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Percolation PERCOLATION, a chemical operation which is perfume ; some are alo composed of aromatic herbs or Perfume 11 the same with FILTRATION.
leaves, as lavender, marjoram, sage, thyme, byssop, &c. Perfume. PERCUSSION, in Mechanics, the impression a The use of perfumes was frequent among the He-Pergaman
body makes in falling or striking upon another; or the brews, and among the orientals in general, before it was shock of two bodies in motion. See DYNAMICS and known to the Greeks and Romans. In the time of MECHANICS.
Moses perfumes must have been known in Egypt, since PERDICIUM, a genus of plants, belonging to the he speaks of the art of the perfumer, and gives the comsyngenesia class; and in the natural method ranking position of two kinds of perfumes (Exod. xxx. 25.), of under the 49th order, Compositæ. See Botany Index. which one was to be offered to the Lord upon the
PERDIX, the partridge. See TETRAO, ORNITHO- golden altar which was in the holy place; and the LOGY Index.
other was appointed for the anointing of the high PEREASLAW, a strong populous town of Poland, priest and bis sons (ibid. 34, &c.) as also of the taberin the palatinate of Kiovia, situated on the river Tribecz; nacle, and all the vessels that were used in divine ser. in E. Long. 32. 44. N. Lat. 49. 46.
vice. PERENNIALS, or PERENNIAL FLOWERS, in The Hebrews had also perfumes which they made Botany, a term applied to those plants whose roots use of in embalming their dead. The composition is abide many years, whether they retain their leaves in not known, but it is certain that they generally made winter or not. Those which retain their leaves are use of myrrh, aloes, and other strong and astringent called ever-greens ; but such as cast their leaves are drugs, proper to prevent putrefaction (John xix. 49.). named deciduous or perdifols.
See the article EMBALMING, PERFECT, something to wbich nothing is want- Besides the perfumes for these purposes, the Scripture ing, or that has all the requisites of its nature and mentions other occasions whereon the Hebrews used kind.
perfumes. The spouse in the Canticles (i. 3.) comPerfect Cadence, in Music. See CADENCE. mends the scent of the perfumes of her lover; and her PERFECT Tense, in Grammar. See PRETERITE. lover in return says, that the scent of the perfiimes of
PERFECTION, the state or quality of a thing his spouse surpasses the most excellent odours (id. iv. PERFECT.
10–14.). He names particularly the spikenard, the Perfection is divided, according to Chauvinus, into calamus, the cinnamon, the myrth, and the aloes, as physical, moral, and metaphysical.
making a part of these perfumes. The voluptuous woPhysical or natural perfection, is that whereby a man described by Solomon (Prov. vii. 17.) says, that thing has all its powers and faculties, and those too she bad perfumed her bed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnain full vigour; and all its parts both principal and se- mon. The epicures in the book of Wisdom (ii. 7.) condary, and those in their due proportion, constitu- encourage one anothier to the luxuriant use of odours tion, &c. in which sense man is said to be perfect and costly perfumes. when he has a sound mind in a sound body. This Isaiah (Ivii. 9.) reproaches Judea, whom he describes perfection is by the schools frequently termed negatinan, as a spouse faithless to God, with being painted and because a thing is enabled thereby to perform all its perfumed to please strangers, “ Thou wentest to the operations.
king with ointment, and didst increase thy perfumes.” Moral perfection is an eminent degree of virtue or Ezekiel (xxiii. 41.) seems to accuse the Jews with moral goodness, to which men arrive by repeated acts having profaned the odours and perfumes, the use of of piety, beneficence, &c. This is usually subdivided which was reserved to sacred things, by applying them into absolute or inherent, which is actually in him to to their own use. whom we attribute it; and imputative, which exists in They came afterwards to be very common among some other, and not in him it is attributed to.
the Greeks and Romans, especially those composed of Metaphysical, transcendental, or essential perfection, musk, ambergris, and civet. The nardus aod malois the possession of all the essential attributes, or of all bathrum were held in much estimation, and were imthe parts necessary to the integrity of a substance; or ported from Syria. The unguentum nardinum was va. it is that whereby a thing has or is provided of every riously prepared, and contained many ingredients. thing belonging to its nature. This is either absolute, Malobathrum was an Indian plant. Perfumes were alwhere all imperfection is excluded, such is the perfec. so used at sacrifices to regale the gods ; at feasts, to tion of God; or secundum quid, and in its kind. increase the pleasures of sensation ; at funerals, to PERFORANS MAŅUS.
overpower cadaverous sinells, and please the mages of PERFORANS Pedis.
See ANATOMY, Table the dead; and in the theatres, to prevent the oflenPERFORATUS Manus. of the Muscles. sive effluvia, proceeding from a crowd, from being perPERFORATUS Pedis.
ceived. PERFUME, denotes either the volatile effluvia from Since people are become sensible of the harm they any body affecting the organ of smelling, or the sub- do to the head, perfumes are generally disused among stance emitting those effluvia ; in which last sense the us; however, they are still common in Spain and Italy.. word is most commonly used. The generality of per
PERGAMA, (Virgil), the citadel of Troy; which, fumes are made up of musk, ambergris, civet, rose and because of its extraordinary height, gave name to all cedar woods, orange-flowers, jessamines, jonquils, tube- high buildings (Servius). Others say the walls of Troy roses, and other odoriferous flowers. Those drugs com- were called Pergama. monly called aromatics, such as storax, frankincense PERGAMUM, (Pliny); called also Pergamea, benzoin, cloves, mace, &c. enter the composition of a (Virgil); Pergamia, (Plutarch;, a town of Crete,
Pergamam, built by Agamemnon in memory of his victory, (Vel- ding to Livy, was the first of the Asiatic princes who Pergamus.
Peryamus. leius). Here was the burying-place of Lycurgus (Ari- refused to pay a contribution to these barbarians.
stoxenus, quoted by Plutarch). It was situated near When Seleucus Cerauuus was engaged in other wars, he
Cydonia (Servius); to what point not said: but Scylax invaded his territories, and conquered all the provinces
helps him out, who places the Dactynnean temple of on this side of Mount Taurus ; but was soon driven
Diana, which stood near Cydonia (Strabo), to the north out of his new acquisitions by Seleucus and bis grande
of the territory of Pergamia.- Another PERGAMUM father Achæus, who entering into an alliance against
(Pliny, Strabo); a town of Mysia, situated on the Cars him, deprived him of all his newly acquired territo-
cus, which runs by it. It was the royal residence of ries, and even besieged liim in his capital. Upon this
Eumenes, and of the kings of the Attali (Livy). Attalus invited to his assistance the Gauls who had
There an ancient temple of Æsculapius stood ; an asy- settled in Thrace : and with their help not only obli-
lum (Tacitus). The ornament of Pergamum was the ged the enemy to raise the siege of Pergamus, but
roval library, vying with that of Alexandria in Egypt; quickly recovered all the provinces he had lost. Af-
the kings of Pergamum and Egypt rivalling each other ter this he invaded Ionia and the neighbouring pro-
in this respect (Pliny). Strabo ascribes this rivalry to vinces, where several cities voluntarily submitted to
Eumenes. Plutarch reckons up 200,000 volumes in him. The Teians, Coloplionians, with the inbabitants
the library at Pergamum. Here the membrana perga- of Egea and Lemnos, sent deputies declaring themselves
mena, whence the name parchment, were invented for ready to acknowledge him for their sovereign ; the Car-
the use of books, (Varro, quoted by Pliny). The coun- senes, on the other side the river Lycus, opened their gates :
try of Galen, and of Oribasius chief physician to Julian to him, having first expelled the governor set over them
the Apostate (Eunapius), called by some the ape of by Achæus. From thence he advanced to Apia, and
Galen. Here P. Scipio died (Cicero). Attalus son of encamping on the banks of the river Megithus, received
Eumenes dying without issue, bequeathed his kingdom homage from the neighbouring nations. But here the
to the Roman people, who reduced it to a province, Gauls being frightened by an eclipse of the moon, re-
(Strabo). Pergameus, the epithet (Martial). Here fuse to proceed farther ; which obliged Attalus to re-
was one of the nine conventus juridici, or assemblies of turn to the Hellespont, where he allowed his allies to
the Asia Romana, called Pergamenus, and the ninth settle, giving them a large and fruitful territory, and
in order (Pliny); which he also calls jurisdictio Per- promising that he would always assist and protect them
to the utmost of his power.
PERGAMUS, an ancient kingdom of Asia, form- Attalus having thus settled his affairs with equal
ed out of the ruins of the empire of Alexander the honour and advantage to himself, entered into an al-
Great. It commenced about the year 283 B. C. The liance with Rome, and afterwards joined them in their
first sovereign was one Philetærus an eunuch, by birth war against Philip king of Macedon. Here he had the
a Paphlagonian, of a mean descent, and in his youth a command of the Rhodian fleet; with which he not only
menial servant to Antigonus one of Alexander's cap- drove the Macedonians quite out of the seas, but having
tains. He afterwards served Lysimachus king of Ma- landed bis men, he, in conjunction with the Athenians,
cedon and Thrace, who appointed him keeper of his invaded Macedon, and obliged Philip to raise the siege
treasures lodged in Pergamus. While he held this of Athens, which he had greatly distressed; for which
employment, having fallen under the displeasure of services the Athenians not only heaped on him all the
Arsinoe wife to Lysimachus, she found means to make favours they could, but called one of their tribes by his
a quarrel between him and his master; upon wbich name ; an honour they had never bestowed on any for
Philetæras seized on the castle of Pergamus, together reigner before.
with the treaures entrusted to his care, amounting to Attalus, nat contented with all he had yet done
90,000 talents. At first he offered his service, toge against Philip, attempted to form a general confederacy
ther with his treasure, to Seleucus king of Syria : of the Greeks against him. But while he was ha-
but both Seleucus and Lysimachus dying soon after, ranguing the Baotians to this purpose, and exhorting
be kept possession of the town and treasure also till his them with great vehemence to enter into an alliance
death ; which happened 20 years after his revolt from with the Romans against their common enemy, he fell
down speechless. However he came to himself again,
Philetærus left the city of Pergamus to his brother, and desired to be carried by sea from Thebes to Perga-
or, according to some, to his brother's son Eumenes I. mus, where he died soon after his arrival, in the 720
and he, laying hold of the opportunity offered by year of his age and 43d of his reign.
the dissensions among the Seleucidæ, possessed himself This prince was a man of great generosity, and such
of many strong-bolds in the province of Asia; and an enthusiast in learning and learned men, that he
having hired a body of Galatians, defeated Antiochus caused a grammarian named Daphidas to be thrown in-
at he was returning from a victory gained over his bro- to the sea from the top of a high rock, because he
ther Seleveus Callinicus. . By this victory he obtained spoke disrespectfully of Homer.
possession of the greater part of Asia : -however, he Attalus was succeeded by his eldest son Eumenes II.
did not long enjoy his acquisitions ; for he died next He was exceedingly attached to the Romans, insomuch
year of immoderate drinking, a vice to which he was that he refused the daughter of Antiochus the Great in
marriage, lest he should thus have been led into a dif-
Eumenes was succeeded by Attalus I, nephew of ference with that people. He also gave notice to the
Philetærus, and the first who took upon him the title Roman senate of the transactions of Ariarathes king of
of king of Pergamus. He defeated the Gauls, who Cappadocia, who was making great preparations both
were desirous of settling in his territory; and, accor. by, sea and land. Nor did Eumenes stop here ; for
when he saw the war about to break out het vreen An- golden crown, worth 15,000 talents, to complain of Pergau
tiochus and the Romans, he sent his brother Attalus Prusias for making war on the allies of the Rowan
to Rome to give information of the proceedings of people without any provocation. The senate accepted
Antiochus. T'he senate heaped honours both on Eu- the present, and promised to asijust every thing to the
menes and his brother; and in the war which followed, satisfaction of their friend Eumenes, whom they look-
gave the command of their fleet to the king of Perga. ed upon to be the most steady ally they had in Asia.
mus in conjunction with C. Livius Salinator. The But in the mean time Prusias, having ventured another
victory gained on this occasion was in a great measure sea-fight, by a contrivance of Hannibal's gained a
owing to Eumenes, who boarded some of the enemy's complete victory. The Carthaginian commander ad-
ships in person, and during the whole action behaved vised bim to fill a great many earthen vessels with va-
with uncommon bravery. Some time afterwards Eu- rious kiuds of serpents and other poisonous reptiles,
menes, entering the territories of Antiochus with a and in the heat of the fight to throw them into the
body of 5000 men, ravaged all the country about enemies ships so as to break the pots and let the ser-
Thyatira, and returned with an immense booty. But pents loose. All the soldiers and seamen were com-
in the mean time Antiochus invading Pergamus in his manded to attack the ship in which Eumenes was,
turn, ravaged the whole country, and even laid siege and only to defend themselves as well as they could
to the capital. Attalus, the king's brother, held out against the rest ; and that they might be in no danger
with a handful of men till the Achæans, who were of mistaking the ship, a herald was sent before the en-
in alliance with Eumenes, sent 1000 foot and 100 gagement with a letter to the king. As soon as the
horse to his assistance. As this small body of auxili- two fleets drew near, all the ships of Prusias, singling
aries were all chosen men, and commanded by an ex- out that of Eumenes, discharged such a quantity of
perienced officer, they behaved with such bravery that serpents into it, that neither soldiers nor sailors could
the Syrians were obliged to raise the siege. At the do their duty, but were forced to fly to the shore, lest
battle of Magnesia, too, Eumenes behaved with the they should fall into the enemy's hands. The other
greatest bravery: not only sustaining the first attack ships, after a faint resistance, followed the king's ex-
of the enemy's elephants, but driving them back again ample, and were all driven ashore with great slaughter,
on their own troops, which put the ranks in dis- the soldiers being no less annoyed by the stings of the
order, and gave the Romans an opportunity of giving serpents, than by the weapons of the enemy. The
them a total defeat by attacking them opportunely greatest part of the ships of Eumenes were burnt, several
with their horse. In consequence of this defeat, Anti- iaken, and the others so much shattered that they be-
ochus was obliged to conclude a peace with the Romans came quite unserviceable. The same year Prusias gain-
on such terms as they pleased to prescribe ; one of ed two remarkable victories over Eumenes by land,
which was, that he should pay Eumenes 400 talents, both of which were entirely owing to stratagems of
and a quantity of corn, in recompense for the damage Hannibal. But, while matters were thus going on to
he had done him.
the disadvantage of Eumenes, the Romans interfered,
Eumenes now thought of obtaining some reward and by their deputies not only put an end to the differ-
from the Romans equivalent to the services he had ences between the two kings, but prevailed on Prusias
done them. Having gone to Rome, he told the se- to betray Hannibal ; upon which he poisoned himself,
nate, that he was come to beg of them that the Greek as hath been related under the article HANNIBAL.
cities which had belonged to Antiochus before the Eumenes being thus freed from such a dangerous ene-
commencement of the late war, might now be added my, engaged in a new war with the kings of Cappado-
to his dominions ; but his demand was warmly opposed cia and Pontus, in which also he proved victorious. His
by the ambassadors from Rhodes, as well as by depu- friendship for the Romans be carried to such a degree of
ties from all the Greek cities in Asia. The senate, enthusiasm, that he went in person to Rome to inform
however, after hearing both parties, decided the mat- them of the machinations of Perses king of Macedon.
ter in favour of Eumenes, adding to his dominions all He had before quarrelled with the Rhodians, who sent
the countries on this side of Mount Taurus which be- ambassadors to Rome to complain of him. But as the
longed to Antiochns; the other provinces lying be- ambassadors happered to arrive while the king himself
tween that mountain and the river Mæander, excepting was present in the city, the Rhodian ambassadors could
Lycia and Caria, were bestowed on the Rbodians. All not obtain any hearing, and Eumenes was dismissed with
the cities, which had paid tribute to Attalus, were or- new marks of favour. This journey, however, had al-
dered to pay the same to Eumenes ; but such as had most proved fatal to him ; for, on his return, as he was
been tributary to Antiochus were declared free. going to perform a sacrifice at Delphi, two assassins,
Soon after this Eumenes was engaged in a war with sent by Perses, rolled down two great stones upon bim
Prusias king of Bithynia, who made war upon him
as he entered the straits of the mountains. With one
by the advice of Hannibal the celebrated Carthaginian he was dangerously wounded on the head, and with the
general. But Eumenes, being assisted by the Romans, other on the shoulder. He fell with the blows from a
lefeated Prusias in an engagement by sea, and another steep place, and thus received many other bruises ; so
by land ; which so disheartened him, that he was ready that he was carried on board his ship when it could not
to accept of peace on any terms. However, before well be known whether be was dead or alive. His
the treaty was coneluded, Hannibal found means to people, however, soon finding that he was still alive,
draw Philip of Macedon into the confederacy, who conveyed him to Corinth, and from Corinth to Ægina,
sent Philocles, an old and experienced officer, with a having caused their vessels to be carried over the
considerable body of troops to join Prusias. Hereupon isthmus.
Eumenes sent his brother Attalus to Rome with a Eumenes remained at Ægina till his wounds were
Pergumus. cured, which was done with such secrecy, that a report ther's kingdom, not only granted all his requests, but' Perganus,
of his death was spread all over Asia, and even believed sent him richer and more magnificent presents than they
at Rome; nay, his brother Attalus was so convinced of bad ever done before. Upon this Attalus immediately
the truth of this report, that he not only assumed the set out on his return to Pergauus; which so provoked
government, but even married Stratonice the wife of the senators, that they declared the cities free wbich
Eumenes. But in a short time Eumenes convinced they had promised to Attalus, thus rendering ineffectual
them both of his being alive, by returning to his king- their promise which they were ashamed openly to re-
dom. On the receipt of this news, Attalus resigned voke; and as for the Gauls, who were on all occasions
the sovereignty in great haste, and went to meet his ready to invade the kingdom of Pergamus, they sent
brother; carrying a balberd, as one of his guards. ambassadors to them, with instructions to behave in such
Eumenes received both bim and the queen with great a manner as would rather tend to encourage them in
tenderness, nor did he ever say any thing which might their design than dissuade them from it.
tend to make them uneasy; only it is said he whispered Eumenes, being alarmed at those proceedings, resol-
in his brother's ear when he first saw bim,
6 Be in no
ved to go in person to Rome, in order to justify himself. haste to marry my wife again till you are sure that I But the senate having already condemned him in their am dead."
own minds, resolved not to hear his vindication. For The king being now more than ever exasperated a. this reason, as soon as they heard of his design, they gainst Perses, joined the Romans in their war against made an act that no king should be permitted to enter him; but during the course of it he suddenly cooled in the gates of Rome. Eumenes, however, who knew his affection towards those allies whom he had hitherto nothing of this act, set forward on his journey, and served with so much zeal, and that to such a degree, landed at Brundusium ; but no sooner did the Roman that he admitted ambassadors from Perses, and offered senate get intelligence of his arrival there, than they to stand neuter if he would pay him 1000 talents, and sept a quæstor acquainting him with the decree of the for 1500, to influence the Romans to grant him a safe
and telling him at the same time, tbat if he had and honourable peace.
But these negociations were any business to transact with the senate, he was appointbroke off without effect, by reason of the distrust which ed to hear it, and transmit it to them, but if not, the two kings bad of one another. Eumenes could not that the king must leave Italy without delay. To trust Perses unless be paid bim the money beforehand; this Eumenes replied, that he had no business of any while, on the other band, Perses did not care to part consequence to transact, and that he did not stand in with the money before Eumenes had performed what he need of any of their assistance; and without saying a promised; neither could he be induced to pay the sum word more, went on board his ship, and returned to in question, though the king of Pergamus offered to Pergamus. give hostages for the performance of bis promise. What On his return home, the Gauls, being encouraged by the reason of such a sudden change in the disposition of the cold reception which he had met with at Rome, inEumenes was, is nowhere told; however, the fact is vaded bis territories, but were repulsed with great loss certain. The negociations above mentioned were con- by the king, who afterwards invaded the dominions of cealed from the Romans as long as possible ; but they Prusias, and possessed himself of several cities. This soon came to be known: after which the republic be- produced new complaints at Rome; and Eumenes was gan to entertain no small jealousy of their old friend, accused, not only by the ambassadors of Prusias, but and therefore heaped favours on his brother Attalus, also by those of the Gauls and many cities in Asia, of without taking any notice of the king bimself. Eu- keeping a secret correspondence with Perses king of menes had sent him to Rome to congratulate the senate Macedon. This last charge was confirmed by some leton the happy issue of the war with Perses, not thinking ters which the Romans themselves had intercepted; so that his practices had been discovered. However, the that Eumenes found it impossible to keep up his credit senate without taking any notice of their disaffection to any longer at Rome, though he sent his brothers AtheEumenes at first, entertained Attalus with the greatest næus and Attalus thither to intercede for him. The magnificence; then several of the senators who visited senators, in short, had conceived the most implacable him proceeded to acquaint him with their suspicions of hatred against him, and seemed absolutely bent on his the king, and desired Attalus to treat with them in his destruction, when he died, in the 39th year of his own name, assuring him, that the kingdom of Pergamus reign, leaving his kingdom and his wife to his brother would be granted him, if he demanded it, by the se- Attalus. He left one son, but he was an infant, and nate. These speeches bad at first some effect; but At- incapable of governing the kingdom ; for which reason talus, being of an honest disposition, and assisted by the Eumenes chose rather to give the present possession of advice of a physician called Stratius, a man of great the crown to bis brother, reserving the succession to his probity, resolved not to comply with their desire. son, than to endanger the whole by committing the When he was admitted to the senate, therefore, be first management of affairs to his son's tutors. congratulated them on the bappy issue of the Macedoni- Attalus, in the beginning of his reign, found himself an war, then modestly recounted bis own services; and greatly distressed by Prusias king of Bithynia, who not lastly, acquainted them with the motive of his journey; only overthrew bim in a pitched battle, but advanced intreated them to send ambassadors to the Gauls, who to the very walls of Pergamus, ravaging the country as by their authority might secure bis brother from any he marched along; and at last reduced the royal city danger of their hostilities ; and he requested them also, itself. The king, however, saved himself by a timely that the two cities of Ænus and Maronea might be be- flight, and dispatched ambassadors to Rome, complainstowed on himself. The senate, imagining that Atta- ing of the bad usage of Prusias. The latter endeavourIus designed to choose some other day to sue for his bro- ed to defend bimself, and to throw the blame on Atta
Pergamus. lus. But, after a proper inquiry was made into the able army to maintain his pretensions. The people in Pergan war matter, Prusias was found to be entirely in the wrong; general, having been accustomed to a monarchy, dread
in consequence of which, he was at last obliged to con- ed a republican form of government ; in consequence of clude a peace with his adversary on the following terms. which, they assisted Aristonicus, and soon put him in a 1. That he should immediately deliver up to Attalus condition to reduce the whole kingdom. The news, 20 ships with decks. 2. That he should pay goo ta- however, were soon carried to Rome; and Licinius lents to Attalus within the space of 20 years. 3. That Crassus, the pontifex maximus, was sent into the east, he should pay 107 talents to some of the other Asiatic with orders to ensorce obedience to the king's will. Hinations by way of reparation for the damages they had storians take no notice of any forces which were sent sustained from him. And, 4. Both parties should be along with this commander ; whence it is supposed, that content with what they had before the beginning of the be depended on assistance from the Asiatics, who were war.
in alliance with Rome, or from the Egyptians. But Some time after this, Prusias having made an unna- when he came thither, he found both the Syrians and tural attempt on the life of his son Nicomedes, the lat- Egyptians so reduced, that he could not expect any as. ter rebelled, and with the assistance of Attalus, drove sistance from them. However, he was soon supplied his father from the throne, and, as is said, even mur- with troops in plenty by the kings of Pontus, Bithynia, dered him in the temple of Jupiter. The Romans took Cappadocia, and Paplılagonia ; but managed matters sa no notice of these transactions, but showed the same ill, that he was entirely defeated and taken prisover. kindness to Attalus as formerly. The last enterprise in Those who took him, designed to carry him to Aristowhich we find Attalus engaged, was against Andriseus nicus ; but be, not able to endure the disgrace, would the pretended son of Perses king of Macedon, where he bave laid violent hands on himself if he had not been assisted the Romans ; after which he gave bimself up disarmed. However, being allowed to keep a red for entirely to ease and luxury, committing state affairs en- managing the horse on which he sat, he struck a Thratirely to his ministers; and thus continued to his death, cian soldier who stood near him so violently with it, which happened in the 82d year of his age, about 138 that he beat out one of his eyes; upon which the other B. C.
drew his sword, and run him through on the spot.
Attalus II. was succeeded by Attalus III. the son of His head was brought to Aristonicus, who exposed
Eumenes ; for the late king, considering that he only it to public view; but the body was honourably bu-
held the crown as a trust for his nephew, passed by his ried.
own children in order to give it to him, though he ap- Aristonicus had no great time to enjoy the fruits of
pears to have been by no means of worthy of it. He is his victory. Indeed he behaved very improperly after
said to have been deprived of his senses through the vio- it; for, instead of preparing to oppose the next army,
lence of his grief for his mother's death; and indeed, which he might bave been assured the Romans would
throughout his whole reign, he behaved more like a send against him, he spent his time in feasting and re-
madman than any thing else. Many of his subjects of velling. But he was soon roused out of his lethargy by
the highest quality were cut off with their wives and Perpenna the new consul, who having assembled with
children, upon the most groundless suspicions ; and for incredible expedition the troops of the allies, came un-
these executions be made use of mercenaries hired out expectedly upon him, obliged him to venture an en-
from among the most barbarous nations. Thus be pro- gagement at a disadvantage, and entirely defeated him.
ceeded till he had cut off all the best men in the king- Aristonicus fled to a city called Stratonice, but was so
dom ; after which he fell into a deep melancholy, ima- closely pursued by the conqueror, that the garrison ha-
gining that the ghosts of those whom he had murdered ving no method of supplying themselves with provisions,
were perpetually haunting him. On this he shut him- delivered up their leader, as well as a philosopher named
self up in his palace, put on a mean apparel, let his hair Blosius, who had been the companion and counsellor of
and beard grow, and sequestered himself from all man. Aristonicus. The philosopher behaved with great reso-
kind. At last he withdrew from the palace, and retired lution after being taken, and openly defended his siding
into a garden, which he cultivated with his own hands, with Aristonicus, because he thought his cause just
and filled with all sorts of poisonous herbs. These lie He exhorted the latter to prevent the disgrace and mi-
used to mix with wholesome pulse, and send packets of sery of captivity by a voluntary death ; but Aristoni-
them to such as he suspected. At last, being weary of cus, looking upon death as a greater misery than any
this amusement, and living in solitude, because nobody captivity, suffered himself to be treated as his conquer-
durst approach him, he took it in bis head to follow the ors pleased.
trade of a founder, and make a brazen monument. But, In the mean time, a new consul named Alanius A.
while he laboured at melting and casting the brass, the quilius, being arrived from Rome, sent a most haughty
heat of the sun and furnace threw him into a fever, message to Perpenna, requiring him immediately to de
which in seven days put an end to bis tyranny, after he liver up Aristonicus, as a captive belonging to his tri-
had sat on the throne five
umph when the war should be ended. With this de-
On the death of the king, a will was found, by which mand Perpenna refused to comply, and his refusal had
he left the Roman people heirs of all his goods ; upon almost produced a civil war. However, this was pre-
which they seized on the kingdom, and reduced it to a vented by the death of Perpenna, which happened soon
province of their empire by the name of Asia Proper. after the dispute commenced. The Pergamenians, not-
But Aristonicus, a son of Eumenes by an Ephesian withstanding the defeat and captivity of their leader,
courtesan, reckoning himself the lawful heir to the still held out with such obstinacy, that Aquilius was
crown, could by no means be satisfied with this usurpa- obliged to besiege, and take by force, almost every city
tion of the Romans, and therefore assembled a consider in the kingdom. In doing this, he took a very eflec-