« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
Pelias ly recom
ommended, was with equal warmth accepted by seems elose to the town, but is separated from it by the II the young hero, and his intended expedition was made Ludias, running by the walls, and joined to it by a Pella
known all over Greece. While Jason was absent in bridge, (Livy): distant from the sea 120 stadia, the
a stock of knowledge very uncommon at his years. As PELICAN, a genus of birds belonging to the order a convincing proof of this, he published, when only 21, of anseres. See ORNITHOLOGY Index.
a number of valuable obseryations on arsenic acid, proPelican, in Chemistry, is a glass alembic consisting ving, contrary to the opinion of Macquer, that sulphuof one piece, with a tubulated capital, from wbich two ric acid distilled from the arseniate of potash, disenopposite and crooked beaks pass out, and enter again at gages the acid of arsenic. the bortom of the cucurbit. This vessel was contrived Encourayed by the success which attended his first by the older chemists for a continued distillation, but labours of a chemical nature, hr. communicated his rehas gone into disuse.
marks on the crystallization of sulphur, cinnabar, and PELICANUS, a genus of birds belonging to the the deliquescent salts; the examination of zeolites, parorder of anseres. See ORNITHOLOGY Index.
ticularly the false Zeolite of Freyburg, which he discoPELION (Diodorus Siculus, &c.), Pelios, mons vered to be merely an ore of zinc. He also made obunderstood, (Miela, Virgil, Horace, Seneca), a moun servations oxygenated muriatic acid, in reference tain of Thessaly near Ossa, and hanging over the Sinus to the absorption of oxygen; on the formation of others, Pelasgicus, or Pegasicus ; its top covered with pines, chiefly the muriatic and the acetous; and a number of the sides with oaks, (Ovid). Said also to abound in memoirs on the operation of phosphorus made in the wild ash (Val. Flaccus). From this mountaiv was cut large way; its conversion into phosphoric acid, and its
of Achilles, called pelias, which none but bim combination with sulphur and most metallic substances.
ferent varieties of plumbago from France, England,
Pelletier which is manufactured in England. He was also and Pelasgia; a peninsula second to no other country Pelopor
among the first who shewed the possibility of refining for nobleness ; situated between two seas, the Egean Pelopon- bell metal, and separating the tin. His first experiHis first experi and Ionian, and resembling a platane-leaf, on account
Pelusium. ments were performed at Paris, after which he went to of its angular recesses or bays, (Pliny, Strabo, Mela). the foundery at Romilly, to prove their accuracy in the Strabo adds from Homer, that one of its ancient names large way. He was soon after this admitted a member was Argos, with the epithet Achaicum, to distinguish of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, and afterwards it from Thessaly, called Pelasgicum. Divided into six accompanied Borda and General Daboville to La Fere, parts ; namely, Argolis, Laconica, Messenia, F.lis, to assist in experiments on a new species of gunpowder. Achaia, and Arcadia, (Mela). Now called the Korea. Being obliged to pass great part of the day in the open PELOPS, in fabulous history, the son of Tantalus air during a cold and moist season, in order to render his king of Phrygia, went into Elis, where be married experiments more decisive, his bealth, which was batu- Hippodamia the daughter of Oenomaus king of that rally delicate, was very much impaired. He partly re
country; and became so powerful, that all the terricovered it, but again fell a victim to his thirst after tory wliich lies beyond the isthmus, and composes a knowledge, for he was at one time nearly destroyed by considerable part of Greece, was called Peloponnesus, inspiring the oxygenated muriatic acid gas, which occa that is, the island of Pelops, from his name and the sioned a consulsive asthma, which at times appeared to
word Neros. abate, but was found to be incurable. The assistance PELTA, a small, light, manageable buckler, used of art was insufficient to save him, and he died at Paris by the ancients. It was worn by the Amazons. The on the 21st of July 1797, of a pulmonary consumption, pelta is said by sone to have resembled an ivy leaf in in the flower of his age, being only 36.
form; by others it is compared to the leaf of an Indian PELLETS, in Heraldry, those roundles that are fiy-tree; and by Serbius to the mood in her first quarblack; called also ogresses and gunstones, and by the ter, French torteaux de sable.
PELTARIA, a genus of plants belonging to the PELLICLE, among physicians, denotes a thin film tetradynamia class, and in the natural method rankor fragment of a membrane. Among chemists it signi- ed under the 39th order, Siliquosæ. See BOTANY fies a thin surface of crystals uniformly spread over a Inder. saline liquor evaporated to a certain degree.
PELUSIUM, in Ancient Gezgraphy, a strong city PELLISON, or PELLISON FONTANIER, Paul, of Egypt, without the Delta, distant 20 stadia from one of the finest geniuses of the 17th century, was the the sea; situated amidst marshes ; and hence its name son of James Pellison counsellor at Castres. He was and its strength. Called the key or inlet of Egypt (Dio. born at Beziers in 1624, and educated in the Protestant dorus, Hirtius); which being taken, the rest of Egypt religion. He studied with snccess the Latin, Greek, lay quite open and exposed to an enemy. Called Sin French, Spavish, and Italian tongues, and applied him- (Ezekiel).' Pelusiacus the epithet (Virgil, Diodorus). self to the reading the best authors in these languages; From its ruins arose Damietta. E. Long. 32°. N. Lat. after which he studied the law at Castres with reputa- 31°. tion. In 1652 he purchased the post of secretary to the Mr Savary gives us the following account of this king, and five years after became first deputy to M. place: “ The period of its foundation, as well as that Letters on Fouquet. He suffered by the disgrace of that minister; of the other ancient cities of Egypt, is lost in the ob- Egypt, and in 1661 was confined in the Bastile, from whence scurity of time. It flourished long before Herodotus, he was not discharged till four years after. During his As it commanded the entrance of the country on the confinement he applied himself to the study of contro side of Asia, the Pharaohs rendered it a considerable versy; and in 1670 abjured the Protestant religion. fortress: one of then raised a rampart of 30 leagues in Louis XIV. bestowed upon him an annual pension of length from the walls of this town to Heliopolis. But 2000 crowns; and be likewise enjoyed several posts. In we find from the history of nations that the long wall of 1676 he had the abbey of Giment, and some years after China, those which the weakness of the Greek emperors the priory of St Orens at Auch. He died in 1693. led them to build round Constantinople, and many His principal works are, 1. The History of the French others, built at an immense expence, were but ferble Academy. 2. Reflections on religious Disputes, &c. in barriers against a warlike people: these examples bare 4 vols. i 20. 3. The History of Louis XIV. 4. Hi- taught us, that a state, to be in security against a foreign storical Letters and Miscellanies, in 3 vols. 1 2mo. yoke, must form warriors within itself, and that men must
PELOPIA, a festival observed by the Eleans in be opposed to men. This rampart which covered Pelubonour of Pelops. A ram was sacrificed on the occa sium, did not stop Cambysee, who attacked it with a sion, which both priests and people were prohibited formidable army. The feeble character of the son of from partaking of, on pain of excommunication from Amisis, unable to prevent the desertion of 200,000 Jupiter's temple: the neck only was allotted to the of. E yptians, who went to found a colony beyond the caficer who provided wood for the sacrifice. This officer taracts, had not force sufficient to oppose that torrent was called Evatus ; and white poplar was the only wood which broke in upon bis country. Cambyees, after a made use or at this solemnity.
bloody battle, wherein he cut bis enemies to pieces, enPELOPONNESUS, (Dionysius), a large peninsula tered'Pelusium in triumph. That memorable day, which to the south of the rest of Greece ; called, as it were saw the desertion of one part of the Egyptian militia Pelopis nesus, or insula, though properly not an island, and the ruin of the other, is the true epoch of the subbut á peninsula ; yet wanting but little to be one, viz. jugation of that rich country. Since that period, it has the isthmus of Corinth, ending in a point like the leaf passed under the yoke of the Persiens, the Macedonians, of the platane or phene tree. Anciently called Apia the Romans, the Greeks, the Arabs, and the Turks. Á
Pelusium continued slavery of more than 2000 years seems to se creek of Milford-Haven, and in the most pleasant part Pembroke ll eure them an eternal bondage.
of Wales, being about 256 miles distant from London. Pembroke
“ Herodotus, who visited Pelusium some years after It is the county-town, and has two bandsome bridges the conquest of Cambyses, relates an anecdote which over two small rivers which run into a creek, forming I cannot omit: 'I surveyed (says he) the plain where the west side of a promontory. It is well inhabited, the two armies had fought. It was covered with hu has several good houses, and but one church. There is man bones collected in heaps. Those of the Persians also a custombouse in it. There are several merchants were on one side, those of the Egyptians on the other, in it, who, favoured by its situation, employ near 200 the inhabitants of the country baving taken care to se sail on their own account; so tbat, next to Caermarthen, parate them after the battle. They made me take no it is the largest and richest town in South Wales. It tice of a fact which would have appeared very astonish bas one long straight street, upon a narrow part of a ing to me without their explanation of it. The skulls of rock; and the two rivers seem to be two arms of Milthe Persians, which were slight and fragile, broke on ford-Haven, which ebbs and flows close up to the town. being lightly struck with a stone; those of the Egyp: It was in former times fortified with walls, and a magtians, thicker and more compact, resisted the blows of nificent castle seated on a rock at the west end of the flint. This difference of solidity they attributed to the town. In this rock, under the chapel, is a natural cacustom the Persians have of covering their heads from vern called Wogan, remarked for having a very fine their infancy with the tiara, and to the Egyptian cus. echo : this is supposed to have been a store-room for the tom of leaving the heads of their children bare and garrison, as there is a staircase leading into it from the shaved, exposed to the heat of the sun. This explana- Castle. This structure being burnt a few years after it tion appeared satisfactory to me.' Mr Savary assures was erected, it was rebuilt. It is remarkable for being us that the same customs still subsist in Egypt, of which the birth-place of Henry VII. and for the brave dehe frequently bad ocular demonstration.
fence made by the garrison for Charles I. The inha-
PELVIS, in Anatomy. See ANATOMY Inlex. able to expel them, though they often attempted it.
PEMBROKE, in Pembrokeshire, in England, is the Glamorganshire and the Severn sea, is found a kind of
Pembroke the inhabitants make a sort of food, called in Welch (he says) can be described by it in the simple form.
Pen, shire, Thavan, and in English black butter. Having washed it We shall give a short description of it from Adam's Penance. Pen.
clean, they lay it to sweat between two fat stones, then Geometrical and Graphical Essays.
PEN, a town of Somersetshire, in England, on the wheels (as i) may be adapted; when screwed to it they
revolve round the axis D, these wheels will be made to Pen, a little instrument, usually formed of a quill, revolve also, and that the number of their revolutions serving to write withal.
will depend on the proportion between the teeth. Fg Pens are also sometimes made of silver, brass, or is an arm carrying the pencil ; this arm slides backwards iron.
and forwards in the box c d, in order that the distance Dutch Pens, are made of quills that have passed of the pencil from the centre of the wheel h may be through hot ashes, to take off the grosser fat and moi. easily varied; the box c d is fitted to the axis of the sture, and render them more transparent.
wheel h, and turns round with it, carrying the arm fg Fountain Pey, is a pen of silver, brass, &c. contri- along with it: it is evident, therefore, that the revoluved to contain a considerable quantity of ink, and let tions will be fewer or greater in proportion to the difit flow out by gentle degrees, so as to supply the writer ference between the numbers of the teeth in the wheels a long time without being under the pecessity of taking h and i; this bar and socket are easily removed for fresh ink.
changing the wheels. When two wheels only are used, Plate The fountain pen is composed of several pieces. The the bar f g moves in the same direction with the bar CCCCVII. middle piece, fig. 1. carries the pen, which is screwed EG; but if another wheel is introduced between them, lig. I. into the inside of a little pipe, which again is soldered they move in contrary directions.
to another pipe of the same bigness as the lid, fig. 2. ; in • The number of teeth in the wheels, and conse-
as 10 to 5 nearly ; their velocities, or the number of
velocity as i to 2, the motion in a contrary direction ;
perpendicular height, and D any heavy body : then CCCCVII
Penence and credos, wearing a hair-shirt, and giving one's self a are greatly preferable to the others, though seldom so Penci
certain number of stripes. In Italy and Spain it is usual perfect as could be wished, being accompanied with 0 Pencil. to see Christians almost naked, loaded with chains and some degree of the same inconveniences, and being ve- Pendulu a cross, and lashing themselves at every step.
ry unequal in their quality, on account of different sorts PENATES, in Roman antiquity, a kind of tutelar of the mineral being fraudulently joined together in one deities, either of countries or particular houses; in which pencil, the fore part being commonly pretty good, and Jast sense they differed in nothing from the lares. See the rest of an inferior kind. Some, to avoid these imLARES.
perfections, take the finer pieces of black lead itself, The penates were properly the tutelar gods of the which they saw into slips, and fix for use in port crayTrojans, and were only adopted by the Roinans, who ons: this is doubtless the surest way of obtaining black gave them the title of penates.
lead crayons, whose goodness can be depended on. PENCIL, an instrument used by painters for laying PENDANT, an ornament banging at the ear, freon their colours. Pencils are of various kinds, and quently composed of diamonds, pearls, and other jewmade of various materials; the largest sorts are made of els. boars bristles, the thick ends of which are bound to a PENDANTS, in Heraldry, parts hanging down from stick, bigger, or less according to the uses they are de the label to the number of three, four, five, or six at signed for ; these, when large, are called brushes. The most, resembling the drop in the Doric frieze. When finer sorts of pencils are made of camels, badgers, and they are more than three, they must be specified in blasquirrels hair, and of the down of swans ; these are tied zoning. at the upper end with a piece of strong thread, and en Pendants of a ship, are those streamers, or long closed in the barrel of a quill.
colours, which are split and divided into two parts, endAll good pencils, on being drawn between the lips, ing in points, and bung at the head of masts, or at the come to a fine point.
yard-arm ends Pencil, is also an instrament used in drawing, writ PENDENE-Vow, in Cornwall, in England, on the ring, &c. made of long pieces of black lead or red north coast, by Morvath. There is here an unfathomchalk, placed in a groove cut in a slip of cedar; on able cave under the earth, into which the sea flows at which other pieces of cedar being glued, the whole is bigh water. The cliffs between this and St Ives shine planed round, and one of the ends being cut to a point, as if they had store of copper, of which indeed there is it is fit for use.
abundance within land. Black lead in fine powder, stirred into melted sul PENDENNIS, in Cornwall, at the mouth of Falphur, unites with it so uniformly, and in such quantity, mouth haven, is a peninsula of a mile and a half in in virtue perhaps of its abounding with sulphur, that compass. On this Henry VIII. erected a castle, oppothough the compound remains fluid enough to be pour site to that of St Maw's, wbich he likewise built. It ed into moulds, it looks nearly like the coarser sorts of was fortified by Queen Elizabeth, and served then for black lead itself. Probably the way which Prince Ru- the governor's house. It is one of the largest castles in pert is said to have had, mentioned in the third volume Britain, and is built on a high rock. It is stronger by of Dr Birch's History of the Royal Society, of making land than St Maw's, being regularly fortified, and hablack lead run like a metal in a mould, so as to serve for ving good outworks. black lead again, consisted in mixing with it sulphur or PENDULOUS, a term applied to any thing that sulphureous bodies.
bends or hangs downwards. On this principle the German black lead pencils are PENDULUM, a vibrating body suspended from a said to be made ; and many of those which are hawked fixed point. For the history of this invention, see the about by certain persons among us are prepared in the article Clock. same manner : their m Iting or softening, when held to The theory of the pendulum depends on that of the a candle, or applied to a red-hot iron, and yielding a inclined plane, Hence, in order to understand the nabluish fame, with a strong smell like that of burning ture of the pendulum, it will be necessary to premiso brimstone, betrays their composition ; for black lead it some of the properties of this plane; referring, however, self yields no smell or fume, and suffers no apparent al to Inclined Plane, and to the article MECHANICS, for teration in that heat. Pencils made with such additions the demonstration. are of a very bad kind; they are hard, brittle, and do I. Let AC (fig 1.) be an inclined plane, AB its Plate not cast or make a mark freely either on paper or wood, rather cutting or scratching them than leaving a colour the force which impris the body D to descend along ed otroke.
the inclined plane AC, is to the absolute force of
graThe true English pencils (which Vogel in his mine vity as the bright of the plane A B is to its length AC; ral system, and some other foreigo writers, imagine to and the motion of the body will be uniformly acceleratbe prepared also by melting the black lead with some ed. additional substances, and casting it into a mould) are II. The velocity acquired in any given time by s formed of black lead alone sawed into slips, which are body descending on an inclined plane AC, is to the fitted into a groove made in a piece of wood, and an velocity acquired in the same time by a body talling other slip of wool glued over them : the softest wood, as freely and perpendicularly, as the height of the plane cedar, is made choice of, that the pencil may be the ea AB to its length AC. 'The final velocities will be sier cut; and a part at one end, too short to be conve the same ; the spaces described will be in the same niently used after the rest has been worn and cut away, ratio ; and the times of description are as the spaces is leit untiiled with the black trad, that there may be described. 20 waste of sø valuable a commodity. These pencils Il. If a body descend along several contiguous 5