Page images

treasures. On the 22nd of July 1474 he drew up a will by which Préliminaires (including a summary of the history of Anjou), contain, he divided the succession between his grandson René II. of in addition to the biographies of the chief counts of Anjou, a mass

of information concerning everything connected with Angevin Lorraine and his nephew Charles II., count of Maine. On hearing history.

(L. H.) this, King Louis XI., who was the son of one of King Rene's sisters, sceing that his expectations were thus completely ANKERITE, a member of the mineral group of rhombohedral frustrated, seized the duchy of Anjou. He did not keep it very carbonates. In composition it is closcly related to dolomite, long, but became reconciled to René in 1476 and restored it to but differs from this in having magnesia replaced by varying him, on condition, probably, that René should bequeath it to amounts of ferrous and mangánous oxides, the general formula him. However that may be, on the death of the latter (1oth being Ca(Mg,Fe, Mn)(CO3)2. Normal ankerite is Ca, MgFe(CO3).. of July 1480) he again added Anjou to the royal domain. The crystallographic and physical characters resemble those

Later, King Francis I. again gave the duchy as an appanage of dolomite and chalybite. The angle between the perfect to his mother, Louise of Savoy, by letters patent of the 4th of rhombohedral cleavages is 73° 48', the hardness 3 to 4, and the February 1515. On her death, in September 1531, the duchy specific gravity 2.9 to 3.1; but these will vary slightly with the returned into the king's possession. In 1552 it was given as chemical composition. The colour is white, grey or reddish. an appanage by Henry II. to his son Henry of Valois, who, on Ankerite occurs with chalybite in deposits of iron-ore. It becoming king in 1574, with the title of Henry III., conceded it is one of the minerals of the dolomite-chalybite series, to which to his brother Francis, duke of Alençon, at the treaty of Beaulieu the terms brown-spar, pearl-spar and bitter-spar are loosely near Loches (6th of May 1576). Francis died on the roth of June applied. It was first recognized as a distinct species by W. von 1584, and the vacant appanage definitively became part of the Haidinger in 1825, and named by him after M. J. Anker of royal domain.


(L. J. S.) At first Anjou was included in the gouvernement (or military ANKLAM, or ANCLAM, a town of Germany in the Prussian command) of Orléanais, but in the 17th century was made into province of Pomerania, on the Pecne, 5 m. from its mouth in the a separate one. Saumur, however, and the Saumurois, for which Kleines Haff, and 53 m. N.W. of Stettin, by the railway to King Henry IV. had in 1589 created an independent military Stralsund. Pop. (1900) 14,602. The fortifications of Anklam governor-generalship in favour of Duplessis-Mornay, continued were dismantled in 1762 and have not since been restored, altill the Revolution to form a separate gouvernement, which in-though the old walls are still standing; formerly, however, it was cluded, besides Anjou, portions of Poitou and Mirebalais. a town of considerable military importance, which suffered Attached to the generalile (administrative circumscription) of severely during the Thirty Years' and the Seven Years' Wars; Tours, Anjou on the eve of the Revolution comprised five and this fact, together with the repeated ravages of fire and of the dections (judicial districts):-Angers, Beaugé, Saumur, Château-plague, has made its history more eventful than is usually the case Gontier, Montreuil-Bellay and part of the elections of La Flèche with towns of the same size. It does not possess any remarkable and Richelieu. Financially it formed part of the so-called pays buildings, although it contains several, private as well as public, de gronde gabelle (see GABELLE), and comprised sixteen special that are of a quaint and picturesque style of architecture. The tribunals, or greniers d sel (salt warehouses) :-Angers, Beaugé, church of St Mary (12th century) has a modern tower, 335 ft. Beaufort, Bourgueil, Candé, Château-Gontier, Cholet, Craon, high. The industries consist of iron-foundries and factories for La Flèche, Saint-Florent-le-Vieil

, Ingrandes, Le Lude, Pouancé, sugar and soap; and there is a military school. The Peene is Saint-Remy-la-Varenne, Richelieu, Saumur. From the point navigable up to the town, which has a considerable trade in its of view of purely judicial administration, Anjou was subject own manufactures, as well as in the produce of the surrounding to the parlement of Paris; Angers' was the seat of a presidial country, while some shipbuilding is carried on in wharves on the court, of which the jurisdiction comprised the sénéchaussées river. of Angers, Saumur, Beaugé, Beaufort and the duchy of Richelieu; Anklam, formerly Tanglim, was originally a Slav fortress; it there were besides presidial courts at Château-Gontier and La obtained civic rights in 1244 and joined the Hanseatic league. In Flèche. When the Constituent Assembly, on the 26th of 1648 it passed to Sweden, but in 1676 was retaken by Frederick February 1790, decreed the division of France into departments, William I. of Brandenburg, and after being plundered by the Anjou and the Saumurois, with the exception of certain territories, Russians in 1713 was ceded to Prussia by the peace of Stockholm formed the department of Maine-et-Loire, as at present constituted.

ANKLE, or ANCLE (a word common, in various forms, to AUTHORITIES.-(1) Principal Sources: The history of Anjou may Teutonic languages, probably connected in origin with the Lat. be told partly with the aid of the chroniclers of the neighbouring angulus, or Gr. åyxúdos, bent), the joint which connects the provinces, especially those of Normandy (William of Poitiers, William of Jumièges, Ordericus Vitalis) and of Maine (especially foot with the leg (sec JOINTS). Aclus pontificum Cenomannis in urbe degentium). . For the toth, ANKOBER, a town in, and at one time capital of, the kingdom uith and 12th centuries especially, there are some important texts of Shoa, Abyssinia, 90 m. N.E. of Adis Ababa, in 9° 34' N., 39° 54' dealing entirely with Anjou. The most important is the chronicle E., on a mountain about 8500 ft. above the sea. Ankober was called Gesta consulum Andegavorum, of which only a poor edition exists (Chroniques des comtes d'Anjou, published by Marchegay and

made (c. 1890) by Menelek II. the place of detention of political Salmon, with an introduction by E. Mabille, Paris, 1856-1871, prisoners. Pop. about 2000. collection of the Société de l'histoire de France). See also with reser ANKYLOSIS, or ANCHYLOSIS (from Gr. áykúlos, bent, ence to this text. Louis Halphen. Etude sur les chroniques des comtes crooked), a stiffness of a joint, the result of injury or disease. The supplemented by some valuable annals published by Louis Halphen, rigidity may be complete or partial and may be due to inflammaRecueil d'annales ongevines el vendômoises (Paris, 1903), (in the tion of the tendinous or muscular structures outside the joint or series Colleclion de textes pour servir à l'étude et à l'enseignement de of the tissues of the joint itself. When the structures outside the l'histoire). For further details see Auguste Molinier, Les Sources de joint are affected, the term "false" ankylosis has been used in l'histoire de France (Paris, 1902), ii. 1276-1310, and the book of contradistinction to "true" ankylosis, in which the disease is Louis Halphen mentioned below.

(2) Works:. The Art de vérifier les dates contains a history of within the joint. When inflammation has caused the joint-ends of Anjou which is very much out of date, but has not been treated the bones to be fused together the ankylosis is termed osseous or elsewbere as a whole. The uith century only has been treated in complete. Excision of a completely ankylosed shoulder or elbow detail by Louis Halphen, in Le Comté d'Anjou au XI siècle (Paris, 1906), which has a preface with bibliography and an introduction may restore free mobility and usefulness to the limb. “Anky. dealing with the history of Anjou in the roth century. For the 10th, losis” is also used as an anatomical term, bones being said to uth and 12th centuries, a good summary will be found in Kate ankylose (or anchylose) when, from being originally distinct, they On René of Anjou, there is a book by A. Lecoy de la Marche, Le Roi place between them. Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings (2 vols., London, 1887): coalesce, or become so joined together that no motion can take René (2 vols., Paris, 1875). Lastly, the work of Célestin Port, Dictionnaire historique, géographique et biographique de Maine-et ANKYLOSTOMIASIS, or ANCHYLOSTOMIASIS (also called Loire (3 vols., Paris and Angers, 1874-1878), and its small volume of 1 helminthiasis, “miners' anaemia," and in Germany Wurmkrank

in 1720.

heil), a disease to which in recent years much attention has been Italy, accompanied by Goethe. She died on the roth of April paid, from its prevalence in the mining industry in England, 1807. A memorial of the duchess is included in Goethe's works France, Germany, Belgium, North Queensland and elsewhere. under the title Zum Andenken der Fürstin Anno-Amalia. This disease (apparently known in Egypt even in very ancient See F. Bornhak, Anna Amalia Herzogin von Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach times) caused a great mortality among the negroes in the West (Berlin, 1892). Indies towards the end of the 18th century; and through

ANNABERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, descriptions sent from Brazil and various other tropical and in the Erzgebirge, 1894 ft. above the sea, 6 m. from the Bohemian sub-tropical regions, it was subsequently identified, chiefly frontier, 18} m. S. by E. from Chemnitz by rail. Pop. (1905) through the labours of Bilharz and Griesinger in Egypt (1854), as 16,811. It has three Evangelical churches, among them that of being due to the presence in the intestine of nematoid worms St Anne, built 1499-1525, a Roman Catholic church, several (Ankylostoma duodenalis) from one-third to half an inch long. The public monuments, among them those of Luther, of the famous symptoms, as first observed among the negroes, were pain in the arithmetician Adam Riese, and of Barbara Uttmann. Annastomach, capricious appetite, pica (or dirt-eating), obstinate berg, together with the neighbouring suburb, Buchholz, is the constipation followed by diarrhoea, palpitations, small and chief seat of the braid and lace-making industry in Germany, unsteady pulse, coldness of the skin, pallor of the skin and mucous introduced here by Barbara Uttmann in 1961, and further membranes, diminution of the secretions, loss of strength and developed by Belgian refugees, who, driven from their country in cases running a fatal course, dysentery, haemorrhages and by the duke of Alva, settled here in 1590. The mining industry, dropsies. The parasites, which cling to the intestinal mucous for which the town was formerly also famous and which embraced membrane, draw their nourishment from the blood-vessels of tin, silver and cobalt, has now ceased. Annaberg has technical their host, and as they are found in hundreds in the body after schools for lace-making, commerce and agriculture, in addition death, the disorders of digestion, the increasing anaemia and the to high grade public schools for boys and girls. consequent dropsies and other cachectic symptoms are easily ANNABERGITE, a mineral consisting of a hydrous nickel explained. The disease was first known in Europe among the arsenate, Nis(AsOs)+8H:0, crystallizing in the monoclinic Italian workmen employed on the St Gotthard tunnel. In 1896, system and isomorphous with vivianite and erythrite. Crystals though previously unreported in Germany, 107 cases were are minute and capillary and rarely met with, the mineral registered there, and the number rose to 295 in 1900, and 1030 in occurring usually as soft earthy masses and encrustations. A 1901. In England an outbreak at the Dolcoath mine, Cornwall, fine apple-green colour is its characteristic feature. It was long in 1902, led to an investigation for the home office by Dr Haldane known (since 1758) under the name nickel-ochre; the name F.R.S. (sec especially the Parliamentary Paper, numbered Cd. annabergite was proposed by H. J. Brooke and W. H. Miller in 1843), and since then discussions and inquiries have been frequent. 1852, from Annaberg in Saxony, one of the localities of the A committee of the British Association in 1904 issued a valuable mineral

. It occurs with ores of nickel, of which it is a product report on the subject. After the Spanish-American War American of alteration. A variety, from Creetown in Kirkcudbrightshire, physicians had also given it their attention, with valuable results; in which a portion of the nickel is replaced by calcium, has been see Stiles (Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin, No. 10, Washington, called dudgeonite, after P. Dudgeon, who found it. (L. J. S.) 1903). The American parasite described by Stiles, and called ANNA COMNENA, daughter of the emperor Alexius I. Úncinario americana (whence the name Uncinariasis for this Comnenus, the first woman historian, was born on the ist of disease) differs slightly from the Ankylostoma. The parasites December 1083. She was her father's favourite and was carethrive in an environment of dirt, and the main lines of precaution fully trained in the study of poetry, science and Greek philosophy. are those dictated by sanitary science. Malefern, santonine, But, though learned and studious, she was intriguing and thymol and other anthelmintic remedies are prescribed. ambitious, and ready to go to any lengths to gratify her longing

ANNA, BALDASARRE, a painter who flourished during part for power. Having married an accomplished young nobleman, of the 16th

and 17th centuries. He was born at Venice, probably Nicephorus Bryennius, she united with the empress Irene in about 1560, and is said to have been of Flemish descent. The date a vain attempt to prevail upon her father during his last illness of his death is uncertain, but he seems to have been alive in 1639. to disinherit his son and give the crown to her husband. Still For a number of years he studied under Leonardo Corona, and on undeterred, she entered into a conspiracy to depose her brother the death of that painter completed several works left unfinished after his accession; and when her husband refused to join in the by him. His own activity scems to have been confined to the enterprise, she exclaimed that "nature had mistaken their production of pieces for several of the churches and a few private sexes, for he ought to have been the woman.” The plot being houses in Venice, and the old guide-books and descriptions of the discovered, Anna forfeited her property and fortune, though, by city notice a considerable number of paintings by him. Scarcely the clemency of her brother, she escaped with her life. Shortly any of these, however, have survived.

afterwards, she retired into a convent and employed her leisure ANNA (Hindustani ona), an Indian penny, the sixteenth part in writing the Aleriad a history, in Greek, of her father's life of a rupee. The term belongs to the Mahommedan mone and reign (1081-1118), supplementing the historical work of her tary system (see RUPEE). There is no coin of onc anna, but husband. It is rather a family panegyric than a scientific history, there are half-annas of copper and two-anna pieces of which the affection of the daughter and the vanity of the The term anna is frequently used to express a fraction. Thus an author stand out prominently. Trifling acts of her father are Anglo-Indian speaks of two annas of dark blood (an octoroon), described at length in exaggerated terms, while little notice is a four-anna (quarter) crop, an eight-anna (half) gallop.

taken of important constitutional matters. A determined ANNA AMALIA (1739-1807), duchess of Saxe-Weimar, opponent of the Latin church and an enthusiastic admirer of the daughter of Charles I., duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, was Byzantine empire, Anna Comnena regards the Crusades as a born at Wolfenbüttel on the 24th of October 1739, and married danger both political and religious. Her models are Thucydides, Ernest, duke of Saxe-Weimar, 1756. Her husband died in 1758, Polybius and Xenophon, and her style exhibits the striving after leaving her regent for their infant son, Charles Augustus. During Atticism characteristic of the period, with the result that the the protracted minority she administered the affairs of the language is highly artificial. Her chronology especially isdefective. duchy with the greatest prudence, strengthening its resources Editions in Bonn Corpus Scriptorum Hist. Byz., by J. Schopen and improving its position in spite of the troubles of the Seven

and A. Reifferscheid (1839-1878), with Du Cange's valuable comYears' War. She was a patroness of art and literature, and C. Krumbacher, Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur (2nd ed.

mentary: and Teubner series, by A. Reifferscheid (1884). See also attracted to Weimar many of the most eminent men in Germany 1897), C. Neumann, Griechische Geschichtschreiber im 12 Jahrhunderte Wieland was appointed tutor to her son; and the names of (1888). E. Oster, Anna Komnena (Rastatt, 1868-1871): Gibbon, Herder, Goethe and Schiller shed an undying lustre on her court. In 1775 she retired into private life, her son having attained his (1877); 2. Adam, Princesses byzantines (1893): Sir Walter Scott, Count Robert of Paris; L. du Sommerard, Anne Comnene ...

Agnes majority. In 1788 she set out on a lengthened tour through I de France (1907); C. Diehl, Figures byzantines (1906).

ANNA LEOPOLDOVNA, sometimes called ANNA CARLOVNA | in Latin began, and a livelier interest was awakened in the (1718-1746), regent of Russia for a few months during the history of Rome. Among the principal writers of this class who minority of her son Ivan, was the daughter of Catherine, sister succeeded Cato, the following may be mentioned. L. CASSIUS of the empress Anne, and Charles Leopold, duke of Mecklenburg- HEMINA (about 146), in the fourth book of his Annals, wrote on Schwerin. In 1739 she married Anton Ulrich (d. 1775), son of the Second Punic War. His researches went back to very early Ferdinand Albert, duke of Brunswick, and their son Ivan was times; Pliny (Nat. Hist. xlii. 13 (271) calls him velustissimus adopted in 1740 by the empress and proclaimed heir to the auctor annalium. L. CALPURNIUS Piso, surnamed Frugi (sce Russian throne. A few days after this proclamation the empress under Piso), wrote seven books of annals, relating the history died, leaving directions regarding the succession, and appointing of the city from its foundation down to his own times. Livy her favourite Ernest Biren, duke of Courland, as regent. Biren, regards him as a less trustworthy authority than Fabius Pictor, however, had made himself an object of detestation to the and Niebuhr considers him the first to introduce systematic Russian people, and Anna had little difficulty in overthrowing forgeries into Roman history. Q. CLAUDIUS QUADRIGARIUS bis power. She then assumed the regency, and took the title of (about 80 B.c.) wrote a history, in at least twenty-three books, grand-duchess, but she knew little of the character of the people i which began with the conquest of Rome by the Gauls and went with whom she had to deal, was utterly ignorant of the approved down to the death of Sulla or perhaps later. He was freely used Russian mode of government, and speedily quarrelled with her by Livy in part of his work (from the sixth book onwards). A principal supporters. In December 1741, Elizabeth, daughter long fragment is preserved in Aulus Gellius (ix. 13), giving an of Peter the Great, who, from her habits, was a favourite with account of the single combat between Manlius Torquatus and the soldiers, excited the guards to revolt, overcame the slight the Gaul. His language was antiquated and his style dry, but opposition that was offered, and was proclaimed empress. Ivan his work was considered important. VALERIUS ANTIAS, a was thrown into prison, where he soon afterwards perished. younger contemporary of Quadrigarius, wrote the history of Anna and her husband were banished to a small island in the Rome from the earliest times, in a voluminous work consisting river Dvina, where on the 18th of March 1746 she died in of seventy-five books. He is notorious for his wilful exaggerachildbed.

tion, both in narrative and numerical statements. For instance, ANNALISTS (from Lat. annus, year; hence annales, sc. he asserts the number of the Sabine virgins to have been exactly libri, annual records), the name given to a class of writers on 527; again, in a certain year when no Greek or Latin writers Roman history, the period of whose literary activity lasted from mention any important campaign, Antias speaks of a big battle the time of the Second Punic War to that of Sulla. They wrote with enormous casualties. Nevertheless, Livy at first made use the history of Rome from the earliest times (in most cases) down of him as one of his chief authorities, until he became convinced to their own days, the events of which were treated in much of his untrustworthiness. C. LICINIUS MACER (died 66), who greater detail. For the earlier period their authorities were has been called the last of the annalists, wrote a voluminous state and family records-above all, the annales maximi (or work, which, although he paid great attention to the study of annales pontificum), the official chronicle of Rome, in which the his authorities, was too rhetorical, and exaggerated the achievenotable occurrences of each year from the foundation of the city ments of his own family. Having been convicted of extortion, were set down by the pontifex maximus. Although these andals he committed suicide (Cicero, De Legibus,- i. 2, Brulus, 67; were no doubt destroyed at the time of the burning of Rome by Plutarch, Cicero, 9). the Gauls, they were restored as far as possible and continued The writers mentioned dealt with Roman history as a whole; until the pontificate of P. Mucius Scaevola, by whom they were some of the annalists, however, confined themselves to shorter finally published in eighty books. Two generations of these periods. Thus, L. CAELIUS ANTIPATER (about 120) limited annalists have been distinguished-an older and a younger. himself to the Second Punic War. His work was overloaded with The older, which extends to 150 B.C., set forth, in bald, un- rhetorical embellishment, which he was the first to introduce attractive language, without any pretensions to style, but with into Roman history. He was regarded as the most careful a certain amount of trustworthiness, the most important events writer on the war with Hannibal, and one who did not allow of each successive year. Cicero (De Oralore, ii, 12. 53), comparing himself to be blinded by partiality in considering the evidence these writers with the old Ionic logographers, says that they of other writers (Cicero, De Oratore, ii. 12). Livy made great paid no attention to ornament, and considered the only merits use of him in his third decade. SEMPRONIUS ASELLIO (about of a writer to be intelligibility and conciseness. Their annals 100 B.C.), military tribune of Scipio Africanus at the siege of were a mere compilation of facts. The younger generation, in Numantia, composed Rerum Gestarum Libri in at least fourteen view of the requirements and criticism of a reading public, books. As he himself took part in the events he describes, his cultivated the art of composition and rhetorical embellishment. work was a kind of memoirs. He was the first of his class who As a general rule the annalists wrote in a spirit of uncritical endeavoured to trace the causes of events, instead of contenting patriotism, which led them to minimize or gloss over such himself with a bare statement of facts. L. CORNELIUS SISENNA disasters as the conquest of Rome by Porsena and the compulsory (119-67), legate of Pompey in the war against the pirates, lost payment of ransom to the Gauls, and to flatter the people by his life in an expedition against Crete. He wrote twenty-three exaggerated accounts of Roman prowess, dressed up in fanciful books on the period between the Social War and the dictatorship language. At first they wrote in Greek, partly because a national of Sulla. His work was commended by Sallust (Jugurlha, 95), style was not yet formed, and partly because Greek was the who, however, blames him for not speaking out sufficiently. fashionable language amongst the educated, although Latin Cicero remarks upon his fondness for archaisms (Brutus, 74. versions were probably published as well. The first of the 259). Sisenna also translated the tales of Aristides of Miletus, annalists, the father of Roman history, as he has been called, and is supposed by some to have written a commentary on was Q. Fabius PICTOR (see FABIUS PICTOR); contemporary Plautus. The autobiography of Sulla may also be mentioned. with him was L. CINCIUS ALIMENTUS, who flourished during See C. W. Nitzsch, Die römische Annalistik (1873); H. Peter, Zur the Hannibalic war.' Like Fabius Pictor, he wrote in Greek. Kritik der Quellen der älteren römischen Geschichte (1879); L. O. He was taken prisoner by Hannibal (Livy xxi. 38), who is said Bröcker, Moderne Quellenforscher und antike Geschichtschreiber to have given him details of the crossing of the Alps. His work (1870, 1906), and Historicorum Romanorum Fragmenla (1883), also

(1882); fragments in H. Peter, Historicorum Romanorum Reliquiae embraced the history of Rome from its foundation down to his articles Rome, History (ancient) ad fin., section Authorities," and own days. With M. Porcius Cato (2.0.) historical composition Livy, where the use made of the annalists by the historian is

discussed; Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopädie, art. “Annales "; 1 He is not to be confused with L. Cincius, the author of various the histories of Roman Literature by M, Schanz and Teuffelpolitical and antiquarian treatises (de Fastis, de Comitiis, de Priscis Schwabe; Mommsen, Hist. of Rome (Eng: tr.), bk. ii. ch. 9, bk. iii. Verbis), who lived in the Augustan age, to which period Mommsen, ch. 14, bk. iv. ch. 13, bk. v. ch. 12; C. Wachsmuth, Einleitung in considering them a later fabrication, refers the Greek annals of das Siudium der alten Geschichte (1895); H. Peter, bibliography of L. Cincius Alimentus.

the subject in Bursian's Jahresbericht, cxxvi. (1906). (JHF)

ANNALS (Annales, from annus, a year), a concise historical ANNAM, or Anau, a country of south-eastern Asia, now record in which events are arranged chronologically, year by forming a French protectorate, part of the peninsula of Indo year. The chief sources of information in regard to the annals China. (See INDO-CHINA, FRENCH). It is bounded N. by Tongof ancient Rome are two passages in Cicero (De Oralore, ii, 12. king, E. and S.E. by the China Sea, S.W. by Cochin-China, and 52) and in Servius (ad Aen. i. 373) which have been the subject w. by Cambodia and Laos. It comprises a sinuous strip of of much discussion. Cicero states that from the earliest period territory measuring between 750 and 800 m. in length, with an down to the pontificate of Publius Mucius Scaevola (c. 131 B.C.), approximate area of 52,000 sq. m. The population is estimated it was usual for the pontifex maximus to record on a white tablet at about 6,124,000 (album), which was exhibited in an open place at his house, so The country consists chiefly of a range of plateaus and wooded that the people might read it, first, the name of the consuls and mountains, running north and south and declining on the coast other magistrates, and then the noteworthy events that had to a narrow band of plain varying between 12 and so m. in occurred during the year (per singulos dies, as Servius says). breadth. The mountains are cut transversely by short narrow These records were called in Cicero's time the Annales Maximi. valleys, through which run rivers, most of which are dry in After the pontificate of Publius, the practice of compiling annals summer and torrential in winter. The Song-Ma and the Songwas carried on by various unofficial writers, of whom Cicero Ca in the north, and the Song-Ba, Don-Nai and Se-Bang-Khan in dames Cato, Pictor and Piso. The Annales have been generally the south, are alone of any size. The chief harbour is that afforded regarded as the same with the Commentarii Pontificum cited by by the bay of Tourane at the centre of the coast-line, South of Livy, but there seems reason to believe that the two were dis- this point the coast curves outwards and is broken by peninsulas tinct, the Commentarii being fuller and more circumstantial. and indentations; to the north it is concave and bordered in The nature of the distinction between annals and history is a many places by dunes and lagoons. subject that has received more attention from critics than its Climate.-In Annam the rainy season begins during September intrinsic importance deserves. The basis of discussion is fur- and lasts for three or four months, corresponding with the northnished chiefly by the above-quoted passage from Cicero, and by east monsoon and also with a period of typhoons. During the the common division of the work of Tacitus into Annales and rains the temperature varies from 59° or even lower to 75° F. Historiae, Aulus Gellius, in the Noctes Allicae (v. 18), quotes the June, July and August are the hottest months, the thermometer grammarian Verrius Flaccus, to the effect that history, according often reaching 85° or 90°, though the heat of the day is to some to its etymology (iotopeîv, inspicere, to inquire in person), is a degree compensated by the freshness of the nights. The southrecord of events that have come under the author's own observa- west monsoon which brings rain in Cochin-China coincides with tion, while annals are a record of the events of earlier times the dry season in Annam, the reason probably being that the arranged according to years. This view of the distinction seems mountains and lofty plateaus separating the two countries to be borne out by the division of the work of Tacitus into the retain the precipitation. Historiae, relating the events of his own time, and the Annales, Ethnography, The Annamese, or, to use the native term, the containing the history of earlier periods. It is more than Giao-chi, are the predominant people not only in Annam but in questionable, however, whether Tacitus himself divided his the lowland and cultivated parts of Tongking and in Cochinwork under these titles. The probability is, either that he called China and southern Cambodia. According to their own annals the whole Annales, or that he used neither designation. (See and traditions they once inhabited southern China, a theory TACITUS, CORNELIUS.)

which is confirmed by many of their habits and physical characterIn the middle ages, when the order of the liturgical feasts was istics; the race has, however, been modified by crossings with partly determined by the date of Easter, the custom was early the Chams and other of the previous inhabitants of Indo-China. established in the Western Church of drawing up tables to The Annamese is the worst-built and ugliest of all the Indoindicate that date for a certain number of years or even Chinese who belong to the Mongolian race. He is scarcely of centuries. These Paschal tables were thin books in which each middle height and is shorter and less vigorous than his neighbours. annual date was separated from the next by a more or less con- His complexion is tawny, darker than that of the Chinese, but siderable blank space. In these spaces certain monks briefly clearer than that of the Cambodian; his hair is black, coarse noted the important events of the year. It was at the end and long; his skin is thick; his forehead low; his skull slightly of the 7th century and among the Anglo-Saxons that the depressed at the top, but well developed at the sides. His face is compiling of these Annals was first begun. Introduced by flat, with highly protruding cheek-bones, and is lozenge-shaped missionaries on the continent, they were re-copied, augmented or eurygnathous to a degree that is nowhere exceeded. His nose and continued, especially in the kingdom of Austrasia. In the is not only the flattest, but also the smallest among the Indo9th century, during the great movement termed the Carolingian Chinese; his eyes are rarely oblique; his mouth is large and Renaissance, these Annals became the usual form of contem- his lips thick; his teeth are blackened and his gums destroyed porary history; it suffices to mention the Annales Einhardi, the by the constant use of the betel-nut, the areca-nut and lime. Annales Laureshamenses (or “of Lorsch "), and the Annales S. His neck is short, his shoulders slope greatly, his body is thick-set Berlini, officially compiled in order to preserve the memory of and wanting in suppleness. Another peculiarity is a separation the more interesting acts of Charlemagne, his ancestors and of the big toe from the rest, greater than is found in any other his successors. Arrived at this stage of development, the people, and sufficiently general and well marked to serve as an Annals now began to lose their primitive character, and ethnographic test. The Annamese of Cochin-China are weaker henceforward became more and more indistinguishable from the and smaller than those of Tongking, probably as a result of Chronicles.

living amid marshy rice-fields. The Annamese of both sexes In modern literature the title annals has been given to a wear wide trousers, a long, usually black tunic with narrow large number of standard works which adhere more or less strictly sleeves and a dark-coloured turban, or in the case of the lower to the order of years. The best known are the Annales Eccle- classes, a wide straw hat; they either go bare-foot or wear sandals siastici, written by Cardinal Baronius as a rejoinder to and or Chinese boots. The typical Annamese dwelling is open to the refutation of the Historia ecclesiastica or “Centuries” of the gaze of the passer-by during the day; at night a sort of partition Protestant theologians of Magdeburg (12 vols., published at of bamboo is let down. The roof is supported on wooden pillars Rome from 1788 to 1793; Baronius's work stops at the year and walls are provided only at the sides. The house consists 1197). In the 19th century the annalistic form was once more principally of one large room opening on the front verandah employed, either to preserve year by year the memory of passing and containing the altar of the family's ancestors, a table in the events (Annual Register, Annuaire de la Revue des deux mondes, centre and couches placed against the wall. The chief elements &c.) or in writing the history of obscure medieval periods of the native diet are rice, fish and poultry; vegetables and pork (Jahrbücher der deutschen Geschichte, Jahrbücher des deutschen are also eaten. The family is the base of the social system Reiches, Richter's Reichsannalen, &c.).

(C. B.*) in Annam and is ruled by its head, who is also priest and judge.

Polygamy is permitted but rarely practised, and the wife enjoys | jute are cultivated to a minor extent. The exports (total value a position of some freedom.

in 1905 £237,010) comprise tea, raw silk and small quantities of Though fond of ease the Annamese are more industrious than cotton, rice and sugar-cane. The imports (£284,824 in 1905) the neighbouring peoples. Theatrical and musical entertainments include rice, iron goods, flour, wine, opium and cotton goods. are popular among them. They show much outward respect There are coal-mines at Nong-Son, near Tourane, and gold, for superiors and parents, but they are insincere and incapable silver, lead, iron and other metals occur in the mountains. of deep emotion. They cherish great love of their native soil | Trade, which is in the hands of the Chinese, is for the most part and native village and cannot remain long from home. A carried on by sea, the chief ports being Touranc and Qui-Nhon, proneness to gambling and opium-smoking, and a tinge of vanity which are open to European commerce. and deceitfulness, are their less estimable traits. On the whole Administration.-Annam is ruled in theory by its emperor, they are mild and easy-going and even apathetic, but the assisted by the "comat or secret council, composed of the heads facility with which they learn is remarkable. Like their neighbours of the six ministerial departments of the interior, finance, war, the Cambodians and the Chinese, the Annamese have great ritual, justice and public works, who are nominated by himself. respect for the dead, and ancestor worship constitutes the national | The resident superior, stationed at Hué, is the representative of religion. The learned hold the doctrine of Confucius, and France and the virtual ruler of the country. He presides over Buddhism, alloyed with much popular superstition, has some a council (Conseil de Protectorat) composed of the chicks of the influence. Like the Chinese the Annamese bury their dead. French services in Annam, together with two members of the

Among the savage tribes of the interior there is scarcely any “comal"; this body deliberates on questions of taxation affecting idea of God and their superstitious practices can scarcely be the budget of Annam and on local public works. A native considered as the expression of a definite religious idea. Roman governor (tong-doc or luan-phu), assisted by a native staff, Catholics number about 420,000. In the midst of the Annamese administers each of the provinces into which the country is live Cambodians and immigrant Chinese, the latter associated divided, and native officials of lower rank govern the areas together according to the districts from which they come and into which these provinces are subdivided.

The governors carrying on nearly all the commerce of the country. In the take their orders from the imperial government, but they are forests and mountains dwell tribes of savages, chiefly of under the eye of French residents. Native officials are appointed Indonesian origin, classed by the Annamese under the name by the court, but the resident superior has power to annui an Mois or “savages." Some of these tribes show traces of appointment. The mandarinate or official class is recruited Malay ancestry. Of greater historical interest are the Chams, from all ranks of the people by competitive examination. In who are to be found for the most part in southern Annam and in the province of Tourane, a French tribunal alone exercises Cambodia, and who, judging from the numerous remains found jurisdiction, but it administers native law where natives are there, appear to have been the masters of the coast region of concerned. Outside this territory the native tribunals Cochin-China and Annam till they succumbed before the pressure survive. The Annamese village is self-governing. It has its of the Khmers of Cambodia and the Annamese. They are taller, council of notables, forming a sort of oligarchy which, more muscular, and more supple than the Annamese. Their through the medium of a mayor and two subordinates, directs language is derived from Malay, and while some of the Chams the interior affairs of the community-policing, recruiting, the are Mussulmans, the dominant religion is Brahmanism, and more assignment and collection of taxes, &c.—and has judicial power especially the worship of Siva. Their women have a high in less important suits and crimes. More serious cases come reputation for virtue, which, combined with the general bright within the purview of the an-sal, a judicial auxiliary of the and honest character of the whole people, differentiates them from governor. An assembly of notables from villages grouped the surrounding nations.

together in a canton chooses a cantonal representative, who is Evidently derived from the Chinese, of which it appears to be the mouthpiece of the people and the intermediary between the à very ancient dialect, the Annamese language is composed of government and its subjects. The direct taxes, which go to the monosyllables, of slightly varied articulation, expressing different local budget of Annam, consist primarily of a poll-tax levied ideas according to the tone in which they are pronounced. It is on all males over cighteen and below sixty years of age, and of quite impossible to connect with our musical system the utterance a land-tax levied according to the quality and the produce of the of the sounds of which the Chinese and Annamese languages are holding. composed. What is understood by a" tone” in this language The following table summarizes the local budget of Annam is distinguished in reality, not by the number of sonorous for the years 1899 and 1904:vibrations which belong to it, but rather by a use of the vocal apparatus special to each. Thus, the sense will to a native be


Expenditure. completely changed according as the sound is the result of an

1899 4203,082 (direct taxes, (171,160) £175,117 aspiration or of a simple utterance of the voice. Thence the

1904 1247.435 (

£219,841) (232.480 difficulty of substituting our phonetic alphabet for the ideographic characters of the Chinese, as well as for the ideophonetic In 1904 the sum allocated to the expenses of the court, the writing partly borrowed by the Annamese from the letters of the royal family and the native administration, the members of celestial empire. To the Jesuit missionaries is due the intro which are paid by the crown, was £85,000, the chic remaining duction of an ingenious though very complicated system, which heads of expenditure being the government house and residencies has caused remarkable progress to be made in the employment of (£39,709), the native guard (£32,609) and public works (£24,898). phonetic characters. By means of six accents, one bar and a Education is available to every person in the community. crotchet it is possible to note with sufficient precision the indica- The primary school, in which the pupils learn only Chinese tions of tone without which the Annamese words have no sense writing and the precepts of Confucius, stands at the base of this for the natives.

system. Next above this is the school of the district capital, Agriculture and other Industries.-The cultivation of rice, where a half-yearly examination takes place, by means of which which is grown mainly in the small deltas along the coast and are selected those eligible for the course of higher education in some districts gives two crops annually, and fishing, together given at the capital of the province in a school under the direction with fish-salting and the preparation of nuoc-mam, a sauce of a doc-hoc, or inspector of studies. Finally a great triennial made from decaying fish, constitutc the chief industries of competition decides the elections. The candidate whose work Annam.

is notified as très bien is admitted to the examinations at Hué, Silk spinning and weaving are carried on on antiquated lines, which qualify for the title of doctor and the holding of administraand silkworms are reared in a desultory fashion. Besides rice, tive offices. The education of a mandarin includes local history, the products of the countryinclude tea, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, cognizance of the administrative rites, customs, laws and precious woods and rubber; coffce, pepper, sugar-cancs and prescriptions of the country, the ethics of Confucius, the rules

« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »