and H. Paul, Uber die ursprüngliche Anordnung von Freidanks Bea scheidenheit (1870).

FREIENWALDE, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Guadelingen

Prussia, on the Oder, 28 m. N.E. of Berlin, on the Frankfort. Angermünde railway. Pop. (1905) 7995. It has a small palace, built by the Great Elector, an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, and manufactures of furniture, machinery, &c. The

neighbouring forests and its medicinal springs make it a favourite Freiburg

summer resort of the inhabitants of Berlin. A new tower commands a fine view of the Oderbruch (see ODER). Freienwalde, which must be distinguished from the smaller town of the same name in Pomerania, first appears as a town in 1364.

FREIESLEBENITE, a rare mineral consisting of sulphanti

monite of silver and lead, (Pb, Aga).Sb Su. The monoclinic Battle of 70

crystals are prismatic in habit, with deeply striated prism and FREIBURG

dome faces. The colour is steel-grey, and the lustre metallic; 01 hardness 2, specific gravity 6.2. It occurs with argentite;

chalybite and galena in the silver veins of the Himmelsfürst mine at Freiberg, Saxony, where it has been known since 1720.

The species was named after J. K. Freiesleben, who had earlier HOTOVO JUNI

called it Schilf-Glaserz. Other localities are Hiendelaencina adversary's plan, and leaving a garrison to hold Freiburg, the near Guadalajara in Spain, Kapnik-Bánya in Hungary, and Bavarian army had made a night marchon the 9/1oth to the Abbey Guanajuato in Mexico. A species separated from freieslebenite of St Peter, whence on the morning of the 10th Mercy fell back by V. von Zepharovich in 1871, because of differences in crystalto Graben, his nearest magazine in the mountains. Turenne's line form, is known as diaphorite (from dadopá, “ difference"); advanced guard appeared from the Glotter Tal only to find a it is very similar to freieslebenite in appearance and has perhaps stubborn rearguard of cavalry in front of the abbey. A sharp the same chemical composition (or possibly Ag.Pb>b2$s), but action began, but Mercy hearing the drums and fifes of the is orthorhombic in crystallization. A third mineral also very French infantry in the Glotter Tal broke it off and continued his similar to freieslebenite in appearance is the orthorbombic retreat in good order. Enghien thus obtained little material andorite, AgPbSb So, which is mined as a silver ore'at Oruro in result from his manquvre. Only two guns and such of Mercy's Bolivia. wagons that were unable to keep up fell into the hands of the FREIGHT, (pronounced like "weight"; derived from the French. Enghien and Turenne did not continue the chase farther Dutch vracht or vrecht, in Fr. frel, the Eng. “fraught" being the than Graben, and Mercy fell back unmolested to Rothenburg on same word, and formerly used for the same thing, but now the Tauber.

only as an adjective= "laden ”), the lading or cargo of a ship, The moral results of this sanguinary fighting were, however, and the hire paid for their transport (sce AFFREIGHTMENT); important and perhaps justified the sacrifice of so many valuable from the original sense of water-transport of goods the word has soldiers. Enghien's pertinacity had not achieved a decision also come to be used for land-transit (particularly in America, with the sword, but Mercy had been so severely punished that by railroad), and by analogy for any load or burden. he was unable to interfere with his opponent's new plan of cam FREILIGRATH, FERDINAND (1810-1876), German poet, paign. This, which was carried out by the united armies and by was born at Detmold on the 17th of June 1810. He was educated reinforcements from France, while Turenne's cavalry screencd at the gymnasium of his native town, and in his sixteenth year them by bold demonstrations on the Tauber, led to nothing less was sent to Soest, with a view to preparing him for a cominercial than the conquest of the Rhine Valley from Basel to Coblenz, career. Here he had also time and opportunity to acquire a a task which was achieved so rapidly that the Army of France taste for French and English literature. The years from 1831 and its victorious young leader were free to return to France in to 1836 he spent in a bank at Amsterdam, and 1837 to 1839 in {wo months from the time of their appearance in Turenne's a business house at Barmen. In 1838 his Gedichte appeared quarters at Breisach.

and met with such extraordinary success that be gave up the

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