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for we know that women see many Land. At first the difficulties things that the other sex is not appeared to be insurmountable, likely to observe. A brief sketch and she tried to put the idea of the experience and doings of aside; but back it would come some of the lady travellers of re- with irrepressible force. It took cent years must, we think, prove the savings of twenty years to deinteresting to many readers. Gen- fray the expense of that journey. erally, like Julius Cæsar, but not It was at the mature age of always, the travellers themselves forty - five that she began her have chronicled their achieve- travels, and she hardly laid down ments.

the pilgrim's staff till she was

sixty one, when, after a long imWe begin with Ida Pfeiffer, prisonment in the island of Madawhose name and fame for a con- gascar, she returned to Vienna, and siderable time stood alone as the on 28th October 1858 died in conlady traveller. Her own

sequence of hardships and illwas Reyer; she was born at treatment borne in prison. AltoVienna in 1797, and married a gether Madame Pfeiffer made four lawyer, Herr Pfeiffer, with whom, great journeys, the record of which however, she seems not to have she gave to the world in succeslived much. When she was but sive copious narratives. The first a little child she tells us that she was to Palestine in 1842; the had a great desire to see the world. second to Iceland and Scandinavia Whenever she met a travelling- in 1845 ; the third, entitled 'A carriage she would stop involun- Woman's Journey round

the tarily and gaze after it until it World,' in 1846 - 48, embracing disappeared; she used to envy the South America, China, India, very postilion, for she thought that Asia Minor, Persia, Russia, Turhe must have accomplished the key, and Greece. In 1851 she whole of a long journey. At the set out for a “Zweite Weltreise,” age of ten or twelve nothing gave in the course of which she visited her so much pleasure as the per- England. Hearing in London of usal of voyages and travels. Her Livingstone's attempts to reach parents, and afterwards her hus- Lake 'Ngami, and of the fertile band, used to take her on excur- regions now discovered in that sions hither and thither; but she neighbourhood in place of the was not satisfied. Often when she traditional desert, and smitten climbed to the top of a mountain with the desire to explore them, she would shed tears because she she proceeded to Cape Town in

other mountains towering the hope that, as she had travelled above, whose summit she could in safety among savage tribes not gain, to see what lay beyond. where armed men hesitated to

Her husband, according to her go, and had borne with equal own account, having to be much impunity the heat of India and from home, the education of her the cold of Iceland, she might be two sons was confided to her care; destined to raise the veil from but when that was completed, and some of the unknown portions of she was living in retirement (for the interior of Africa. But owing the husband now fades from view), to what she learned at the Cape the dreams and aspirations of her of the difficulties and expense of youth awoke once more. Most of travelling, she was obliged to all she longed to see the Holy abandon her intention. The £100


sterling which she had got from of the places and people she visited the Austrian Government would are interesting as conveying the carry her but a little way. This kind of information usually desired was in 1851; it was in the year by average readers. Her narrative after this that Livingstone set is free from the tendency to exagout from the Cape, with a purse geration in which many travellers little better filled than hers, but indulge, magnifying their difficulwith a knowledge of the country ties and dangers in order that and its languages, and an influence their achievements may appear the over the natives, to which she more wonderful. When she meets could not have pretended. She with such exaggeration in others accordingly directed her steps to she rebukes it in an honest tone, Australasia and South and North as when an officer of a French America, having spent a year and frigate whom she met in Iceland a half in the Sunda Islands, and declared that he had ridden on penetrated into the interior of horseback to the very edge of the Sumatra and Borneo. She did crater of Vesuvius. It happened not reach home till 1855. The that she had been there herself, narrative of this journey extended and knew that the crater is into four volumes.

accessible on horseback, and must Her last journey was to Mada- be ascended either on foot or in gascar, which had now begun to a chaise à porteur.

If she someexcite the interest of the civil- times allows prejudice to crop ised world. Unfortunately, it was out, it is when she comes in conthe time when that island was tact with the doings or the manruled by the fiend, Ranavalo, the ners of the English, or when she great persecutor of the Christians, sets herself to criticise Protestant and poor Madame Pfeiffer seems missions. to have excited the suspicions of Her courage was remarkable, that female miscreant, and was especially in robber-infested counthrown into prison. She lan- tries, such as Babylonia, Kurdiguished there for the greater part stan, and Persia. But being a of two years, experiencing such woman, she suffered little, and treatment that her strong consti- though she carried pistols, she tution broke down, and when she seems never to have required them. regained her liberty in 1858, she The Russians were the only people returned to Vienna only to die. from some of whom she experi

Madame Pfeiffer cannot be enced rude and violent treatment. classed with those travellers who Once when travelling with a carahave explored and brought to light van, and walking alone at a little

a unknown regions, or added sub- distance while the caravan rested, stantially to our knowledge of the she was seized by two Russians, globe. In Sumatra and Borneo she one of them an officer, thrown into made the nearest approach to such a car, and hurried to the postservice; but it is as having more house, no doubt to be robbed, or fully described the known, rather released only for a handsome ranthan brought to light the unknown, som; but after a night of hardship, that she has gained her fame. In her passport set her free. a simple, lively, and pleasant way you good Turks, Arabs, Hindus," she writes of what she has seen she exclaims,“or whatever else you and heard, dwelling chiefly on the may be called, such treatment was outside of things. Her descriptions never shown to me amongst you !


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How pleasantly have I always good title to be ranked among the taken leave of all your countries; martyrs of civilisation. how attentively was I treated at the Persian frontiers when I would Just about the time of Madame not understand that my passport Pfeiffer's death, the spirit of travel was required ; and here, in a Chris- and adventure took possession of tian empire, how much incivility another lady, also à foreigner, have I had to bear during this Alexandrine Tinne, of Holland. short journey!”

The father of this lady was a Though not a scientific geogra- Dutchman by birth, but at one pher, she gained the respect of time a naturalised Englishman. some who were distinguished as He had held an important post in such. Herr Petermann wrote what is now British Guiana, when highly of her in the 'Atheneum,' it was under Dutch rule ; afterregretting that when in London wards he carried on business as a she received scarcely any encour

merchant in Liverpool, and finally agement, her travels and her books he returned to Holland. His first being little known. “Though not wife was an English lady; aftera scientific traveller," he said, wards he married Henrietta van "she is a faithful recorder of what Capellen, the daughter of a disshe sees and hears; and she is tinguished Dutch admiral, who, on prepared to note the bearings and his own responsibility, co-operated distances of the journey, make with Lord Exmouth at the siege meteorological observations, and of Algiers, aided in the liberation keep a careful diary, so that the of a large body of slaves, and obresults of her projected journey tained the thanks of the House [in Africa] would perhaps be of as of Commons. Mr Tinne was much interest as those of other man of wealth, and on his death travellers of greater pretensions." his daughter Alexandrine succeed

Madame Pfeiffer in her various ed to a large fortune. travels showed that she appreci- From her childhood she had a ated the three passports which strong desire to travel, and having Livingstone found so useful among ample means, it was not long besavages — "good principles, good fore she began to gratify her de

conduct, and good manners.” She sire. In her early teens she had always looked on the natives with visited Norway and Sweden, and a kindly feeling, especially the at eighteen she had made a journey women, whose dreary life in East- through Asia Minor, Palestine, ern countries she pitied much, and Egypt. When in Egypt she and whose social position she ear- was captivated by the Pyramids nestly desired to see improved. and the Nile, and a vehement Her readiness, if only she had had desire arose in her breast to exthe means, to undertake the very plore part of the unknown regions expedition that immortalised Liv- of Africa, and especially to invesingstone, on the ground that an tigate the sources of the Nile. A unarmed woman might fare better desire to contribute to the supthan a man among ferocious tribes, pression of the slave - trade was was a splendid testimony to her another motive. She was courself - sacrificing spirit; while her ageous and adventurous, a bold untimely death, the result of im- horsewoman, an accomplished linprisonment among a people whom guist, and beautiful as well as rich. she desired to benefit, gives her a She had suitors in great abun


dance, but would not listen to their tact with Miss Tinne, though they overtures, for her heart had been had a good deal of pleasant interwholly given to the spirit of travel course (as Speke tells us in his and adventure.

narrative) with her aunt, Miss Accordingly, in July 1861, Miss van Capellen, whom sickness had Tinne, accompanied by her mother detained at Khartoum. and aunt, Miss van Capellen (both It appeared to Speke and Grant were so attached to her that they that the question of the source of could not let her go without them), the Nile was now conclusively set out from The Hague to winter settled, and they did their best to at Cairo. They were joined by induce Miss van Capellen and her some Dutch friends, including Dr friends to desist from their enterSteudner, who died during the prise, believing that they could expedition, the Baron d'Ablaing, not grapple either with the malaand Herr von Heuglin, who, like rious fever or with the ferocious Miss Tinne, were interested in tribes that infested those parts. geographical exploration. Gather- But Miss Tinne was too detering a suitable retinue, they as- mined to be moved by such remoncended the Nile as far as Khar- strances. When these travellers toum. Meeting many vessels laden met Baker, they represented to him with captive slaves, Miss Tinne also that the great problem was learned for the first time the fright- solved, as the Nile had been seen ful cruelties to which these poor to flow out of the Victoria Nyanza. creatures were exposed, and the But they owned to him that they desire to lessen such sufferings had not pursued the course of the and protect the feeble among the river where, after leaving the Vicnatives became more than ever a toria Nyanza, it took a bend almost reason for her enterprise. Not due west; they had taken a straight finding Khartoum a suitable place line and come upon it farther on, where to spend the winter (at which where it resumed its northerly no one will wonder who recalls Sir direction. This was the very part Samuel Baker's account of it at of the river wbich Baker deterthat season), Miss Tinne and her mined to explore, and in exploring party hired a steamer and made which he discovered the lake Alà further ascent of the Nile, going bert Nyanza, having found that a little above Gondokoro. Here the Nile, after issuing from the they explored the tributary river Victoria Nyanza, flowed into the

, Sobat, and returned to Khartoum Albert, which he held to be the in the autumn of 1862. Gondo- true source.

Evidently the ladies koro was the place where prepara- were convinced that more light tions had been made for Captains might be thrown on the question Speke and Grant, in the event of of the sources : such was their betheir coming out alive (which was lief when they left Khartoum in hardly expected) after their jour- the spring of 1863 in order to ney from Zanzibar in quest of the explore anew the Bahr-el-Ghazal, source of the Nile. In point of a tributary of the Nile. Therefact, they did return about this after they intended to explore a very time after the discovery of the district in the neighbourhood of a Victoria Nyanza, and Sir Samuel mountain called Casinka and the Baker and his wife met them at Nyam-Nyam country. this very place, Gondokoro. But The expedition fitted out at they never came into personal con- Miss Tinne's expense consisted of

a steamer and five boats, 168 graphical Society of London had
persons (of whom a considerable been receiving short accounts of
number were soldiers), four camels, the expedition, which they re-
and thirty mules and donkeys. garded with great interest, partly
The expedition was on such a owing to its being the first ex-
scale, and so grand, that the natives pedition of the kind undertaken
averred that Miss Tinne was the by ladies, and partly to the extra-
daughter of the Sultan. At first ordinary curiosity then felt about
they got on wonderfully well; the particular spot of Africa which
they had fewer difficulties than they were exploring, and about
Baker encountered on the same the sources of the Nile. The
route a few months later. But, Society were supplied with in-
at the best, it was very trying telligence by Mr John Tinne, one
and toilsome work. The Bahr-el- of their members, a step-brother of
Ghazal was found to be a great Miss Tinne’s. Sir Roderick Mur-
swamp, blocked by such masses of chison, President of the Society,
vegetation that the paddles had spoke of the ladies oftener than
to be taken off, and the steamer once in highly commendatory terms
towed through it by the boats. in his opening address, and at
When they reached the head of other times.
the Bahr, the party had to take When Mr John Tinne heard of
to marching overland. The coun- the disasters which had terminated
try was full of beauty — birds, the expedition and compelled his
trees, and plants being alike most sister to return to Cairo, he has-

tened to her, and endeavoured to But terrible disasters fell upon persuade her to give up the East them now. Miss van Capellen and return to Europe. But she had already died at Khartoum, had become such an Oriental in and Dr Steudner, Madame Tinne, her tastes and modes of life that two maids, and other members of she resisted all his appeals. Her the party, were successively at- household at Cairo was constituted tacked by fever and cut off. Some after the oriental fashion; her idea of the hardships encountered principal servants were allowed to may be formed from the fact that be polygamists; wherever she went the tents would sometimes be she was attended by a eunuch; overthrown by torrents of rain, and she adopted the costume of and the inmates deprived of all the Arabian women. One trait shelter. On one of these occasions of her character attracted no little Miss Tinne was prostrated by notice—her kindness to animals. fever, and the party prevented On one occasion she had taken from travelling for many days. into her stables two donkeys that Provisions fell short, and porters were ill-used by their owners, and mutinied. After all, Speke and had given them rest and food. Grant were right. It was not From that time all the sick and work for ladies. Overcome by worn-out donkeys of the town such an accumulation of disasters, were brought to her place to be Miss Tinne had to abandon further cured. When Herr Gentz called exploration for the time: she re- upon her, he found apes sunning turned to Cairo, Herr von Heuglin themselves on the outside stairs ; remaining to prosecute the explor- inside, little negroes, the children ation.

of her slaves, lay basking in the All this time the Royal Geo- sunshine; and long-haired Nubian

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