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Pel Pelic

Pelias ly recom

ommended, was with equal warmth accepted by seems elose to the town, but is separated from it by the II the young hero, and his intended expedition was made Ludias, running by the walls, and joined to it by a Pella

known all over Greece. While Jason was absent in bridge, (Livy): distant from the sea 120 stadia, the
the Argonautic expedition, Pelias murdered Æson and Ludias being so far navigable, (Strabo). Melacalls
all his family; but, according to the more received the town Pelle, though most Greek authors write Pella.
opinion of Ovid, Áson was still living when the Ar- The birth-place of Philip, who enlarged it; and after-
gonauts returned, and he was restored to the flower of wards of Alexander, (Strabo, Mela). Continued to be
youth by the magic of Medea. This change in the the royal residence down to Perses, (Livy). Called
vigour and the constitution of Æson astonished all the Pella Colonia, (Pliny); Colonia Julia Augusta, (Coin).
inhabitants of Iolchos; and the daughters of Pelias, who It afterwards came to decline, with but few and mean in.
have received the patronymic of Peliades, expressed habitants, (Lucian). It is now called Te Manalucia, the
their desire to see their father's infirmities vanish by Little Palace, (Holstenius). Pellæus, both tbe gentiliti-
the same powerful magic. Medea, who wished to a ous name and the epithet, (Lucian, Juvenal, Martial.)
yenge the injuries which her husband Jason had re -Another PELLA, (Polybius, Pliny); a town of the
ceived from Pelias, raised the desires of the Peliades, Decapolis, on the other side the Jordan ; abounding in
by cutting an old ram to pieces, and boiling the flesh water, like its cognominal town in Macedonia ; built
in a cauldron, and then turning it into a fine young by the Macedonians, (Strabo); by Seleucus, (Eusebius);
lamb. After they bad seen this successful experiment, anciently called Butis, (Stephanus); Apumea, (Strabo);
the Peliades cut their father's body to pieces, after they situated 35 miles to the north-east of Gerasa, (Ptolemy).
had drawn all the blood from his veins, on the assu. Thither the Christians, just before the siege of Jerusa-
rance that Medea would replenish them by ber won lem by Titus, were divinely admonished to fly, (Euse-
derful power. The limbs were immediately put into bius). It was t'e utmost boundary of the Peræa, OP
a cauldron of boiling water ; but Medea suffered the Transjordan country, to the north, (Josephus).
flesh to be totally consumed, and refused to give the PELLETIER, BERTRAND, a celebrated chemical
promised assistance, and the bones of Pelias did not philosopher, was born at Bayonne in 1761, and very
even receive a burial. The Peliades were four in num soon discovered a strong predilection for the sciences,
ber, Alceste, Pisidice, Pelopea, and Hippotloe, to to cherish which he had every thing in his father's
whom Hyginus adds Medusa. Their mother's name house that could be reasonably desired, and here he ac-
was Anasibia, the daughter of Bias or Philomache, the quired the elements of that art for which he was after-
daughter of Amphion. After this parricide, the Pe wards so famous His subsequent progress be made
liades fled to the court of Admetus, where Acastus, the under Darcel, who admitted him among the pupils at-
son-in-law of Pelias, pursued them, and took their pro tached to the chemical laboratory of France. Five
tector prisoner. The Peliades died, and were buried years intense application under such a master, gave him
in Arcadia.

a stock of knowledge very uncommon at his years. As PELICAN, a genus of birds belonging to the order a convincing proof of this, he published, when only 21, of anseres. See ORNITHOLOGY Index.

a number of valuable obseryations on arsenic acid, proPelican, in Chemistry, is a glass alembic consisting ving, contrary to the opinion of Macquer, that sulphuof one piece, with a tubulated capital, from wbich two ric acid distilled from the arseniate of potash, disenopposite and crooked beaks pass out, and enter again at gages the acid of arsenic. the bortom of the cucurbit. This vessel was contrived Encourayed by the success which attended his first by the older chemists for a continued distillation, but labours of a chemical nature, hr. communicated his rehas gone into disuse.

marks on the crystallization of sulphur, cinnabar, and PELICANUS, a genus of birds belonging to the the deliquescent salts; the examination of zeolites, parorder of anseres. See ORNITHOLOGY Index.

ticularly the false Zeolite of Freyburg, which he discoPELION (Diodorus Siculus, &c.), Pelios, mons vered to be merely an ore of zinc. He also made obunderstood, (Miela, Virgil, Horace, Seneca), a moun servations oxygenated muriatic acid, in reference tain of Thessaly near Ossa, and hanging over the Sinus to the absorption of oxygen; on the formation of others, Pelasgicus, or Pegasicus ; its top covered with pines, chiefly the muriatic and the acetous; and a number of the sides with oaks, (Ovid). Said also to abound in memoirs on the operation of phosphorus made in the wild ash (Val. Flaccus). From this mountaiv was cut large way; its conversion into phosphoric acid, and its

of Achilles, called pelias, which none but bim combination with sulphur and most metallic substances.
self could wield, (Homer). Dicearchus, Aristotle's It was by his operations on phosphorus that he burnt
scholar, found this mountain 1250 paces higher than himself so severely as nearly to endanger his life. Im-
any o ber of Thessaly, (Pljuy). Pelius, Cicero ; Pea mediately on his recovery be began the analysis of dif-
liacus, (Catullus), the epithet.

ferent varieties of plumbago from France, England,
PELLA, in Ancient Geography, a tovn situated on Germany, Spain, and America, and gave both novelty
the confines of Emathia, a district of Macedonia, (Pto- and interest to his work, even after the labours of
lemy); and therefore Herodotus allots it to Bottiæa, a Scheele on the same subject had made their appearance.
maritime district on the Sinus Thermaïcus. It was the The analysis of carbonate of barytes led him to mako
roval residence, situated on an eminence, verging to the experiments on animals, from which he discovered that
south-west, encompassed with unpassable marshes summer this earth is a real poison, in whatever way adninister-
and winter: in which, next the town, a citadel like an ed. Strontites was also analysed by this celebrated
island rises, placed on a bank or dam, a prodigious work, chemist, which was found to contain a new earth.
hoth supporting the wall and securing it from any hurt Pelletier discovered a process for preparing verditer
by means of the circumfluent water. At a distance, it in the large way, equal, it is said, in beauty to that

on the

the spear



Pelletier which is manufactured in England. He was also and Pelasgia; a peninsula second to no other country Pelopor

among the first who shewed the possibility of refining for nobleness ; situated between two seas, the Egean Pelopon- bell metal, and separating the tin. His first experiHis first experi and Ionian, and resembling a platane-leaf, on account


Pelusium. ments were performed at Paris, after which he went to of its angular recesses or bays, (Pliny, Strabo, Mela). the foundery at Romilly, to prove their accuracy in the Strabo adds from Homer, that one of its ancient names large way. He was soon after this admitted a member was Argos, with the epithet Achaicum, to distinguish of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and afterwards it from Thessaly, called Pelasgicum. Divided into six accompanied Borda and General Daboville to La Fere, parts ; namely, Argolis, Laconica, Messenia, F.lis, to assist in experiments on a new species of gunpowder. Achaia, and Arcadia, (Mela). Now called the Korea. Being obliged to pass great part of the day in the open PELOPS, in fabulous history, the son of Tantalus air during a cold and moist season, in order to render his king of Phrygia, went into Elis, where be married experiments more decisive, his bealth, which was batu- Hippodamia the daughter of Oenomaus king of that rally delicate, was very much impaired. He partly re

country; and became so powerful, that all the terricovered it, but again fell a victim to his thirst after tory wliich lies beyond the isthmus, and composes a knowledge, for he was at one time nearly destroyed by considerable part of Greece, was called Peloponnesus, inspiring the oxygenated muriatic acid gas, which occa that is, the island of Pelops, from his name and the sioned a consulsive asthma, which at times appeared to

word Neros. abate, but was found to be incurable. The assistance PELTA, a small, light, manageable buckler, used of art was insufficient to save him, and he died at Paris by the ancients. It was worn by the Amazons. The on the 21st of July 1797, of a pulmonary consumption, pelta is said by sone to have resembled an ivy leaf in in the flower of his age, being only 36.

form; by others it is compared to the leaf of an Indian PELLETS, in Heraldry, those roundles that are fiy-tree; and by Serbius to the mood in her first quarblack; called also ogresses and gunstones, and by the ter, French torteaux de sable.

PELTARIA, a genus of plants belonging to the PELLICLE, among physicians, denotes a thin film tetradynamia class, and in the natural method rankor fragment of a membrane. Among chemists it signi- ed under the 39th order, Siliquosæ. See BOTANY fies a thin surface of crystals uniformly spread over a Inder. saline liquor evaporated to a certain degree.

PELUSIUM, in Ancient Gezgraphy, a strong city PELLISON, or PELLISON FONTANIER, Paul, of Egypt, without the Delta, distant 20 stadia from one of the finest geniuses of the 17th century, was the the sea; situated amidst marshes ; and hence its name son of James Pellison counsellor at Castres. He was and its strength. Called the key or inlet of Egypt (Dio. born at Beziers in 1624, and educated in the Protestant dorus, Hirtius); which being taken, the rest of Egypt religion. He studied with snccess the Latin, Greek, lay quite open and exposed to an enemy. Called Sin French, Spavish, and Italian tongues, and applied him- (Ezekiel).' Pelusiacus the epithet (Virgil, Diodorus). self to the reading the best authors in these languages; From its ruins arose Damietta. E. Long. 32°. N. Lat. after which he studied the law at Castres with reputa- 31°. tion. In 1652 he purchased the post of secretary to the Mr Savary gives us the following account of this king, and five years after became first deputy to M. place: “ The period of its foundation, as well as that Letters on Fouquet. He suffered by the disgrace of that minister; of the other ancient cities of Egypt, is lost in the ob- Egypt, and in 1661 was confined in the Bastile, from whence scurity of time. It flourished long before Herodotus, he was not discharged till four years after. During his As it commanded the entrance of the country on the confinement he applied himself to the study of contro side of Asia, the Pharaohs rendered it a considerable versy; and in 1670 abjured the Protestant religion. fortress: one of then raised a rampart of 30 leagues in Louis XIV. bestowed upon him an annual pension of length from the walls of this town to Heliopolis. But 2000 crowns; and be likewise enjoyed several posts. In we find from the history of nations that the long wall of 1676 he had the abbey of Giment, and some years after China, those which the weakness of the Greek emperors the priory of St Orens at Auch. He died in 1693. led them to build round Constantinople, and many His principal works are, 1. The History of the French others, built at an immense expence, were but ferble Academy. 2. Reflections on religious Disputes, &c. in barriers against a warlike people: these examples bare 4 vols. i 20. 3. The History of Louis XIV. 4. Hi- taught us, that a state, to be in security against a foreign storical Letters and Miscellanies, in 3 vols. 1 2mo. yoke, must form warriors within itself, and that men must

PELOPIA, a festival observed by the Eleans in be opposed to men. This rampart which covered Pelubonour of Pelops. A ram was sacrificed on the occa sium, did not stop Cambysee, who attacked it with a sion, which both priests and people were prohibited formidable army. The feeble character of the son of from partaking of, on pain of excommunication from Amisis, unable to prevent the desertion of 200,000 Jupiter's temple: the neck only was allotted to the of. E yptians, who went to found a colony beyond the caficer who provided wood for the sacrifice. This officer taracts, had not force sufficient to oppose that torrent was called Evatus ; and white poplar was the only wood which broke in upon bis country. Cambyees, after a made use or at this solemnity.

bloody battle, wherein he cut bis enemies to pieces, enPELOPONNESUS, (Dionysius), a large peninsula tered'Pelusium in triumph. That memorable day, which to the south of the rest of Greece ; called, as it were saw the desertion of one part of the Egyptian militia Pelopis nesus, or insula, though properly not an island, and the ruin of the other, is the true epoch of the subbut á peninsula ; yet wanting but little to be one, viz. jugation of that rich country. Since that period, it has the isthmus of Corinth, ending in a point like the leaf passed under the yoke of the Persiens, the Macedonians, of the platane or phene tree. Anciently called Apia the Romans, the Greeks, the Arabs, and the Turks. Á



Pelusium continued slavery of more than 2000 years seems to se creek of Milford-Haven, and in the most pleasant part Pembroke ll eure them an eternal bondage.

of Wales, being about 256 miles distant from London. Pembroke

shire. Pembroke.

“ Herodotus, who visited Pelusium some years after It is the county-town, and has two bandsome bridges the conquest of Cambyses, relates an anecdote which over two small rivers which run into a creek, forming I cannot omit: 'I surveyed (says he) the plain where the west side of a promontory. It is well inhabited, the two armies had fought. It was covered with hu has several good houses, and but one church. There is man bones collected in heaps. Those of the Persians also a custombouse in it. There are several merchants were on one side, those of the Egyptians on the other, in it, who, favoured by its situation, employ near 200 the inhabitants of the country baving taken care to se sail on their own account; so tbat, next to Caermarthen, parate them after the battle. They made me take no it is the largest and richest town in South Wales. It tice of a fact which would have appeared very astonish bas one long straight street, upon a narrow part of a ing to me without their explanation of it. The skulls of rock; and the two rivers seem to be two arms of Milthe Persians, which were slight and fragile, broke on ford-Haven, which ebbs and flows close up to the town. being lightly struck with a stone; those of the Egyp: It was in former times fortified with walls, and a magtians, thicker and more compact, resisted the blows of nificent castle seated on a rock at the west end of the flint. This difference of solidity they attributed to the town. In this rock, under the chapel, is a natural cacustom the Persians have of covering their heads from vern called Wogan, remarked for having a very fine their infancy with the tiara, and to the Egyptian cus. echo : this is supposed to have been a store-room for the tom of leaving the heads of their children bare and garrison, as there is a staircase leading into it from the shaved, exposed to the heat of the sun. This explana- Castle. This structure being burnt a few years after it tion appeared satisfactory to me.' Mr Savary assures was erected, it was rebuilt. It is remarkable for being us that the same customs still subsist in Egypt, of which the birth-place of Henry VII. and for the brave dehe frequently bad ocular demonstration.

fence made by the garrison for Charles I. The inha-
“ Pelusium (continues he), after passing under the bitants in 181 amounted to 2415.
dominion of Persia, was taken by Alexander. The brave PEMBROKESHIRE, a county of Wales, bounded
Antony, general of cavalry under Gabinius, took it on all sides by the Irish sea, except on the east, where it
from his successors, and Rome restored it to Ptolemy joins to Caermarthenshire, and on the north-east to Car-
Auletes. Pompey, whose credit had established this diganshire. It lies the nearest to Ireland of any county
young prince on the throne of Egypt, after the fatal in Wales ; and extends in length from north to south
battle of Pharsalia took refuge at Pelusium. He land- 35 miles, and from east to west 29, and is about 140 in
ed at the entrance of the barbour ; and, on quitting his in circumference. It is divided into seven hundreds ;
wife Cornelia and his son, he repeated the two follow contains about 420,000 acres, one city, eight narket-
ing verses of Sophocles, · The free man who seeks an towns, two forests, 145 parishes. In 1811 it contained
asylum at the court of a king will meet with slavery 12,874 houses, and 60,615 inhabitants, of whom 15,557
and chains. He there found death. Scarcely bad be lived in towns, and 45,058 in the country. It lies in
landed on the shore, when Theodore the rhetorician, the province of Canterbury, and diocese of St David's.
of the isle of Chio, Septimius the courtier, and Achillas It sends three members to parliament, viz. one for tbe
the eunuch, who commanded his troops, wishing for a shire, one for Haverfordwest, and one for the town of
victim to present to his conqueror, stabbed him with Pembroke.
their swords. At the sight of the assassins Pompey The air of Pembrokeshire, considering its situation,
covered his face with his mantle, and died like a Roman. is good; but it is in general better the farther from the
They cut off his bead, and embalmed it, to offer it to As there are but few mountains, the soil is gene-
Cæsar, and left his body naked on the shore. It was rally fruitful, especially on the sea-coasts ; its moun-
thus that this great man, whose warlike' talents had pro tains also maintain great numbers of sheep and goats.
cured the liberty of the seas for the Romans, and added Its other commodities are corn, cattle, pit-coal, marl,
whole kingdoms to their extended empire, was basely fish, and fowl. Among these last are falcons, called
slain in setting foot on the territory of a king who owed bere peregrines. Amongst the birds common here are
to him his crown. Philip his freedman, collecting to migratory sea-birds, that breed in the isle of Ramsey,
gether, under favour of the night, the wreck of a boat, and the adjoining rocks called The Bishop and his
and stripping off his own cloak to cover the sad remains Clerks. About the beginning of April such flocks of
of his master, burnt them according to the custom. An sea-birds, of several kinds, resort to these rocks, as
old soldier, who had served under Pompey's colours, appear incredible to those who have not seen them.
came to mingle his tears with those of Philip, and to The inhabitants of this county make a very pleasant
assist him in performing the last offices to the manes of durable fire of culm, which is the dust of coal made up
lis general.- Pelusium was often taken and pillaged into balls with a third part of mud. The county is
during the wars of the Romans, the Greeks, and the well watered by the rivers Clethy, Dougledy, Cledhew,
Arabs. But in spite of so many disasters, she preserved and Teive ; which last parts it from Cardiganshire.
to the time of the Crusades her riches and her com There is a division of the county styled Rhos in the
merce. 'The Christian princes having taken it by storm, Welsh, by which is meant a large green plain. This
sacked it. It never again rose from its ruins ; and the is inhabited by the descendants of the Flenings, placed
inhabitants went to Damietta." See DAMIETTA. there by Henry I. to curb the Welch, who were never

PELVIS, in Anatomy. See ANATOMY Inlex. able to expel them, though they often attempted it.
PEMBROKE, MARY, COUNTESS OF. See HERBERT. On the coasts of this county, as well as on those of

PEMBROKE, in Pembrokeshire, in England, is the Glamorganshire and the Severn sea, is found a kind of
principal town in the county. It is situated upon a alga or laver, which is gathered in spring, and of which



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Pembroke the inhabitants make a sort of food, called in Welch (he says) can be described by it in the simple form.

Pen, shire, Thavan, and in English black butter. Having washed it We shall give a short description of it from Adam's Penance. Pen.

clean, they lay it to sweat between two fat stones, then Geometrical and Graphical Essays.
shred it small, and knead it well, like dough for bread, Fig. 1. represents the geometric pen ; A, B, C, the Plate
and then make it up into great balls or rolls, which is stand by which it is supported; the legs A, B, C, are CCCCVIL
by some eaten raw, and by others fryed with oatmeal contrived to fold one within the other for the conveni. fig. 1.
and butter. It is accounted excellent against many ence of packing. A strong axis D is fitted to the top
distempers. See PEMBROKESHIRE, SUPPLEMENT. of the frame ; to the lower part of this axis any of the

PEN, a town of Somersetshire, in England, on the wheels (as i) may be adapted; when screwed to it they
north-east side of Wincaunton, where Kenwald a West are immoveable. EG is an arm contrived to turn round
Saxon king so totally defeated the Britons, that they upon the main axis D; two sliding boxes are fitted to
were never after able to make head against the Saxons; this arm ; to these boxes any of the wheels belonging
and where, many ages after this, Edmund Ironside to the geometric pen may be Áred, and then slid so that
gained a memorable victory over the Danes, who bad the wheels may take into each other and the immove-
before, i. e. in 1001, defeated the Saxons in that same able wheel i; it is evident, that by making the arm EG

revolve round the axis D, these wheels will be made to Pen, a little instrument, usually formed of a quill, revolve also, and that the number of their revolutions serving to write withal.

will depend on the proportion between the teeth. Fg Pens are also sometimes made of silver, brass, or is an arm carrying the pencil ; this arm slides backwards iron.

and forwards in the box c d, in order that the distance Dutch Pens, are made of quills that have passed of the pencil from the centre of the wheel h may be through hot ashes, to take off the grosser fat and moi. easily varied; the box c d is fitted to the axis of the sture, and render them more transparent.

wheel h, and turns round with it, carrying the arm fg Fountain Pey, is a pen of silver, brass, &c. contri- along with it: it is evident, therefore, that the revoluved to contain a considerable quantity of ink, and let tions will be fewer or greater in proportion to the difit flow out by gentle degrees, so as to supply the writer ference between the numbers of the teeth in the wheels a long time without being under the pecessity of taking h and i; this bar and socket are easily removed for fresh ink.

changing the wheels. When two wheels only are used, Plate The fountain pen is composed of several pieces. The the bar f g moves in the same direction with the bar CCCCVII. middle piece, fig. 1. carries the pen, which is screwed EG; but if another wheel is introduced between them, lig. I. into the inside of a little pipe, which again is soldered they move in contrary directions.

to another pipe of the same bigness as the lid, fig. 2. ; in • The number of teeth in the wheels, and conse-
which lid is soldered a male screw, for screwing on the quently the relative velocity of the epicycle or arma
cover, as also for stopping a little hole at the place and fg, may be varied in infinitum. The nunibers we
bindering the ink from passing through it. At the have used are 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, 72, 80,
other end of the piece, fig. 1. is a little pipe, on the 88, 96.
outside of which the top-cover, fig. 3. may be screwed. “ The construction and application of this instru-
In the cover there goes a port-crayon, which is to be ment is so evident from the figure, that nothing more
screwed into the last-mentioned pipe, in order to stop need be pointed out than the combinations by which va-
the end of the pipe, into which the ink is to be poured rious figures may be produced. We shall take two as
by a funnel. To use the pen, the cover fig. 2. must examples :
be taken off, and the pen a little shaken, to make the “ T'he radius of EG (fig. 2.) must be to that of f g Pig. 2.
ink run more freely.

as 10 to 5 nearly ; their velocities, or the number of
There are, it is well known, some instruments used teeth in the wheels, to be equal; the motion to be in -
by practical mathematicians, which are called pens, the same direction.
and which are distinguished according to the use to “ If the length of fg be varied, the looped figure
which they are principally applied ; as for example, the delineated at fig. 3. will be produced. A circle may be Fig. 3-
drawing pen, &c. an instrument too common to require described by equal wheels, and any radius but the bars
a particular description in this place, But it may be must move in contrary directions.
proper to take some notice of the geometric pen, as it To describe by this circular motion a straight line
is not so well known, nor the principles on which it de and an ellipsis. For a straight line, equal radii, the
pends so obvious.

velocity as i to 2, the motion in a contrary direction ;
The geometric Pen is an instrument in which, by a the same data will give a variety of ellipses, only the
circular motion, a right line, a circle, an ellipse, and radii must be unequal; the ellipses may be described
other mathematical figures, may be described. It was in any direction." See fig. 4.
first invented and explained by John Baptist Suardi, in Pen, or Penstock. See PENSTOCK.
a work intitled Nuovo Instromenti per la Descrizzione Sea-Pen. See PENNATULA, HELMINTHOLOGY In-
di diverse Curve Antichi e Moderne, &c. Several wri dex.
ters had observed the curves arising from the compound. PENANCE, a punishment, either voluntary or im-
motion of two circles, one moving round the other; but posed by authority, for the faults a person bas commit-
Suardi first realized the principle, and first reduced it ted. Pennance is one of the seven sacraments of the
to practice. It has been lately introduced with success Romish church. Besides fasting, alms, abstinence, and
into the steam-engine by Watt' and Bolton. The num the like, which are the general conditions of penance,
ber of curves this instrument can describe is truly ama- there are others of a more particular kind; as the re-
zing; the author enumerates not less than 1273, which peating a certain number of ave-marys, pater-nosters,


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Fig. 4

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perpendicular height, and D any heavy body : then CCCCVII

Penence and credos, wearing a hair-shirt, and giving one's self a are greatly preferable to the others, though seldom so Penci

certain number of stripes. In Italy and Spain it is usual perfect as could be wished, being accompanied with 0 Pencil. to see Christians almost naked, loaded with chains and some degree of the same inconveniences, and being ve- Pendulu a cross, and lashing themselves at every step.

ry unequal in their quality, on account of different sorts PENATES, in Roman antiquity, a kind of tutelar of the mineral being fraudulently joined together in one deities, either of countries or particular houses; in which pencil, the fore part being commonly pretty good, and Jast sense they differed in nothing from the lares. See the rest of an inferior kind. Some, to avoid these imLARES.

perfections, take the finer pieces of black lead itself, The penates were properly the tutelar gods of the which they saw into slips, and fix for use in port crayTrojans, and were only adopted by the Roinans, who ons: this is doubtless the surest way of obtaining black gave them the title of penates.

lead crayons, whose goodness can be depended on. PENCIL, an instrument used by painters for laying PENDANT, an ornament banging at the ear, freon their colours. Pencils are of various kinds, and quently composed of diamonds, pearls, and other jewmade of various materials; the largest sorts are made of els. boars bristles, the thick ends of which are bound to a PENDANTS, in Heraldry, parts hanging down from stick, bigger, or less according to the uses they are de the label to the number of three, four, five, or six at signed for ; these, when large, are called brushes. The most, resembling the drop in the Doric frieze. When finer sorts of pencils are made of camels, badgers, and they are more than three, they must be specified in blasquirrels hair, and of the down of swans ; these are tied zoning. at the upper end with a piece of strong thread, and en Pendants of a ship, are those streamers, or long closed in the barrel of a quill.

colours, which are split and divided into two parts, endAll good pencils, on being drawn between the lips, ing in points, and bung at the head of masts, or at the come to a fine point.

yard-arm ends Pencil, is also an instrament used in drawing, writ PENDENE-Vow, in Cornwall, in England, on the ring, &c. made of long pieces of black lead or red north coast, by Morvath. There is here an unfathomchalk, placed in a groove cut in a slip of cedar; on able cave under the earth, into which the sea flows at which other pieces of cedar being glued, the whole is bigh water. The cliffs between this and St Ives shine planed round, and one of the ends being cut to a point, as if they had store of copper, of which indeed there is it is fit for use.

abundance within land. Black lead in fine powder, stirred into melted sul PENDENNIS, in Cornwall, at the mouth of Falphur, unites with it so uniformly, and in such quantity, mouth haven, is a peninsula of a mile and a half in in virtue perhaps of its abounding with sulphur, that compass. On this Henry VIII. erected a castle, oppothough the compound remains fluid enough to be pour site to that of St Maw's, wbich he likewise built. It ed into moulds, it looks nearly like the coarser sorts of was fortified by Queen Elizabeth, and served then for black lead itself. Probably the way which Prince Ru- the governor's house. It is one of the largest castles in pert is said to have had, mentioned in the third volume Britain, and is built on a high rock. It is stronger by of Dr Birch's History of the Royal Society, of making land than St Maw's, being regularly fortified, and hablack lead run like a metal in a mould, so as to serve for ving good outworks. black lead again, consisted in mixing with it sulphur or PENDULOUS, a term applied to any thing that sulphureous bodies.

bends or hangs downwards. On this principle the German black lead pencils are PENDULUM, a vibrating body suspended from a said to be made ; and many of those which are hawked fixed point. For the history of this invention, see the about by certain persons among us are prepared in the article Clock. same manner : their m Iting or softening, when held to The theory of the pendulum depends on that of the a candle, or applied to a red-hot iron, and yielding a inclined plane, Hence, in order to understand the nabluish fame, with a strong smell like that of burning ture of the pendulum, it will be necessary to premiso brimstone, betrays their composition ; for black lead it some of the properties of this plane; referring, however, self yields no smell or fume, and suffers no apparent al to Inclined Plane, and to the article MECHANICS, for teration in that heat. Pencils made with such additions the demonstration. are of a very bad kind; they are hard, brittle, and do I. Let AC (fig 1.) be an inclined plane, AB its Plate not cast or make a mark freely either on paper or wood, rather cutting or scratching them than leaving a colour the force which impris the body D to descend along ed otroke.

the inclined plane AC, is to the absolute force of

graThe true English pencils (which Vogel in his mine vity as the bright of the plane A B is to its length AC; ral system, and some other foreigo writers, imagine to and the motion of the body will be uniformly acceleratbe prepared also by melting the black lead with some ed. additional substances, and casting it into a mould) are II. The velocity acquired in any given time by s formed of black lead alone sawed into slips, which are body descending on an inclined plane AC, is to the fitted into a groove made in a piece of wood, and an velocity acquired in the same time by a body talling other slip of wool glued over them : the softest wood, as freely and perpendicularly, as the height of the plane cedar, is made choice of, that the pencil may be the ea AB to its length AC. 'The final velocities will be sier cut; and a part at one end, too short to be conve the same ; the spaces described will be in the same niently used after the rest has been worn and cut away, ratio ; and the times of description are as the spaces is leit untiiled with the black trad, that there may be described. 20 waste of sø valuable a commodity. These pencils Il. If a body descend along several contiguous 5


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