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products increased from $2,093,469 in 1900 to $4,052,274 in 1905, | superseded by and merged in the mimes. They held their or 93.6 %. Atchison was founded in 1854 by pro-slavery ground in the small towns and villages of Italy during the last partisans, and was named in honour of their leader, David Rice days of the empire; they probably lingered on into the middle Atchison, a United States senator. The city was quickly sur ages, and were the origin of the Italian Commedie dell' arle. passed by Leavenworth in commercial importance, and during The scanty fragments of Pomponius and Novius are collected in the Kansas struggle was never of great political importance. Ribbeck's Comicorum Romanorum Reliquiae; see also Munk, De Its first city charter was granted in 1858. “The Atchison Globe Fabulis Alellanis (1840); and art. LATIN LITERATURE. (established 1878) is one of the best-known of western papers. ATESTE (mod. Este, q.v.), an ancient town of Venetia, at the
ATE, in Greek mythology, the personification of criminal southern foot of the Euganean hills, 43 ft. above sea-level; folly, the daughter of Zeus and Eris (Strife). She misled even 22 m. S.W. of Patavium (Padua). The site was occupied in very Zeus to take a hasty oath, whereby Heracles became subject to early times, as the discoveries since 1882 show. Large cemeteries Eurystheus. Zeus thereupon cast her by the hair out of Olympus, have been excavated, which show three different periods from whither she did not return, but remained on earth, working evil the 8th century B.c. down to the Roman domination. In the and mischief (Iliad, xix. 91). She is followed by the Litae first period (Italic) cremation burials closely approximating to (Prayers), the old and crippled daughters of Zeus, who are able the Villanova type are found; in the secondi (Venetian) the to repair the evil done by her (Iliad, ix. 502) · In later times tombs are constructed of blocks of stone, and situlae (bronze Ate is regarded as the avenger of sin (Sophocles, Antigone, buckets), sometimes decorated with elaborate designs, are 614, 625).
frequently used to contain the cinerary urns; in the third Sce J. Girard, Le Sentiment religieux en Grèce (1869): J. F. Scherer, (Gallic), which begins during the 4th century B.C., though De Graecorum Ates Notione atque Indole (1858); E. Berch, Bedeutung cremation continues, the tombs are much poorer, the ossuaries der Ate bei Aeschylos (1876): C. Lehrs: Populäre Aufsätze aus dem being of badly baked rough clay, and
show traces of Gallic Alterthum (1875); L. Schmidt, Die Ethik der alten Griechen (1882).
ATELLA, an ancient Oscan town of Campania, 9 m. N. of influence, and characteristics of the La-Tène civilization. The Naples and 9 m. S. of Capua, on the road between the two. It many important objects found in these excavations are preserved was a member of the Campanian confederation, and shared the in the local museum. · See G. Ghirardini in Nolizie degli Scavi; fortunes of Capua, but remained faithful to Hannibal for a Monumenti dei Lincei, ii. (1893) 161 seq., vii. (1897) 5 seq., X. longer time; the great part of the inhabitants, when they (1901) 5 seq.; Alli del Congresso Internazionale di Scienze could no longer resist the Romans, were transferred by him to Storiche (Rome, 1904), v. 279 seq. Inscriptions show that the Thurii, and the town was reoccupied in 211 by the Romans, national language asserted its existence even after Ateste came who settled the exiled inhabitants of Nuceria there. The fate into the hands of the Romans. · When this occurred is not known; of Atella at the end of the war, when the latter were able to boundary stones of 135 B.C. exist, which divide the territory of return to their own city, is unknown. · Cicero was in friendly Ateste from that of Patavium and of Vicetia, showing that the relations with it, and exerted influence that it might retain its former extended from the middle of the Euganean hills to the property in Gaul, so that it is obvious that it had then recovered Atesis (mod. Adige, from which Ateste no doubt took its name, municipal rights. The town is mainly famous as the cradle of and on which it once stood). · After the battle of Actium, early Roman comedy, the Fabulae Atellanae (see below). Some Augustus settled veterans from various of his legions in this remains of the town still exist, including a tower of the city wall territory, Ateste being thenceforth spoken of as a colony. It in brick.
appears to have furnished many recruits, especially for the See J. Beloch, Campanien (2nd ed., Breslau, 1890), p. 379. cohortes urbanae. It appears but little in history, though its
ATELLANAE FABULAE (" Atellan fables "), the name of a importance is vouched for by numerous inscriptions, the majority sort of popular comedy amongst the ancient Romans. The of which belong to the early Empire.
(T. As.) name is derived from Atella, an Oscan town in Campania; for ATH, or Aath, an ancient town of the province of Hainaut, this reason, and from their being also called Osci ludi, it has been Belgium, situated on the left bank of the Dender. · Pop. (1890) supposed that they were of Oscan origin and introduced at Rome 9868; (1904) 11,201. Formerly it was fortified, but after the after Campania had been deprived of its independence. It change in the defensive system of Belgium in 1858 the fortress seems highly improbable that they were performed in the Oscan was dismantled and its ramparts superseded by boulevards. language. Mommsen, however, rejects their Oscan origin Owing to a fire caused by lightning its fine church of St Julien, altogether; he regards them as purely Latin, the scene merely dating from the 14th century, which had escaped serious injury being laid at Atella to avoid causing offence by placing it at during many wars, was destroyed in 1817 (since rebuilt). This Rome or one of the Latin cities. These plays, or rather sketches, left the Tour Burbant as its sole relic of the middle ages. This contained humorous descriptions of country as contrasted with tower formed part of the donjon of the fortress erected by town life, and found their subjects amongst the lower classes Baldwin IV., count of Hainaut, about the year 1150. Near Ath of the people. The subjects alone were decided upon before is the fine castle of Beloeil, the ancient seat of the princely the performance began; the dialogue was improvised as it family of Ligne. Ath is famous for its gild of archers, whose proceeded. The Atellanae contained certain stock characters, butts are erected on the plain of the Esplanade in the centre of like the Italian harlequinades: Maccus (the fool), Bucco (fat- the town. The town militia has the privilege of being armed chaps), Pappus (daddy), Dossennus (sharper); monsters and with bows and crossbows. Ath is also well known in Hainaut bogeys like Manducus, Pytho, Lamia also made their appearance. for its annual fête called le jour de ducasse-dricasse being the The performers were the sons of Roman citizens, who did not Walloon word for kermesse (fête). On this occasion a procession lose their rights as citizens, and were allowed to serve in the escorting figures of two giants, Goliath, called locally Goyasse, army: professional actors were excluded. The simple prose and Samson, forms the chief feature of the celebration. The dialogues were probably varied by songs in the rude Saturnian emperor Joseph II. stopped it for its “idola trous" character, metre: the language was that of the common people, accom- but this act was one of the causes of the Brabant revolution of panied by lively gesticulation and movements. They were 1789. The procession, revived in 1790, was again stopped by characterized by coarseness and obscenity. In the time of Sulla the French republicans five years later, but was revived under a literary form was given to the Atellanae by Pomponius of the Empire, and has flourished ever since. Bononia and Novius, who made them regular written comedies. ATHABASCA (Alhapescow), or Elk, a river and lake of the Living persons seem to have been attacked, and even the doings province of Alberta, Canada. The river rises in the Rocky of the gods and heroes of mythology burlesqued. From this Mountains near the Yellowhead Pass in 52° 10' N. and 117° 10' time the Atellanae were used as after-pieces and performed w., and flows north-east as far as Athabasca Landing, and thence by professional actors. In 46 B.C. they were ousted by the north into Lake Athabasca. It is 740 m. long and has a number mimes, but regained popularity during the reign of Tiberius of important tributaries, including the McLeod, Pembina, Lesser (chiefly owing to a certain Mummius), until they were definitely
'This is by some authorities divided into two.
Slave, which drains the lake of that name, and Clearwater. I they had gained in Spain, nor were the Greeks finally expelled Athabasca lake is 195 m. long, west to east, from 20 to 32 m. wide, from Spain till seventy years later. Athanagild himself is chiefly has an area of 3085 sq. m., and is 690 ft. above the sea. It dis- remembered for the tragic fortunes of his daughters Brunechildis charges its waters northward by Slave river and the Mackenzie and Gavleswintha, who married two Frankish brother kings, system to the Arctic Ocean. On its north shore the country is Sigebert and Chilperic. Athanagild died (“ peacefully," as the high and rocky; on the south, sandy and barren. Shallow- annalist remarks) in 547. draught steamers navigate the lake and river, and Lesser ATHANARIC (d. 381), a ruler of the Visigoths from about 366 Slave lake and river, with one interruption at Grand Rapids to 380. He bore the title not of king but of judge, a title which near the mouth of the Clearwater river.
may be compared with that of ealdorman among the AngloATHALARIC (516-534), king of the Ostrogoths, grandson of Saxon invaders of Britain. Athanaric waged, from 367 to 369, Theodoric, became king of the Ostrogoths in Italy on his grand- an unsuccessful war with the emperor Valens, and the peace by father's death (526). As he was only ten years old, the regency which the war was ended was ratified by the Roman and Gothic was assumed by his mother Amalasuntha (9.0.). The murmurs of rulers meeting on a barge in mid-stream of the Danube. Athanthe Gothic nobles procured for their young sovereign too early aric was a harsh and obstinate heathen, and his short reign was emancipation from the schoolroom. He drank heavily, and chiefly famous for his brutal persecution of his Christian fellowindulged in vicious excesses which ruined his constitution. He countrymen. In 376 he was utterly defeated by the Huns, died on the end of October 534.
who a few years before had burst into Europe. The bulk of the ATHALIAH, in the Bible, the daughter of Ahab, and wife of Visigothic people sought refuge within the Empire in the region Jehoram, king of Judah. After the death of Ahaziah, her son, now known as Bulgaria, but Athanaric seems to have fled into she usurped the throne and reigned for six years. She is said Transylvania. Being attacked there by two Ostrogothic chiefs to have massacred all the members of the royal house of he also, in 381, sought the protection of the Roman emperor. Judah (2 Kings xi. 1-3), but a similar atrocity is also ascribed Theodosius I. received him courteously, and he was profoundly to Jehu (2 Kings X. 12-14); with both notices contrast 2 Chron. impressed by the glories of Constantinople, but on the fifteenth xxi. 17. The sole survivor Joash was concealed in the temple by day after his arrival he died, and was honoured by the emperor his aunt, Jehosheba, wife of the priest Jehoida (2 Chron. xxii. 11). with a magnificent funeral. These organized a revolution in favour of Joash, and caused ATHANASIUS (293-373), bishop of Alexandria and saint, one Athaliah and her adherents to be put to death (2 Kings xi.; of the most illustrious defenders of the Christian faith, was born 2 Chron. xxii. 10-12, xxiii., xxiv. 7).
probably at Alexandria. Of his family and of his early education The story of Athaliah forms the subject of one of Racine's nothing can be said to be known. According to the legend, the best tragedies. It has been musically treated by Handel and boy is said to have once baptized some of his playmates and Mendelssohn.
thereupon to have been taken into his house by Bishop Alexander, ATHAMAS, in Greek mythology, king of the Minyae in who recognized the validity of this proceeding. It is certain Boeotian Orchomenus, son of Acolus, king of Thessaly, or of that Athanasius was young when he took orders, and that he Minyas. His first wife was Nephele, the cloud-goddess, by whom must soon have entered into close relations with his bishop, he had two children, Phrixus and Helle (see ARGONAUTS). whom, after the outbreak of the Arian controversy, he accomAthamas and his second wife Ino were said to have incurred the panied as archdeacon to the council of Nicaea. In the sessions wrath of Hera, because Ino had brought up Dionysus, the son of and discussions of the council he could take no part; but in her sister Semele, as a girl, to save his life. Athamas went mad, unofficial conferences he took sides vigorously, according to his and slew one of his sons, Learchus; Ino, to escape the pursuit of own evidence, against the Arians, and was certainly not without her frenzied husband, threw herself into the sea with her other influence. He had already, before the opening of the Council, son Mclicertes. Both were afterwards worshipped as marine defined his personal attitude towards the dogmatic problem in divinities, Ino as Leucothea, Melicertes as Palaemon (Odyssey two essays, Against the Gentiles and on the Incarnation, without, V. 333). Athamas, with the guilt of his son's murder upon him, however, any special relation to the Arian controversy. was obliged to flee from Boeotia. He was ordered by the oracle to The essay on the Incarnation is the locus classicus for the settle in a place where he should receive hospitality from wild presentation of the teaching of the ancient church on the subject beasts. This he found at Phthiotis in Thessaly, where he of salvation. In this the great idea that God himself had entered surprised some wolves eating sheep; on his approach they fled, into humanity becomes dominant. The doom of death under leaving him the bones. Athamas, regarding this as the fulfilment which mankind had sighed since Adam's fall could only then be of the oracle, settled there and married a third wife, Themisto. averted, when the immortal Word of God (Abyos) assumed a The spot was afterwards called the Athamanian plain (Apollo- mortal body, and, by yielding this to death for the sake of all, dorus i. 9; Hyginus, Fab. 1-5; Ovid, Metam. iv. 416, Fasti, abrogated once for all the law of death, of which the power had vi. 485; Valerius Flaccus i. 277).
been spent on the body of the Lord. Thus was rendered possible According to a local legend, Athamas was king of Halos in the leading back of mankind to God, of which the sure pledge Phthiotis from the first (Schol. on Apoll. Rhodius ii. 513). After lies in the grace of the resurrection of Christ. Athanasius would his attempt on the life of Phrixus, which was supposed to have hear of no questioning of this religious mystery. In the catchsucceeded, the Phthiots were ordered to sacrifice him to Zeus word Homousios, which had been added to the creed at Nicaea, Laphystius, in order to appease the anger of the gods. As he was he too recognized the best formula for the expression of the on the point of being put to death, Cytissorus, a son of Phrixus, mystery, although in his own writings he made but sparing use suddenly arrived from Aea with the news that Phrixus was still of it. He was in fact less concerned with the formula than with alive. Athamas's life was thus saved, but the wrath of the gods the content. Arians and Semi-Arians seemed to him to be was unappeased, and pursued the family. It was ordained that pagans, who worship the creature, instead of the God who the eldest born of the race should not enter the council-chamber; created all things, since they teach two gods, one having no if he did so, he was liable to be seized and sacrificed if detected beginning, the other having a beginning in Time and therefore (Herodotus vii. 197). The legend of Athamas is probably of the same nature as the heathen gods, since, like them, he is a founded on a very old custom amongst the Minyae--the sacrifice creature. Athanasius has no terms for the definition of the of the first-born of the race of Athamas to Zeus Laphystius. Persons in the one “Divine” (To Ociov), which are in their The story formed the subject of lost tragedies by Aeschylus, substance one; and yet he is certain that this “Divine" is not Sophocles, Euripides and other Greek and Latin dramatists. a mere abstraction, but something truly personal: “They are
ATHANAGILD (d. 547) became king of the Visigoths (in One," so he wrote later in his Discourses against the Arians, Spain) in 534, having invoked the aid of the emperor Justinian for not as though the unity were torn into two parts, which outside his revolt against his predecessor Agila. Athanagild, when him the unity would be nothing, nor as though the unity bore two self king, vainly tried to oust his late allies from the footing which I names, so that one and the same is at one time Father and then
his own Son, as the heretic Sabellius imagined. But they are at Rome in the autumn of 340, and the great council-probably two, for the Father is Father, and the Son is not the same, but, that which met at Sardica in 342 or 343, where the Orientals again, the Son is Son, and not the Father himself. But their refused to meet the representatives of the Western churchNature (puois) is one, for the Begotten is not dissimilar (ávóuotos) declared him guiltless. This decision, however, had no immediate to the Begetter, but his image, and everything that is the effect in favour of Athanasius. Constantius continued for some Father's is also the Son's."
time implacable, and the bold action of the Western bishops Five months after the return from the council of Nicaea only incited the Arian party in Alexandria to fresh severities. Bishop Alexander died; and on the 8th of February 326 But the death of the intruder Gregory, on the 26th of June 345, Athanasius, at the age of thirty-three, became his successor. opened up a way of reconciliation. Constantius decided to yield The first years of his episcopate were tranquil; then the storms to the importunity of his brother Constans, who had succeeded in which the remainder of his life was passed began to gather Constantine II. in the West; and the result was the restoration round him. The council had by no means composed the divi- of Athanasius for the second time, on the 21st of October 346. sions in the Church which the Arian controversy had provoked. Again he returned to Alexandria amid the enthusiastic demonArius himself still lived, and his friend Eusebius of Nicomedia strations of the populace, which is described by Gregory of rapidly regained influence over the emperor Constantine. The Nazianzus, in his panegyric on Athanasius, as streaming forth result was a demand made by the emperor that Arius should be like " another Nile" to meet him afar off as he approached the readmitted to communion. Athanasius stood firm, but many city. accusers soon rose up against one who was known to be under The six years of his residence in the West had given Athanasius the frown of the imperial displeasure. He was charged with the opportunity of displaying a momentous activity. He made cruelty, even with sorcery and murder. It was reported that a long journeys in Italy, in Gaul, and as far as Belgium. Everybishop of the Meletian party (see MELETIUS) in the Thebaid, where he laboured for the Nicene faith, and the impression of the name of Arsenius, had been unlawfully put to death by made by his personality was so great that to hold fast the him. He was easily able to clear himself of these charges ; but orthodox faith and to defend Athanasius were for many people the hatred of his enemies was not relaxed, and in the summer of one and the same thing. This was shown when, after the death 335 he was peremptorily ordered to appear at Tyre, where a of the emperor Constans, Constantius became sole ruler of East council had been summoned to sit in judgment upon his conduct. and West. With the help of counsellors more subtle than There appeared plainly a predetermination to condemn him, discerning, the emperor, with the object of uniting the various and he fled from Tyre to Constantinople to appeal to the emperor parties in the Church at any cost, sought for the most colourless himself. Refused at first a hearing, his perseverance was at possible formula of belief, which he hoped to persuade all the length rewarded by the emperor's assent to his reasonable request bishops to accept. As his efforts remained for years fruitless, that his accusers should be brought face to face with him in the he used force. “My will is your guiding-line,” he exclaimed in imperial presence. Accordingly the leaders of the council, the the summer of 355 to the bishops who had assembled at Milan most conspicuous of whom were Eusebius of Nicomedia and his in response to his orders. A series of his most defiant opponents namesake of Caesarea, were summoned to Constantinople. had to go into banishment, Liberius of Rome, Hilarius of Poitiers Here they did not attempt to repeat their old charges, but found and Hosius of Corduba, the last-named once the confidant of a more effective weapon to their hands in a new charge of a Constantine and the actual originator of the Homousios, and political kind-that Athanasius had threatened to stop the now nearly a hundred years old. At length came the turn of Alexandrian corn-ships bound for Constantinople. It is very Athanasius, now almost the sole upholder of the banner of the difficult to understand how far there was truth in the persistent Nicene creed in the East. Several attempts to expel him failed accusations made against the prince-bishop of Alexandria. owing to the attitude of the populace. On the night of the SthProbably there was in the very greatness of his character and 9th of February 356, however, when the bishop was holding the the extent of his popular influence a certain species of dominance Vigils, soldiers and police broke into the church of Theonas. which lent a colour of truth to some of the things said against Athanasius himself has described the scene for us : “I was him. On the present occasion his accusers succeeded at once in seated upon my chair, the deacon was about to read the psalm, arousing the imperial jealousy. Without obtaining a hearing, the people to answer, ' For his mercy endureth for ever. The he was banished at the end of 335 to Trèves in Gaul. This was solemn act was interrupted; a panic arose.” The bishop, who the first banishment of Athanasius, which lasted about one year was at first unwilling to save himself, until he knew that his and a half. It was brought to a close by the death of Constantine, faithful followers were in safety, succeeded in escaping, leaving and the accession as emperor of the West of Constantine II., the town and finding a hiding-place in the country. The solitudes who, in June 337, allowed Athanasius to return to Alexandria. of Upper Egypt, where numerous monasteries and hermitages had
He reached his see on the 23rd of November 337, and, as he been planted, seem at this time to have been his chief shelter. himself has told us, the people ran in crowds to sec his face; In this case benefit was repayed by bencfit, for Athanasius during the churches were full of rejoicing; thanksgivings were every- his episcopate had been a zealous promoter of asceticism and where offered up; the ministers and clergy thought the day monachism. With Anthony the hermit and Pachomius the the happiest in their lives.” But this period of happiness was founder of monasteries, he had maintained personal relations, destined to be short-lived. His position as bishop of Alexandria and the former he had commemorated in his Lise of Anthony. placed him, not under his patron Constantine, but under Con. During his exile his time was occupied in writing on behalf of stantius, another son of the elder Constantine, who had succeeded his cause, and to this period belong some of his most important to the throne of the East. He in his turn fell, as his father had works, above all the great Oralions or Discourses againsi Ike done in later years, under the influence of Eusebius of Nicomedia, Arians, which furnish the best exposition of his theological who in the latter half of 339 was transferred to the see of Con- principles. stantinople, the new seat of the imperial court. A second During his absence the see of Alexandria was left without a expulsion of Athanasius was accordingly resolved upon. The old pastor. It is true that George of Cappadocia had taken his accusations against him were revived, and he was further charged place; but he could only maintain himself for a short while with having set at naught the decision of a council. On the (February 357-October 358). The great majority of the popula18th of March 339 the exarch of Egypt suddenly confronted tion remained faithful to the exile. At length, in November 361, Athanasius with an imperial edict, by, which he was deposed the way was opened to him for his return to his see by the death and a Cappadocian named Gregory was nominated bishop in of Constantius. Julian, who succeeded to the imperial thrope, his place. On the following day, after tumultuous scenes, professed himself indifferent to the contentions of the Church, Athanasius fied, and four days later Gregory was installed by the and gave permission to the bishops exiled in the late reign to aid of the soldiery. On the first opportunity, Athanasius went return home. Among others, Athanasius availed himsell of this to Rome, to“ lay his case before the church.” A synod assembled | permission, and in February 362 once more seated himself upon
Flourens declares “Our enemy is God. Hatred of God is the by itself, may possibly be connected with #allakh (“maiden "). beginning of wisdom. If mankind would make true progress, Athena has been variously described as the pure aether, the it must be on the basis of atheism." Bradlaugh maintained storm-cloud, the dawn, the twilight; but there is little evidence against Holyoake that he would fight until men respected the that she was regarded as representing any of the physical powers
“ atheist.” The answer to dogmatic atheism, that it. of nature, and it is better to endeavour to form an idea of her implies infinite knowledge, has been well stated in John Foster's character and attributes from a consideration of her cultEssays, and restated by Chalmers in his Natural Theology, and epithets and ritual. According to the legend, her father Zeus its force is recognized in Holyoake's careful qualification of the swallowed his wife Metis (“counsel "), when pregnant with sense in which secularism accepts atheism," always explaining Athena, since he had been warned that his children by her the term atheist to mean ‘not seeing God' visually or inferen- might prove stronger than himself and dethrone him. Hephaes. tially, never suffering it to be taken for anti-theism, that is, hating tus (or Prometheus) subsequently split open his head with a God, denying God-as hating implies personal knowledge as hatchet, and Athena sprang forth fully armed, uttering a loud the ground of dislike, and denying implies infinite knowledge shout of victory (Hesiod, Theogony, 886; Pindar, Olympia, as the ground of disproof.” But dogmatic atheism is rare com- vii. 35). In Crete she was said to have issued from a cloud pared with the sceptical type, which is identical with agnosticism burst asunder by Zeus. According to Roscher, the manner of (2.0.) in so far as it denies the capacity of the mind of man to her birth represents the storm-cloud split by lightning; Farnell form any conception of God, but is different from it in so far as (Cults of the Greck Slates, i. p. 285) sees in it an indication that, the agnostic merely holds his judgment in suspense, though, in as the daughter of Metis, Athena was already invested with a practice, agnosticism is apt to result in an attitude towards religion mental and moral character, and explains the swallowing of which is hardly distinguishable from a passive and unaggressive Metis (for which compare the story of Cronus and his children) atheism. The third or critical type may be illustrated by by the desire to attribute an extraordinary birth to one in whom A Candid Examination of Theism by“Physicus" (G. J. Romanes), masculinetraitspredominated. In anotheraccount(as T pitoyérea) in which the writer endeavours to establish the weakness of the she is the daughter of the river Triton, to which various localities proofs for the existence of God, and to substitute for theism were assigned, and wherever there was a river (or lake) of that Spencer's physical explanation of the universe, and yet admits name, the inhabitants claimed that she was born there. It is how unsatisfying to himself the new position is. “When at probable that the name originated in Boeotia (C. O. Müller, times I think, as think at times I must, of the appalling contrast Geschichten hellenischer Stämme, i. pp. 351-357; but see Macan between the hallowed glory of that creed which once was mine, on Herodotus, iv. 180), whence it was conveyed by colonists and the lonely mystery of existence as now I find it-at such to Cyrene and thence to Libya, where there was a river Triton. times I shall ever feel it impossible to avoid the sharpest pang Here some local divinity, a daughter of Poseidon, connected of which my nature is susceptible.”
with the water and also of a warlike character, was identified Atheism has to meet the protest of the heart as well as the by the colonists with their own Athena. In any case, it is argument of the mind of mankind. It must be judged not only fairly certain that Tritogeneia means " water-born," although by theoretical but by practical arguments, in its relations either an old interpretation derived it from tpitá, a supposed Boeotian to the individual or to a society. Voltaire himself, speaking word meaning“ head,” which further points to the name having as a practical man rather than as a metaphysician, declared originated in Boeotia. Roscher suggests that the localization that if there were no God it would be necessary to invent one; of her birthplace in the extreme west points to the western sea, and if the analysis is only carried far enough it will be found the home of cloud and storm. that those who deny the existence of God (in a conventional In Homer Athena already appears as the goddess of counsel, sense) are all the time setting up something in the nature of of war, of female arts and industries, and the protectress of deity by way of an ideal of their own, while fighting over the Greek cities, this last aspect of her character being the most meaning of a word or its conventional misapplication.
important and pronounced. Hence she is called Holás, ATHELM (d. 923), English churchman, is said to have been Rohoûxos, in many Greek states, and is frequently associated a monk of Glastonbury before his elevation in 909 to the see of with Zeus podels. The most celebrated festival of the cityWells, of which he was the first occupant. In 914 he became goddess was the Panathenaea at Athens and other places. archbishop of Canterbury.
Other titles of kindred meaning are åpxnyétis (“ founder") ATHELNEY, a slight eminence of small extent in the low and mavazais, the protectress of the Achaean league. At Athens level tract about the junction of the rivers Tone and Parrett in she presided over the phratries or clans, and was known as Somersetshire, England. It was formerly isolated by marshes anatovpia and opatpia, and sacrifice was offered to her at the and accessible only by boat or artificial causeway, and under festival Apaturia. The title výrop, given her by the inhabitants these conditions it gained its historical fame as the retreat of of Elis, whose women, according to the legend, she had blessed King Alfred in 878-879 when he was unable to withstand the with abundance of children, seems at variance with the generallyincursions of the Danes. After regaining his throne he founded recognized conception of her as Tapdevos; but uhmp may bear a monastery here in gratitude for the retreat afforded him by the same meaning as kovpot pópos, the fosterer of the young, the island; no traces of it exist above ground, but remains have in harmony with her aspect as protectress of civic and family been excavated. There was also found here, in 1693, the cele- life. At Alalcomenae, near the Tritonian lake in Boeotia, brated Alfred jewel, bearing his name, and preserved in the she was åladkouemnts (“defender ”). Her temple, which was Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. An inscribed pillar commemorat- pillaged by Sulla, contained an ivory image, which was said to ing the king was set up in 1801. The name of Athelney signifies have fallen from heaven. The inhabitants claimed that the the Isle of Princes (A.S. Ælhelingaea). Athelney is a railway goddess was born there and brought up by a local hero Alalstation on a branch of the Great Western line.
Her images, called Palladia, which guarded the ATHENA (the Attic form of the Homeric Athene, also called heights (cf. her epithets åkpia, Kpavaia), represented her with Athenaia, Pallas Athene, Pallas), one of the most important shield uplifted, brandishing her spear to keep off the foe. The goddesses in Greek mythology. With Zeus and Apollo, she cult of Athena Itonia, whose earliest seat appears to have been forms a triad which represents the embodiment of all divine amongst the Thessalians, who used her name as a battle-cry, power. No satisfactory derivation of the name Athena has made its way to Coronea in Boeotia, where her sanctuary was been given"; Pallas, at first an epithet, but after Pindar used the seat of the Pamboeotian confederacy. The meaning of
10. Gruppe (Griechische Mythologie, ii. P: 1194) thinks that it Itonia is obscure: Dümmler connects it with itswes, the probably means without mother's milk," either in an active or in “ willow-beds” on the banks of the river Coralios (the river a passive sense--" not giving suck," or unsuckled," in her character as the virgin goddess, or as springing from the head of Zeus. stated that Athena was sometimes called 'Aonla or 'ACHA. For In support of this view he refers to Hesychius (Ommoy yala) and Pallas, he prefers the old etymology from rádw (to shake"), rather a passage in Athenagoras (Legutio pro Christianis, 17), where it is l in the sense of “ earth-shaker" than " lance-brandisher."