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Edward's Scottish campaigns. It was an infallible result, that, wherever this great queen directed her attention, wealth and national prosperity speedily followed. Well did her actions illustrate her Flemish motto, Iche wrude muche, which obsolete words may be rendered, I labor much. Soon after her return from Calais, she obtained a grant from her royal lord, giving permission to her bailiff, Alan de Strothere, to work the mines of Alderneston, which had been worked in the days of king Henry III., and Edward I. From this reöpening of the Tynedale mines by Philippa proceeded our coal trade, which, during the reign of her grandson, Henry IV., enriched the great merchant Whittington, and the city of London.” Vol. ii., p. 287.
Miss Strickland closes the second volume of her first series of the lives of the queens with the life of Anne of Bohemia, first queen of Richard II. She was the eldest daughter of the emperor Charles IV., by his fourth wife, Elizabeth of Pomerania. She was sweet tempered, amiable and charitable, and was much beloved by the people, who long hallowed her memory, by the simple but expressive appelation of good queen Anne.
Of the immense wealth of the London merchants during this reign, we may form some idea by the following description :
“As the king and queen passed through the city, the principal thoroughfares were hung with gold cloth and silver tissue, and tapestry of silk and gold. When they approached the conduit at Cheapside, red and white wine played from the spouts of a tower, erected against it; the royal pair were served with rosy wine, smiling in golden cups, and an angel flew down in a cloud and presented to the king, and then to the queen, rich gold circlets, worth several hundred pounds. Another conduit of wines played at St. Paul's eastern gate, where was stationed a band of antique musical instruments, whose names alone will astound modern musical ears.” Vol. ii., p. 320.
We have accompanied Miss Strickland through the first two volumes of her delightful work, which, we hesitate not to say, would do honor to the greatest historian of the day. We look, with pleasing anticipation, for the appearance of the succeeding volumes, which must record events of the most absorbing interest, and relating to the most extraordinary characters who figure in English history.
ART. IV.-1. Informe sobre el estado de la enseñanza
primaria en la isla de Cuba en 1836, su costa y mejoras de que es susceptible ; extendido de orden de la seccion de Educacion de la Sociedad Patriotica de la Habana para eleverlo al supremo gobierno de S. M. en cumplimiento de lo prevenido en su Real Orden de 21 octubre de 1834. Leida en la junta de la Sociedad de 30 de marzo, en que fue aprobada unani
mamente :--por D. Domingo del Monte : M. S. [Report upon the state of elementary education in the
Island of Cuba, in 1836, and upon the improvements of which it is susceptible, prepared by order of the Section for Education of the Patriotic Society of the Havana, for the information of Her Majesty's Government, in pursuance of the Royal Order of October 21, 1834, and read at a meeting of the Society : By Don
Domingo del Monte.] 2. Informe presentado á la Real Junto de fomento de
agricultura y comercio de la isla de Cuba, en sesion de 11 de deciembre de 1833, en el expediente sobre traslacion, reforma y ampliacion de la escuela nautica, establecida en el pueblo de Regla, refundiendola en un institute cientifico con arreglo a las necesidades del pais: por la diputacion inspectora de dicho establimiento. Imprimese por acuerdo de la misma junta.
Habana : 1834. [Report presented to the Royal Society for the encou
ragement of agriculture and commerce in the Island of Cuba, at their meeting on the 11th of December, 1833, upon the subject of the conversion of the Nautical School established at Regla into a Scientific Institute, adapted to the wants of the country: by the Committee for the examination of that establishment (Don José de la Luz). Printed by order of the Society. 151 pp.fol. Havana, 1834.
Among the striking evidences of the rapid progress that has been made, in almost every particular, in the island of Cuba, since the opening of its ports to foreign commerce, may be mentioned the increased attention to education and learning. We have placed at the head of this article the names of two works, written within a few years past, at the Havana, which contain a great deal of curious information upon this subject, and prove, at the same time, by the style of their literary execution, that there is not only a zeal for improvement, but a fund of cultivated talent already in existence, and prepared for application to any department of science or practical life. The former of these two works, is a report made by the education section of the Patriotic Society of the Havana, in 1836, upon the state of elementary education throughout the island. The author, Don Domingo del Monte, a gentleman of superior talents and finished education, connected with the most considerable families in the Havana, is already advantageously known to the literary world, as one of the principal contributors to the Cuba Review, of which he was for a time the editor. That journal, as our readers may recollect, was commenced some years ago, under apparently very favorable auspices, and sustained itself in a manner highly creditable to its authors and the community in which it appeared, until it was suppressed by the government. The Report on education, now before us, has never been published, probably from an apprehension of alarming the same jealous spirit which led to the suppression of the Review. We are indebted for the perusal of the original manuscript, to the kindness of the author; and as there is nothing private in the character of the work, which was read at a general meeting of the Patriotic Society, we trust we shall not offend his delicacy, by making it the subject of a few remarks, and enriching our pages with a few extracts from it.
The Report on the formation of the Institute was written by Don José de la Luz, acting as secretary to a committee of the society for the encouragement of domestic industry. The author is the director of the Patriotic Society, and one of the most accomplished scholars and elegant writers of the day. The work before us would do honor, in point of style, to the pen of any living Spanish author. We deeply regret to learn, that the excellent and amiable writer has been compelled by ill health to intermit for a time his useful labors in the cause of science. The Report grew out of a project for the conversion of the nautical school, which had been established some years before at Regla, into a more extensive establishment, on the polytechnic plan, to be called the
Cuban Institute. The project was suggested by the Conde de Villa-Nueva, the late distinguished Intendant of the island, and received the sanction of the society, but was prevented from going into execution by the interference of the Governor. It was revived last year, and again arrested by the same obstacle, the Prince of Anglona having refused to authorize the establishment, without special permission from Madrid. Some recent private advices from the Havana lead us to suppose, that the project is once more under contemplation, with a somewhat better prospect of success, the present governor, General Valdez, being, if we are rightly informed, more favorably disposed than his predecessors. We sincerely hope that it may now go into effect.
The extent to which improvement in the system of education was, even at a pretty recent period, wanted in the island of Cuba, may be gathered from the fact stated by Don Domingo del Monte, that in 1792 there was but one school at the Havana. This was kept by a mulatto master, named Melendez, who gave instruction in grammar and spelling, and taught the boys writing. This last accomplishment was considered at that time of too lofty and abstruse a character to be imparted to the other sex. There are now, in the province of the Havana, one of the three great divisions of the Island,--seventy-three schools for white and six for colored boys, and fifty one for white and one for colored girls. The total number of pupils in all these schools, in 1836, was four thousand and thirty-six. This is, certainly, a very favorable change. The extent to which further improvement is still desirable, is, however, apparent from the fact, also stated by Don Domingo del Monte, that, of the total number of boys and girls of the proper age to receive elementary instruction, which he estimates, for the whole island, at a little less than one hundred and twenty thousand, not more than fifteen thousand, at the utmost, are in the schools, so that more than a hundred thousand remain, —to use the language of our author,—“ in the midst of the exuberant agricultural wealth of Cuba, as completely destitute of primary instruction, the first and lowest of the elements of civilization,--as the savages of Araguay.”
The materials, upon which these calculations are founded, were obtained chiefly from the answers returned to a circular letter addressed, by authority of the governor general, to
all the territorial divisions of the Island. The result was, a large and valuable mass of information, which has been digested by Don Domingo into a series of very clear and useful tables. Of the fifty-three reports made from the province of the Havana, twenty return that there are no schools whatever within their precincts. The reasons are, generally, assigned for this deficiency, which are always instructive, and, in some cases, amusing, or almost pathetic. Thus, in Managua, “there had once been a school, but it is now occupied by a detachment of troops.” “ La Prensa had been always deprived of the blessing of education, in consequence of the poverty (miseria) of the inhabitants. The few masters who had attempted to establish themselves there having all quitted the place, after a short residence, for want of support." “In Alacranes, one of the richest sugar districts of the island, the population is at the lowest ebb of degradation and wretchedness. It never had a school.” 66 In Vereda Nueva, there have been several attempts to establish schools, but the masters could never obtain a support, and there is now not only no school, but not even a private tutor in the district." In Banta and San Antonio Chiquito, the want of schools is attributed to the "wretchedness of the people, occasioned by the non-residence of the great proprietors, who live in the capital.” These cases would be worth the consideration of Mr. Macculloch, who thinks that it makes no difference to the population of a territory, whether the proprietors, who own and farm it out, reside and spend their income abroad or at home. In San Miguel, the reason alledged is, simply, wretchedness,-por miserable: and here,” says the returning officer, a juez pedanco, or inferior judge, “ we suffer the grief of seeing our children growing up in utter destitution of the precious seed of instruction." In S. Geromino de Peñalvez, the absence of schools is occasioned by the scattered state of the population, the principal village in the district consisting of only eighteen inhabitants, including the curate. In Guana, there are a great many children, who require instruction; and a retired serjeant, residing in the village, named D. Ildefonso Molina, at one time took compassion on their case, and undertook to keep a school, but was pretty soon prohibited by the local authorities from continuing it, because he had not a master's license. In Quisican there are large estates, and a numerous