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of pressure caused inside when the wind blows over a ring of small holes drilled through the metal of a vertical tube which is closed at the upper end. The pressure differences on which the action depends are very small, and special means are required to register them, but in the ordinary form of recording anemometer (fig. 2), any wind capable of turning the vane which keeps the mouth of the tube facing the wind is capable of registration. The great advantage of the tube anemometer lies in the fact that the exposed part can be mounted on a high pole, and requires no oiling or attention for years; and the registering part can be placed in any convenient position, no matter how far from the external part. Two connecting tubes are required. It might appear at first sight as though one connexion would serve, but the differences in pressure on which these instruments depend are so minute, that the pressure of the air in the room where the recording part is placed has to be considered. Thus if the instrument depends on the pressure or suction effect alone, and this pressure or suction is measured against the air pressure in an ordinary room, in which the doors and windows are carefully closed and a newspaper is then burnt up the chimney, an effect may be produced equal to a wind of iom. an hour; and the opening of a

# £ F window in rough weather, or the opening of a door, may entirely alter the registration. The connexion between the velocity and the pressure of the wind is one that is not yet known with absolute certainty. Many text-books on engineering give the relation P=-oos v when P is the pressure in lb per sq. ft. and v the velocity in miles per hour. The history of this untrue relation is curious. It was given about the end of the 18th century as based on some experiments, but with a footnote stating that little reliance could be placed on it. The statement without the qualifying note was copied from book to book, and at last received general acceptance. There is no doubt that under average conditions of atmospheric density, the .oo5 should be replaced by ooj, for many independent authorities using different methods have found values very close to this last figure. It is probable that the wind pressure is not strictly proportional to the extent of the surface exposed. Pressure plates are generally of moderate size, from a half or quarter of a sq. ft. up to two or three sq. ft., are round or square, and for these sizes, and shapes, and of course for a flat surface, the relation P= .oo3 v” is fairly correct. In the tube anemometer also it is really the pressure that is measured, although the scale is usually graduated as a velocity scale. In cases where the density of the air is not of average value, as on a high mountain, or with an exceptionally low barometer for example, an allowance must be made. Approximately 13% should be added to the velocity recorded by a tube anemometer for each rooo ft. that it stands above sea-level. (W. H. D1.)

- Fig. 2.

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ANEMONE, or WIND-FloweR (from the Gr. Aveuos, wind), a genus of the buttercup order (Ranunculaceae), containing about ninety species in the north and south temperate zones. Anemone nemorosa, wood anemone, and A. Pulsatilla, Pasque-flower, occur in Britain; the latter is found on chalk downs and limestone pastures in some of the more southern and eastern counties. The plants are perennial herbs with an underground rootstock, and radical, more or less deeply cut, leaves. The elongated flower stem bears one or several, white, red, blue or rarely yellow, flowers; there is an involucre of three leaflets below each flower. The fruits often bear long hairy styles which aid their distribution by the wind. Many of the species are favourite garden plants; among the best known is Anemone coronaria, often called the poppy anemone, a tuberous-rooted plant, . with parsley-like divided leaves, and large showy poppy-like blossoms on stalks of from 6 to 9 in. high; the flowers are of various colours, but the principal are scarlet, crimson, blue, purple and white. There are also double-flowered varieties, in which the stamens in the centre are replaced by a tuft of narrow petals. It is an old garden favourite, and of the double forms there are named varieties. They grow best in a loamy soil, enriched with well-rotted manure, which should be dug in below the tubers. These may be planted in October, and for succession in January, the autumn-planted ones being protected by a covering of leaves or short stable litter. They will flower in May and June, and when the leaves have ripened should be taken up into a dry room till planting time. They are easily raised from the seed, and a bed of the single varieties is a valuable addition to a flower-garden, as it affords, in a warm situation, an abundance of handsome and often brilliant spring flowers, almost as early as the snowdrop or crocus. The genus contains many other lively spring-blooming plants, of which A. hortensis and A. fulgens have less divided leaves and splendid rosy-purple or scarlet flowers; they require similar treatment. Another set is represented by A. Pulsatilla, the Pasque-flower, whose violet blossoms have the outer surface hairy; these prefer a calcareous soil. The splendid A. japonica, and its white variety called Honorine Joubert, the latterespecially, are amongst the finest of autumn-blooming hardy perennials; they grow well in light soil, and reach 23 to 3 ft. in height, blooming continually for several weeks. A group of dwarf species, represented by the native British A. memorosa and A. apennina, are amongst the most beautiful of spring flowers for planting in woods and shady places. The genus Hepatica is now generally included in anemone as a subgenus. The plants are known in gardens as hepaticas, and are varieties of the common South European A. Hepatica; they are charming spring-flowering plants with usually blue flowers. ANENCLETUS, or ANACLETUS, second bishop of Rome. About the 4th century he is treated in the catalogues as two personsAnacletus and Cletus. According to the catalogues he occupied the papal chair for twelve years (c. 77-88). ANERIO, the name of two brothers, musical composers, very great Roman masters of 16th-century polyphony. Felice, the elder, was born about 1560, studied under G. M. Nanino and succeeded Palestrina in 1594 as composer to the papal chapel. Several masses and motets of his are printed in Proske's Musica Divina and other modern anthologies, and it is hardly too much to say that they are for the most part worthy of Palestrina himself. The date of his death is conjecturally given as 1630. His brother, Giovanni Francesco, was born about 1567, and seems to have died about 162o. The occasional attribution of some of his numerous compositions to his elder brother is a pardonable mistake, if we may judge by the works that have been reprinted. But the statement, which continues to be repeated in standard works of reference, that “he was one of the first of Italians to use the quaver and its subdivisions” is incomprehensible. Quavers were common property in all musical countries quite early in the 16th century, and semiquavers appear in a madrigal of Palestrina published in 1574. The two brothers are probably the latest composers who handled 16th-century music as their mother-language; suffering neither from the temptation to indulge even in such mild neologisms as they might have learnt from the elder brother's master, Nanino, nor from the necessity of preserving their purity of style by a mortified negative asceticism. They wrote pure polyphony because they understood it and loved it, and hence their work lives, as neither the progressive work of their own day nor the reactionary work of their imitators could live. The 12-part Stabat Mater in the seventh volume of Palestrina's complete works has been by some authorities ascribed to Felice Anerio. ANET, a town of northern France, in the department of Eure-et-Loir, situated between the rivers Eure and Vègre, 10 m. N.E. of Dreux by rail. Pop. (1906) 1324. It possesses the remains of a magnificent castle, built in the middle of the 16th century by Henry II. for Diana of Poitiers. Near it is the plain of Ivry, where Henry IV. defeated the armies of the League In 1590. ANEURIN, or ANEIRIN, the name of an early 7th-century British (Welsh) bard, who has been taken by Thomas Stephens (1821-1875), the editor and translator of Aneurin's principal epic poem Gododin, for a son of Gildas, the historian. Gododin is an account of the British defeat (603) by the Saxons at Cattraeth (identified by Stephens with Dawstane in Liddesdale), where Aneurin is said to have been taken prisoner; but the poem is very obscure and is differently interpreted. It was translated and edited by W. F. Skene in his Four Ancient Books of Wales (1866), and Stephens' version was published by the Cymmrodorion Society in 1888. See CELT: Literature (Welsh). ANEURYSM, or ANEURISM (from Gr. &vel piqua, a dilatation), a cavity or sac which communicates with the interior of an artery and contains blood. The walls of the cavity are formed either of the dilated artery or of the tissues around that vessel. The dilatation of the artery is due to a local weakness, the result of disease or injury. The commonest cause is chronic inflammation of the inner coats of the artery. The breaking of a bottle or glass in the hand is apt to cut through the outermost coat of the artery at the wrist (radial) and thus to cause a local weakening of the tube which is gradually followed by dilatation. Also when an artery is wounded and the wound in the skin and superficial structures heals, the blood may escape into the tissues, displacing them, and by its pressure causing them to condense and form the sac-wall. The coats of an artery, when diseased, may be torn by a severe strain, the blood escaping into the condensed tissues which thus form the aneurysmal sac. The division of aneurysms into two classes, true and false, is unsatisfactory. On the face of it, an aneurysm which is false is not an aneurysm, any more than a false bank-note is legal tender. A better classification is into spontaneous and traumatic, The man who has chronic inflammation of a large artery, the result, for instance, of gout, arduous, straining work, or kidneydisease, and whose artery yields under cardiac pressure, has a spontaneous aneurysm; the barman or window-cleaner who has cut his radial artery, the soldier whose brachial or femoral artery has been bruised by a rifle bullet or grazed by a bayonet, and the boy whose naked foot is pierced by a sharp nail, are apt to be the subjects of traumatic aneurysm. In those aneurysms which are a saccular bulging on one side of the artery the blood may be induced to coagulate, or may of itself deposit layer upon layer of pale clot, until the sac is obliterated. This laminar coagulation by constant additions gradually fills the aneurysmal cavity and the pulsation in the sac then ceases; contraction of the sac and its contents gradually takes place and the aneurysm is cured. But in those aneurysms which are fusiform dilatations of the vessel there is but slight chance of such cure, for the blood sweeps evenly through it without staying to deposit clot or laminated fibrine. In the treatment of aneurysm the aim is generally to lower the blood pressure by absolute rest and moderated diet, but a cure is rarely effected except by operation, which, fortunately, is now resorted to more promptly and securely than was previously the case. Without trying the speculative and dangerous method of treatment by compression, or the application of an indiarubber bandage, the surgeon now without loss of time cuts down upon the

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artery, and applics an aseptic ligature close above the dilatation. Experience has shown that this method possessesgreat advantages, and that it has none of the disadvantages which were formerly supposed to attend it. Saccular dilatations of arteries which are the result of cuts or other injuries are treated by tying the vessel above and below, and by dissecting out the aneurysm. Popliteal, carotid and other aneurysms, which are not of traumatic origin, are sometimes dealt with on this plan, which is the old “Method of Antyllus” with modern aseptic conditions. Speaking generally, if an aneurysm can be dealt with surgically the sooner that the artery is tied the better. Less heroic measures are too apt to prove painful, dangerous, ineffectual and disappointing. For aneurysm in the chest or abdomen (which cannot be dealt with by operation) the treatment may be tried of injecting a pure solution of gelatine into the loosc tissues of the armpit, so that the gelatine may find its way into the blood stream and increase the chance of curative coagulation in the distant aneurysmal sac. (E. O.") ANFRACTUOSITY (from Lat. aníractuosus, winding), twisting and turning, circuitousness; a word usually employed in the plural to denote winding channels such as occur in the depths of the sea, mountains, or the fissures (sulci) separating the convolutions of the brain, or, by analogy, in the mind. ANGARIA (from äyyapos, the Greek form of a Babylonian word adopted in Persian for “mounted courier”), a sort of postal system adopted by the Roman imperial government from the ancient Persians, among whom, according to Xenophon (Cyrop. viii. 6; cf. Herodotus viii. 98) it was established by Cyrus the Great. Couriers on horseback were posted at certain stages along the chief roads of the empire, for the transmission of royal despatches by night and day in all weathers. In the Roman system the supply of horses and their maintenance was a compulsory duty from which the emperor alone could grant exemption. The word, which in the 4th century was used for the heavy transport vehicles of the cursus publicus, and also for the animals by which they were drawn, came to mean generally “compulsory service.” So angaria, angariare, in medieval Latin, and the rare English derivatives “angariate,” “angariation,” came to mean any service which was forcibly or unjustly demanded, and oppression in general. ANGARY (Lat. jus angariae; Fr. droit d'angarie; Ger. Angarie; from the Gr. &YYapela, the office of an äyyapos, courier or messenger), the name given to the right of a belligerent to seize and apply for the purposes of war (or to prevent the enemy from doing so) any kind of property on belligerent territory, including that which may belong to subjects or citizens of a neutral state. Art. 53 of the Regulations respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land, annexed to the Hague Convention of 1899 on the same subject, provides that railway plant, land telegraphs, telephones, steamers and other ships (other than such as are governed by maritime law), though belonging to companies or private persons, may be used for military operations, but “must be restored at the conclusion of peace and indemnities paid for them.” And Art. 54 adds that “the plant of railways coming from neutral states, whether the property of those states or of companies or private persons, shall be sent back to them as soon as possible.” These articles seem to sanction the right of angary against neutral property, while limiting it as against both belligerent and neutral property. It may be considered, however, that the right to use implies as wide a range of contingencies as the “necessity of war” can be made to cover. (T. B.A.) ANGEL, a general term denoting a subordinate superhuman being in monotheistic religions, e.g. Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and in allied religions, such as Zoroastrianism. In polytheism the grades of superhuman beings are continuous; but in monotheism there is a sharp distinction of kind, as well as degree, between God on the one hand, and all other superhuman beings on the other; the latter are the “angels.” “Angel” is a transcription of the Gr. 5 yeAos, messenger. &YYeMos in the New Testament, and the corresponding mal'akh in the Old Testament, sometimes mean “messenger,” and sometimes “angel,” and this double sense is duly represented in the English Versions. “Angel” is also used in the English Version for "38 'Abbir, Ps. lxxviii. 25. (lit. “mighty"), for D'O?" "Elohim, Ps. viii. 5, and for the obscure 18w shin'ān, in Ps. lxviii. 17. In the later development of the religion of Israel, "Elohim is almost entirely reserved for the one true God; but in earlier times 'Elohim (gods), bné "Elohim, bné Elim (sons of gods, i.e. members of the class of divine beings) were general terms for superhuman beings. Hence they came to be used collectively of superhuman beings, distinct from Yahweh, and therefore inferior, and ultimately subordinate. So, too, the angels are styled “holy ones,” and “watchers,” and are spoken of as the “host of heaven”* or of “Yahweh.”* The “hosts,” n\"; Sebdóth in the title Yahweh Sebaoth, Lord of Hosts, were probably at one time identified with the angels." The New Testament often speaks of “spirits,” rvebuara. In the earlier periods of the religion of Israel, the doctrine of monotheism had not been formally stated, so that the idea of “angel” in the modern sense does not occur, but we find the Mal'akh Yahweh, Angel of the Lord, or Mal'akh Elohim, Angel of God. The Mal'akh Yahweh is an appearance or manifestation of Yahweh in the form of a man, and the term Mal'akh Yahweh is used interchangeably with Yahweh (cf. Exod. iii. 2, with iii. 4; xiii. 21 with xiv. 19). Those who see the Mal'akh Wahweh say they have seen God.” The Mal'akh Yahweh (or Elohim) appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and leads the Israelites in the Pillar of Cloud.” The phrase Mal'akh Yahweh may have been originally a courtly circumlocution for the Divine King; but it readily became a means of avoiding crude anthropomorphism, and later on, when the angels were classified, the Mal'akh Yahweh came to mean an angel of distinguished rank." The identificaton of the Mal'akh Yahweh with the Logos, or Second Person of the Trinity, is not indicated by the references in the Old Testament; but the idea of a Being partly identified with God, and yet in some sense distinct from Him, illustrates the tendency of religious thought to distinguish persons within the unity of the Godhead, and foreshadows the doctrine of the Trinity, at any rate in some slight degree. In the earlier literature the Mal'akh Yahweh or Elohim is almost the only mal'akh (“angel”) mentioned. There are, however, a few passages which speak of subordinate superhuman beings other than the Mal'akh Yahweh or Elohim. There are the cherubim who guard Eden. In Gen. xviii., xix. (J) the appearance of Yahweh to Abraham and Lot is connected with three, afterwards two, men or messengers; but possibly in the original form of the story Yahweh appeared alone." At Bethel, Jacob sees the angels of God on the ladder,” and later on they appear to him at Mahanaim.” In all these cases the angels, like the Mal'akh Yahweh, are connected with or represent a theophany. Similarly the “man” who wrestles with Jacob at Peniel is identified with God." In Isaiah vi. the seraphim, superhuman beings with six wings, appear as the attendants of Yahweh. Thus the pre-exilic literature, as we now have it, has little to say about angels or about superhuman beings other than Yahweh and manifestations of Yahweh; the pre-exilic prophets hardly mention angels.” Nevertheless we may well suppose that the popular religion of ancient Israel had much to say of superhuman beings other than Yahweh, but that the inspired writers have mostly suppressed references to them as unedifying. Moreover such beings were not strictly angels. * E.g. Gen. vi. 2; Job i. 6; Ps. viii. 5, xxix. 1. * Dan... iv. 13: .. ‘Deut: xvii.3 (?); * Josh. v. 14 ( * The identification of the “hosts" with the stars comes to the same thing; the stars were thought of as closely connected with

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angels. It is probable that the “hosts” were also identified with -the armies of Israel. Rev.i.4. * Gen. xxxii. 30; Judges xiii. 22. * Exod. iii. 2, xiv. 19. * Zech. i. 1 if. it Cf. xv.

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The doctrine of monotheism was formally expressed in the period immediately before and during the Exile, in Deuteronomy" and Isaiah"; and at the same time we find angels prominent in Ezekiel who, as a prophet of the Exile, may have been influenced by the hierarchy of supernatural beings in the Babylonian religion, and perhaps even by the angelology of Zoroastrianism.” Ezekiel gives elaborate discriptions of cherubim”; and in one of his visions he sees seven angels execute the judgment of God upon Jerusalem.” As in Genesis they are styled “men,” mal'akh for “angel” does not occur in Ezekiel. Somewhat later, in the visions of Zechariah, angels play a great part; they are sometimes spoken of as “men,” sometimes as mal'akh, and the Mal'akh Yahweh seems to hold a certain primacy among them.” Satan also appears to prosecute (so to speak) the High Priest before the divine tribunal.” Similarly in Job the bné Elohim, sons of God, appear as attendants of God, and amongst them Satan, still in his rôle of public prosecutor, the defendant being Job.” Occasional references to “angels” occur in the Psalter”; they appear as ministers of God. In Ps. lxxviii. 49 the “evil angels” of A.V. conveys a false impression; it should be “angels of evil,” as R.V., i.e. angels who inflict chastisement as ministers of God. The seven angels of Ezekiel may be compared with the seven eyes of Yahweh in Zech. iii. 9, iv. 10. The latter have been connected by Ewald and others with the later doctrine of seven chicf angels”, parallel to and influenced by the Ameshaspentas (Amesha Spenta), or seven great spirits of the Persian mythology, but the connexion is doubtful. In the Priestly Code, c. 400 B.C., there is no reference to angels apart from the possible suggestion in the ambiguous plural in Genesis i. 26. During the Persian and Greek periods the doctrine of angels underwent a great development, partly, at any rate, under foreign influences. In Daniel, c. 160 B.C., angels, usually spoken of as “men” or “princes,” appear as guardians or champions of the nations; grades are implied, there are “princes” and “chief" or “great princes”; and the names of some angels are known, Gabriel, Michael; the latter is pre-eminent”, he is the guardian of Judah. Again in Tobit a leading part is played by Raphael, “one of the seven holy angels.” In Tobit, too, we find the idea of the demon or evil angel. In the canonical Old Testament angels may inflict suffering as ministers of God, and Satan may act as accuser or tempter; but they appear as subordinate to God, fulfilling His will; and not as morally evil. The statement” that God “chargeth His angels with folly” applies to all angels. In Daniel the princes or guardian angels of the heathen nations oppose Michael the guardian angel of Judah. But in Tobit we find Asmodaeus the evil demon, rovmpöv bapóvtov, who strangles Sarah's husbands, and also a general reference to “a devil or evil spirit,” rvedua.” The Fall of the Angels is not properly a scriptural doctrine, though it is based on Gen. vi. 2, as interpreted by the Book of Enoch. It is true that the bné Elohim of that chapter are subordinate superhuman beings (cf. above), but they belong to a different order of thought from the angels of Judaism and of Christian doctrine; and the passage in no way suggests that the bné Elohim suffered any loss of status through their act. The guardian angels of the nations in Daniel probably represent the gods of the heathen, and we have there the first step of the process by which these gods became evil angels, an idea expanded by Milton in Paradise Lost. The development of the doctrine of an organized hierarchy of angels belongs to the Jewish literature of the period 200 B.C. to A.D. 100. In Jewish apocalypses especially, the imagination ran riot on the rank, classes and names of angels; and such works as the various books of Enoch and * Deut. vi. 4.5. * Isaiah xliii. 10 &c. * It is not however certain that these doctrines of Zoroastrianism were developed at so early a date. - * Zech. i. 11 f. * Zech. iii. 1.

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the Ascension of Isaiah supply much information on this subject. In the New Testament angels appear frequently as the ministers of God and the agents of revelation"; and Our Lord speaks of angels as fulfilling such functions', implying in one saying that they neither marry nor are given in marriage.” Naturally angels are most prominent in the Apocalypse. The New Testament takes little interest in the idea of the angelic hierarchy, but there are traces of the doctrine. The distinction of good and bad angels is recognized; we have names, Gabriel", and the evil angels Abaddon or Apollyon", Beelzebub", and Satan'; ranks are implied, archangels”, principalities and powers”, thrones and dominions”. Angels occur in groups of four or seven". In Rev. i-iii. we meet with the “Angels” of the Seven Churches of Asia Minor. These are probably guardian angels, standing to the churches in the same relation that the “princes” in Daniel stand to the nations; practically the “angels” are personifications of the churches. A less likely view is that the “angels” are the human representatives of the churches, the bishops or chief presbyters. There seems, however, no parallel to such a use of “angel,” and it is doubtful whether the monarchical government of churches was fully developed when the Apocalypse was written. Later Jewish and Christian speculation followed on the lines of the angelology of the earlier apocalypses; and angels play an important part in Gnostic systems and in the Jewish Midrashim and the Kabbala. Religious thought about the angels during the middle ages was much influenced by the theory of the angelic hierarchy set forth in the De Hierarchia Celesti, written in the 5th century in the name of Dionysius the Areopagite and passing for his. The creeds and confessions do not formulate any authoritative doctrine of angels; and modern rationalism has tended to deny the existence of such beings, or to regard the subject as one on which we can have no certain knowledge. The principle of continuity, however, seems to require the existence of beings intermediate between man and God. The Old Testament says nothing about the origin of angels; but the Book of Jubilees and the Slavonic Enoch describe their creation; and, according to Col. i. 16, the angels were created in, unto and through Christ. Nor does the Bible give any formal account of the nature of angels. It is doubtful how far Ezekiel's account of the cherubim and Isaiah's account of the seraphim are to be taken as descriptions of actual beings; they are probably figurative, or else subjective visions. Angels are constantly spoken of as “men,” and, including even the Angel of Yahweh, are spoken of as discharging the various functions of human life; they eat and drink”, walk” and speak". Putting aside the cherubim and seraphim, they are not spoken of as having wings. On the other hand they appear and vanish", exercise miraculous powers", and fly". Seeing that the anthropomorphic language used of the angels is similar to that used of God, the Scriptures would hardly seem to require a literal interpretation in either case. A special association is found, both in the Bible and elsewhere, between the angels and the heavenly bodies", and the elements or elemental forces, fire, water, &c". The angels are infinitely numerous”. The function of the angels is that of the supernatural servants of God, His agents and representatives; the Angel of Yahweh, as we have seen, is a manifestation of God. In old times, the bné Elohim and the seraphim are His court, and the angels are alike the court and the army of God; the cherubim are his throne-bearers. In his dealings with men, the angels, as their * E.g. Matt.i.20 (to Joseph), iv. 11 (to Jesus), Lukei.26 (to Mary), Acts xii. { (to Peter). - * E.g. Mark viii. 38, xiii. 27. * Mark xii. 25. * Rev. ix. 11. * Mark iii. 22. t * Michael, Jude 9. * Rom. viii. 38; Col. ii. Io. 10 Col. i. 16. * Rev. vii. i. * Gen. xviii. 8. * Gen. xix. 16. * Zech. iv. 1. * Judges vi. 12, 21. * Rev. vii. i. viii. * Rev. viii. 13, xiv. 6. is £ 7; Asc. of Isaiah, iv., 18; Slav. Enoch, iv. 1.

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name implies, are specially His messengers, declaring His will and executing His commissions. Through them he controls nature and man. They are the guardian angels of the nations; and we also find the idea that individuals have guardian angels". Later Jewish tradition held that the Law was given by angels”. According to the Gnostic Basilides, the world was created by angels. Mahommedanism has taken over and further elaborated the Jewish and Christian ideas as to angels. While the scriptural statements imply a belief in the existence of spiritual beings intermediate between God and men, it is probable that many of the details may be regarded merely as symbolic imagery. In Scripture the function of the angel overshadows his personality; the stress is on their ministry; they appear in order to perform specific acts. Binliography.—See the sections on “Angels” in the handbooks of O.T. Theology by Ewald, Schultz, Smend, Kayser-Marti, &c.; and of N. T. Theology by Weiss, and in van Oosterzee's Dogmatics. Also commentaries on special passages, especially Driver and Bevan on Daniel, and G.A. Smith, Minor Prophets, ii. 31off.; and articles s.t." Angel" in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, and the ##" Biblica. (W. H. B.E.) ANGEL, a gold coin, first used in France (angelot, ange) in 1340, and introduced into England by Edward IV. in 1465 as a new issue of the “noble,” and so at first called the “angel-noble.” It varied in value between that period and the time of Charles I. (when it was last coined) from 6s. 8d. to 10s. The name was derived from the representation it bore of St Michael and the dragon. The angel was the coin given to those who came to be touched for the disease known as king's evil; after it was no longer coined, medals, called touch-pieces, with the same device, were given instead. ANGELICA, a genus of plants of the natural order Umbelliferae, represented in Britain by one species, A. sylvestris, a tall perennial herb with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels of white or purple flowers. The name Angelica is popularly given to a plant of an allied genus, Archangelica officinalis, the tender shoots of which are used in making certain kinds of aromatic sweetmeats. Angelica balsam is obtained by extracting the roots with alcohol, evaporating and extracting the residue with ether. It is of a dark brown colour and contains angelica oil, angelica wax and angelicin, CisB.O. The essential oil of the roots of Angelica archangelica contains 6-terebangelene, C10H16, and other terpenes; the oil of the seeds also contains 8-terebangelene, together with methylethylacetic acid and hydroxymyristic acid. The angelica tree is a member of the order Avaliaceae, a species of Aralia (A. spinosa), a native of North America; it grows 8 to 12 ft. high, has a simple prickle-bearing stem forming an umbrella-like head, and much divided leaves. ANGELIC0, FRA (1387–1455), Italian painter, Il Beato Fra Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole is the name given to a far-famed painter-friar of the Florentine state in the 15th century, the representative, beyond all other men, of pietistic painting. He is often, but not accurately, termed simply “Fiesole,” which is merely the name of the town where he first took the vows; more often Fra Angelico. If we turn his compound designation into English, it runs thus—“the Beatified Friar John the Angelic of Fiesole.” In his lifetime he was known no doubt simply as Fra Giovanni or Friar John; “The Angelic” is a laudatory term which was assigned to him at an early date, -we find it in use within thirty years after his death; and, at some period which is not defined in our authorities, he was beatified by due ecclesiastical process. His baptismal name was Guido, Giovanni being only his name in religion. He was born at Vicchio, in the Tuscan province of Mugello, of unknown but seemingly well-to-do parentage, in 1387 (not 1390 as sometimes stated); in 1407 he became a novice in the convent of S. Domenico at Fiesole, and in 1408 he took the vows and entered the Dominican order. Whether he had previously been a painter by profession is not certain, but may be pronounced probable. The painter named Lorenzo Monaco may have contributed to his art-training, and the influence of the Sienese school is discernible in his work. * Matt. xviii. 10; Acts xii. 15. * Gal. iii. 19; Heb. ii. 2; LXX. of Deut. xxxiii. 2.

According to Vasari, the first paintings of this artist were in the Certosa of Florence; none such exist there now. His earliest extant performances, in considerable number, are at Cortona, whither he was sent during his novitiate, and here apparently he spent all the opening years of his monastic life. His first works executed in fresco were probably those, now destroyed, which he painted in the convent of S. Domenico in this city; as a frescopainter, he may have worked under, or as a follower of, Gherardo Starnina. From 1418 to 1436 he was back at Fiesole; in 1436 he was transferred to the Dominican convent of S. Marco in Florence, and in 1438 undertook to paint the altarpiece for the choir, followed by many other works; he may have studied about this time the renowned frescoes in the Brancacci chapel in the Florentine church of the Carmine and also the paintings of Orcagna. In or about 1445 he was invited by the pope to Rome. The pope who reigned from 1431 to 1447 was Eugenius IV., and he it was who in 1445 appointed another Dominican friar, a colleague of Angelico, to be archbishop of Florence. If the story (first told by Vasari) is true-that this appointment was made at the suggestion of Angelico only after the archbishopric had been offered to himself, and by him declined on the ground of his inaptitude for so elevated and responsible a station-Eugenius, and not (as stated by Vasari) his successor Nicholas V., must have been the pope who sent the invitation and made the offer to Fra Giovanni, for Nicholas only succeeded in 1447. The whole statement lacks authentication, though in itself credible enough. Certain it is that Angelico was staying in Rome in the first half of 1447; and he painted in the Vatican the Cappella del Sacramento, which was afterwards demolished by Paul III. In June 1447 he proceeded to Orvieto, to paint in the Cappella Nuova of the cathedral, with the co-operation of his pupil Benozzo Gozzoli. He afterwards returned to Rome to paint the chapel of Nicholas V. In this capital he died in 1455, and he lies buried in the church of the Minerva. According to all the accounts which have reached us, few men on whom the distinction of beatification has been conferred could have deserved it more nobly than Fra Giovanni. He led a holy and self-denying life, shunning all advancement, and was a brother to the poor; no man ever saw him angered. He painted with unceasing diligence, treating none but sacred subjects; he never retouched or altered his work, probably with a religious feeling that such as divine providence allowed the thing to come, such it should remain He was wont to say that he who illustrates the acts of Christ should be with Christ. It is averred that he never handled a brush without fervent prayer and he wept when he painted a Crucifixion. . The Last Judgment and the Annunciation were two of the subjects he most frequently treated. Bearing in mind the details already given as to the dates of Fra Giovanni's sojournings invarious localities, the reader will be able to trace approximately the sequence of the works which we now proceed to name as among his most important productions. In Florence, in the convent of S. Marco (now converted into a national museum), a series of frescoes, beginning towards 1443; in the first cloister is the Crucifixion with St Dominic kneeling; and the same treatment recurs on a wall near the dormitory; in the chapterhouse is a third Crucifixion, with the Virgin swooning, a composition of twenty life-sized figures—the red background, which has a strange and harsh effect, is the misdoing of some restorer; an “Annunciation,” the figures of about three-fourths of life-size, in a dormitory; in the adjoining passage, the “Virgin cnthroned,” with four saints; on the wall of a cell, the “Coronation of the Virgin,” with Saints Paul, Thomas Aquinas, Benedict, Dominic, Francis and Peter Martyr; two Dominicans welcoming Jesus, habited as a pilgrim; an “Adoration of the Magi"; the “Marys at the Sepulchre.” All these works are later than the altarpiece which Angelico painted (as before mentioned) for the choir connected with this convent, and which is now in the academy of Florence; it represents the Virgin with Saints Cosmas and Damian (the patrons of the Medici family), Dominic, Peter, Francis, Mark, John Evangelist and Stephen; the pediment illustrated the lives of Cosmas and Damian, but it has long been

severed from the main subject. In the Uffizigallery, an altarpiece, the Virgin (life-sized) enthroned, with the Infant and twelve angels. In S. Domenico, Fiesole, a few frescoes, less fine than those in S. Marco; also an altarpiece in tempera of the Virgin and Child between Saints Peter, Thomas Aquinas, Dominic and Peter Martyr, now much destroyed. The subject which originally formed the predella of this picture has, since 1860, been in the National Gallery, London, and worthily represents there the hand of the saintlv painter. The subject is a Glory, Christ with the banner of the Resurrection, and a multitude of saints, including, at the extremities, the saints or beati of the Dominican order; here are no fewer than 266 figures or portions of figures, many of them having names inscribed. This predella was highly lauded by Vasari; still more highly another picture which used to form an altarpiece in Fiesole, and which now obtains world-wide celebrity in the Louvre—the “Coronation of the Virgin,” with eight predella subjects of the miracles of St. Dominic. For the church of Santa Trinita, Florence, Angelico executed a “Deposition from the Cross,” and for the church of the Angeli, a “Last Judgment,” both now in the Florentine academy; for S. Maria Novella, a “Coronation of the Virgin,” with a predella in three sections, now in the Uffizi,-this again is one of his masterpieces. In Orvieto cathedral he painted three triangular divisions of the ceiling, portraying respectively Christ in a glory of angels, sixteen saints and prophets, and the virgin and apostles: all these are now much repainted and damaged. In Rome, in the Chapel of Nicholas V., the acts of Saints Stephen and Lawrence; also various figures of saints, and on the ceiling the four evangelists. These works of the painter's advanced age, which have suffered somewhat from restorations, show vigour superior to that of his youth, along with a more adequate treatment of the architectural perspectives. Naturally, there are a number of works currently attributed to Angelico, but not really his; for instance, a “St Thomas with the Madonna's girdle,” in the Lateran museum, and a “Virgin enthroned,” in the church of S. Girolamo, Fiesole. It has often been said that he commenced and frequently practised as an illuminator; this is dubious and a presumption arises that illuminations executed by Giovanni's brother, Benedetto, also a Dominican, who died in 1448, have been ascribed to the more famous artist. Benedetto may perhaps have assisted Giovanni in the frescoes at S. Marco, but nothing of the kind is distinctly traceable. A folio series of engravings from these paintings was published in Florence, in 1852. Along with Gozzoli already mentioned, Zanobi Strozzi and Gentile da Fabriano are named as pupils of the Beato. We have spoken of Angelico's art as “pietistic”; this is in act its predominant character. His visages have an air of rapt suavity, devotional fervency and beaming esoteric consciousness, which is intensely attractive to some minds and realizes beyond rivalry a particular ideal-that of ecclesiastical saintliness and detachment from secular fret and turmoil. It should not be denied that he did not always escape the pitfalls of such a method of treatment, the faces becoming sleek and prim, with a smirk of sexless religiosity which hardly eludes the artificial or even the hypocritical; on other minds, therefore, and these some of the most masculine and resolute, he produces little genuine impression. After allowing for this, Angelico should nevertheless be accepted beyond cavil as an exalted typical painter according to his own range of conceptions, consonant with his monastic calling, unsullied purity of life and exceeding devoutness. Exquisite as he is in his special mode of execution, he undoubtedly falls far short, not only of his great naturalist contemporaries such as Masaccio and Lippo Lippi, but even of so distant a precursor as Giotto, in all that pertains to bold or life-like invention of a subject or the realization of ordinary appearances, expressions and actions—the facts of nature, as distinguished from the aspirations or contemplations of the spirit. Technically speaking, he had much finish and harmony of composition and colour, without corresponding mastery of light and shade, and his knowledge of the human frame was restricted. The brilliancy and fair light scale of his tints is constantly remarkable, combined with a free use of gilding; this conduces materially to that celestial character

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