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Persią. the country as they went along, till at last the king, &c. The ill success which attended him here, bot. Persin,

sensible of the danger he was in, resolved to give over ever, was so far from making him drop the enterprise,
the enterprise and return home. In order to do so with that it only made him the more intent on reducing the
safety, he lighted a great number of fires in the night. Grecians; and he resolved to head his army in person,
time, and decamped, leaving behind bim the old men having attributed his former bad success to the inexpe-
and the sick, who fell into the hands of their enemies. rience of his generals. But while he was employed in
The Scythians perceiving that Darius was gone, detach. making the necessary preparations for this purpose, he
ed a considerable body to the bridge over the Danube ; received intelligence that the Egyptians had revolted,
and as they were well acquainted with the roads, they so that he was obliged to make preparations for redu-
got thither before the Persians. The Scythians had cing them also ; and before this could be done, the king
sent expresses before hand to persuade tbe Ionians, whom died, after having reigned 36 years, leaving the throne
Darius had left to guard the bridge, to break it down to his son Xerxes.
and retire to their own country ; and this they pressed This prince ascended the throne of Persia in the year Expeditions
the more earnestly, that as the time prescribed by Da- 485 B. C.; and his first enterprise was to reduce the of Xerxes
rius was now expired, they were at liberty to return Egyptians ; which he effectually did, bringing them in-against
home, without breaking their word or being wanting in to a worse state of slavery than they ever had experien-Egypt and

their duty. Miltiades, prince of the Chersonesus of ced before. After this be resolved on an expedition
Thrace, was for embracing so favourable an opportunity into Greece; the unfortunate event of which is related
of cutting off Darius's retreat, and shaking off the Per- under the article ATTICA. By his misfortunes in the
sian yoke at once : all the other commanders agreed Grecian expedition, he became at last so dispirited, that
with him, except Hystiæus prince of Miletus; who re- he thenceforth abandoned all thoughts of war and con-
presented to the Ionian chiefs, that their power was con- quests; but growing tyrannical, and oppressing his sub-
:nected with that of Darius, since it was under his pro- jects, he was murdered in his bed, in the year 464 B. C.
tection that each of them was lord in his own city; and and 21st of his reign; and was succeeded by his third
that the cities of lonia would not fail to depose them and son Artaxerxes, surnamed Longimanus on account of Xerxes soc-
recover their liberty, if the Persian power should sink the great length ot his arms.

ceeded by or decline. This speech made a deep impression on the

Artaxerics This prince is named Ahasuerus in Scripture, and is

Longims. rest, and it was at last determined that they should wait the same who married Esther, and during the whole of for Darius; and in order to deceive the Scythians, they bis reign showed the greatest kindness to the Jewish nabegan to break down the bridge, but advised them to tion. In the beginning of his reign he was opposed by return back and defeat Darius. They did so, but missed Hystaspes the second son of Xerxes, whom, 'however, him ; and he having thus safely escaped so great a dan- he overcame, though not without considerable difficulty. ger, immediately repassed the Bosphorus, and took up After this he applied himself to the settlement of the his winter quarters at Sardis, leaving Megabyzus, one affairs of government, and reforming many abuses which of his chief generals, to complete the conquest of had crept in ; and then, being fully established on the Thrace.

throne, he appointed feasts and rejoicings to be made The king having sufficiently refreshed his troops who for 180 days in the city of Susa ; at one of which he quers India. had suffered extremely in the Scythian expedition, be- resolved to divorce his queen for disobedience ; and af

gap to think of extending his dominions eastward ; and terwards married Esther, as we find it recorded in the
in order to facilitate his design, resolved in the first place sacred writings.
to discover those countries. With this view he caused In the fifth year of the reign of Artaxerxes the Egyp-
a fleet to be built and equipped at Caspatyrus, a city on tians revolted anew, and, being assisted by the Athenians,
the river Indus. The command of this fleet he gave to held out for six years ; but were again obliged to submit,
one Scylax, a Grecian of Caryandia, a city of Caria, who and continued in subjection during the whole of his reign.
was well versed in maritime affairs. Him he ordered to Nothing else remarkable happened during the life of
sail down the current, and make the best discoveries be Artaxerxes Longimanus, who died in the 41st year

could of the countries lying on either side of the river, his reign; and was succeeded' by Xerxes 11. the only Xerxes II.
till he arrived at the southern ocean ; from whenee be son he bad by his queen, though by his concubines he
was to steer bis course westward, and that way return bad 17. Xerxes having drunk immoderately at an en-
to Persia. Scylax, having exactly observed his instruc- tertainment immediately after his accession, retired to a
itions, and sailed down the river Indus, entered the Red chamber in order to refresh himself with sleep; but here
sea by the straits of Babelmandel, and on the thirtieth he was murdered by Sogdianus, the son of Artaxerxes
month from his first setting out, landed at the same by one of his concubines, after he bad reigned 45 days.
place from whence Nechu king of Egypt formerly sent Sogdianus was scarce seated on the throne when he Sogdianus

, out the Phænicians who circumnavigated Africa. From put to death Bagorazus, the most faithful of all his fahence Scylax returned to Susa, where he gave a full ac- ther's eunuchs ; by which, and the murder of his sovecount of his discoveries ; upon which Darius, marching reign, he became generally odious. Upon this, sensible into India at the head of a powerful army, reduced that of the dangerous situation in which he was, he sent for large country, and made it a province of the Persian one of his brothers named Ochus, whom he suspected, empire, drawing from thence an annual tribute of 360 with a design to murder him the moment he arrived. talents of gold.

Ochus, however, understanding his design, put off, by Ochus. Soon after the expedition of Darius against India several pretences, his coming, till he had drawn together the Ionians, happened the revolt of the Ionians, which gave occasion a powerful army, with which he advanced to the consic. to his expedition into Greece ; an account of which is fines of Persia. Here be openly declared, that his design

land given under the articles Attica, GREECE, SPARTA, was to revenge his brother's death ; which brought over

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Persia to him many of the nobility and governors of provinces, gained them over with presents and promiseg, they soon

Persia. by whom he was immediately proclaimed king. Sog- went on with satisfaction. Having arrived at Cunaxa

dianus, seeing himself thus deserted, contrary to the ad- in the province of Babylon, Cyrus found his brother 32 BE vice of all his friends, came to an accommodation with with 900,000 men ready to engage bin. Whereupon,

Cunaxa. Ochus; who no sooner had him in his power than he leaping out of his chariot, he commanded his troops to caused him to be suffocated among ashes ; a punishment stand to their arms and fall into their ranks; which was invented on purpose for him.

done with great expedition, no time being allowed the Ochus being firmly settled on the throne by the death soldiers to refresh themselves. Clearchus, the commander of Sogdianus, changed his name to Darius ; and is by of the Peloponnesian troops, advised Cyrus not to charge historians commonly called Darius Nothus, or The Bus- in person, but to remain in the rear of the Greek battatard. But Arsites, another of the brothers, seeing in lions; but this advice he rejected with indignation, saswhat manner Sogdianns bad got the better of Xerxes, ing, that he should thus render himself unworthy of the and been afterwards driven out by Ochus, began to en- crown for which he was fighting.

As the king's army
tertain thoughts of treating him in the same manner. drew near, the Greeks fell upon them with such a fury,
He was not, however, so successful; for, being defeated that they routed the wing opposite to them almost at the
in an engagement, he surrendered himself in hopes of first onset ; upon which Cyrus was with loud shouts
mercy, but was immediately put to death by suffocation proclaimed king by those who stood next to bim. But
in ashes. Several other persons were exe

xecuted; but he, in the mean time, perceiving that Artaxerxes was
these severities did not procure him the repose which he wheeling about to attack him in flank, advancing against
expected; for bis whole reign was disturbed with violent him with 600 chosen borse, killed Artageses captain of
commotions in various parts of the empire. One of the the king's guards with his own band, and put the whole
most dangerous was raised by Pisathna, governor of body to flight. In this encounter, discovering his bro-
Lydia; but he being deserted by his Greek mercenaries, ther, he spurred on bis borse, and, coming up to himi,
was at last overcome, and put to death : however, his son engaged him with great fury; which in some degree
Ainorgas continued to infest the maritime provinces of turned the battle into a single combat. Cyrus killed his
Asia Minor for two years ; till he also was taken pri. brother's horse, and wounded him on the ground; but
soner by Tissaphernes, the new governor of Lydia, who he immediately mounted another horse, when Cyrus at-
put him to death. Other insurrections quickly followed tacked him again, gave him a second wound, and had
this ; but the greatest misfortune which befel Darius already lifted up his hand to give him a third, when the
during the whole course of his reign was the revolt of guards, perceiving the danger in which their king was,
the Egyptians, who could not be reduced. Before his discharged their arrows at once against his antagonist,
death he invested Cyrus his youngest son with the su- who at the same tiine throwing himself headlong upon
preme government of all the provinces of Asia Minor. bis brother, was pierced through by his javelin. He
This was done through the persuasions of his mother fell dead upon the spot ; and all the chief lords of his
Parysatis, who had an absolute sway over her husband; court, resolving not to survive him, were slain in the
and she procured this command for him, that he might same place.
thereby be enabled to contend for the kingdom after bis In the mean time, the Greeks having defeated the
father's death. She even insisted that the king should enemy's left wing commanded by Tissaphernes, and the

declare bim heir to the crown before he died; but this king's right wing having put to flight Cyrus's left, both 30

he could not by any means be induced to do. He died parties, being ignorant of what had passed elsewhere, Artaxerxes in the year 405 B. C. and was succeeded by his son Ar- imagined that they had gained the victory. But Tissa

taxerxes, by the Greeks surnamed Mnemon on account phernes acquainting the king that his men bad been put
of his extraordinary memory.

to fight by the Greeks, be immediately rallied his Revolt of The most remarkable transaction which happened dur troops, in order to attack them. The Greeks, under Cyrus the

ing the reign of this prince was the revolt of his brother the command of Clearchus, easily repulsed them, and Younger.

Cyrus. This young prince had been raised to so great pursued them to the foot of the neighbouring bills. As
power through the interest of his mother, on purpose night was drawing near, they halted at the foot of the
that he might revolt, as we have already seen. He be- hill, much surprised that neither Cyrus himself, nor
gan with gaining over the cities under the government any messenger from him, had appeared; for as yet they
of Tissaphernes ; which quickly produced a war with knew nothing of his death nor the defeat of the rest of
that governor. Cyrus then began to assemble troops, the army. They determined therefore to return to their
which he pretended were designed only against Tissa- camp, which they did accordingly; but found there that
phernes. As he had given great assistance to the Lace- the greatest part of their baggage had been plundered,
dæmonians in their wars against the Athenians, he now and all their provisions taken, which obliged them to
in return demanded assistance from them; which request pass the night in the camp without any sort of refresh-
they very readily complied with, ordering their feet im- ment. The next morning, a3 they were still expecting
mediately to join him, and to obey in every thing the to hear from Cyrus, they received the news of his death,
commands of 'Tamos his admiral. At last Cyrus, having and the defeat of that part of the army. Whereupon
collected an army of 13,000 Greek mercenaries and they sent deputies to Ariæus, who was commander in
100,000 regular troops of other nations, set out from chief of all the other forces of Cyrus, offering him, as
Sardis, directing his march towards Upper Asia ; the conquerors, the crown of Persia. Ariæus rejected the
army being entirely

ignorant of the expedition on which offer, and acquainting them that he intended to set out
they were going. When they arrived at Tarsus, the early in the morning on his return to Ionia, advised Retreat of
Greeks, suspecting that they were marching against the them to join him in the night. They followed bis ad ten thou-
king, refused to proceed any further; but Čyrus having vice, and, under the conduct of Clearchus, began their Greeks.
VOL. XVI. Part I.



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Persia. march, arriving at his camp aborit midnight, whence mander, into Asia. This expedition was carried ou

Peria pand they set out on their return to Greece. They were with such secrecy, that Agesilaus arrived at Ephesus

at a vast distance from their own country, in the very before the Persians had the least notice of his designs.
heart of the Persian empire, surrounded by a victorious Here he took the Geld withı 10,020 foot and 4000
and numerous army, and had no means of retreat borse, and falling upon the enemy while they were to-
but by forcing their way through an immense tract tally unprepared, carried every thing before him. Tis.
of the enemy's country. But their valour and reso- saphernes deceived him into a truce till he had leisure
lution mastered all these difficulties; and, in spite of a to assemble his forces, but gained little by his treach-
powerful army, which pursued and harassed them all

ery; for Agesilaus deceived him in his turn, and while
the way, they made good their retreat for 2325 miles Tissaphernes marched his troops into Caria, the Greeks
through the provinces belonging to the enemy, and invaded and plundered Phrygia.
got safe to the Greek cities on the Euxine sea. This Early in the spring, Agesilaus gave out that bis de..
retreat (the longest that was ever made through an sign was to invade Lydia; but Tissa plerues, who re-
enemy's country) was conducted at first by Clearchus ; membered the last year's stratagem, now taking it for
but he being cut off through the treachery of Tissa- granted that Agesilaus would really invade Caria,
phernes, Xenophon was chosen in his room, who at made his troops again march to the defence of that
last brought his men safe into Greece: but for a full province. But Agesilaus now led his army into Ly-
account of that famous retreat, see the article XENO- dia as he had given out, and approached Sardis ; upon

which Tissaphernes recalled bis forces from their for-
War with · The war with Cyrus was scarcely ended, when ano- mer route, with a design to relieve the place. But Ca-
the Lace- ther broke out with the Lacedæmonians, on the follow- ria being a very mountainous country, and unfit for
slæmonians. ing account. Tissapherpes being appointed to succeed horse, he had marched thither only with the foot, and

Cyrus in all his power, to which was added all which left the horse behind on the borders of that province.
he himself possessed formerly, began to oppress the Whence, on their marching back to the relief of Sar-
Greek cities in Asia in a most cruel manner. On this dis, the horse being some days march before the foot,
they sent ambassadors to Sparta, desiring the assistance Agesilaus took the advantage of so favourable an op-
'of that powerful republic. The Spartans having end- portunity, and fell upon them before the foot could
ed their long war' with the Athenians, willingły laid come to their assistance. The Persians were routed at
'hold of the present opportunity of breaking again with the

very first onset; after which Agesilaus overran the
the Persians, and therefore sent against them an army whole country, enriching both himself and his army
under the command of Thimbro, who, being strength- with the spoils of the conquered Persians.
ened by the forces which returned under Xenophon, By this continued ill fortune Artaxerxes was so much
took the field against Tissaphernes. But Thimbro be- provoked against Tissaphernes, that he soon after caused
ing soon recalled upon some complaints, Dercyllidas, him to be put to death.
a brave officer and experienced engineer, was appoint- On the death of Tissaphernes, Tithraustes, who was
ed to succeed him; and be carried on the war to much appointed to succeed bim, sent large presents to Age-
more advantage than his predecessor. On his arrival silaus, in hopes of persuading him to abandon bis con-
in Asia, finding that Tissaphernes was at variance with quests; but finding that commander was not by any
another governor named Pharnabazus, he concluded a means to be induced to relinquish the war, he sent Ti-
truce with the former, and marching against Pharna- mocrates of Rhodes into Greece, with large sums of
"bazus, drove him quite out of Æolis, and took several money to corrupt the leading men in the cities, and re-
cities in other parts. The latter, however, imme- kindle a war against the Lacedæmonians. This strata- Agesilaus
diately repaired' to the Persian court, where he made gem produced the intended effect; for the cities of obliged to
loud complaints against Tissapliernes, but gave the Thebes, Argos, Corinth, and others, entering into a
king a most salutary advice, which was to equip a confederacy, obliged them to recal Agesilaus to the de-
powerful fleet, and give the command of it to Conon fence of bis own country.
the Athenian, the best sea officer of his time, by which After the departure of Agesilaus, which happened Lacedæ-
means he would obstruct the passage of further recruits in the year 354 B. C. the Lacedæmonian power re-monians
from Greece ; and thus soon put an end to the power ceived a severe blow at Cnidos, where their fleet was defeated.
of the Lacedæmonians in Asia. This advice being ap- entirely defeated by that of Artaxerxes under Conov,
proved of, the king ordered 500 talents for the equip- 50 of their ships being taken in the engagement; after
ment of a fleet, with directions to give Conon the com- which, Conon and Pharnabazus being masters of the
mand of it.

sea, sailed round the islands and coasts of Asia, taking
In the mean time, Dercyllidas, with all his valour the cities there which had been reduced by the Lace-
and skill, suffered bimself to be drawn into such a dis- dæmonians. Sestos and Abydos only held out, and re-
advantageous situation that he must inevitably have sisted the utmost efforts of the enemy, though they had
been destroyed with his whole army, had it not been been besieged both by sea and land.
througli the cowardice of Tissaphernes, who having Next year Conon having assembled a powerful fleet,
experienced the Grecian valour at the battle of Cu- again took Pharnabazus on board, and reduced the
naxa, could not by any means be induced to attack island of Melos, from whence he made a descent on
them. The Lacedæmonians, however, having heard the coasts of Lycaonia, pillaging all the maritime pro-
that the Persian monarch was fitting out a great fleet vinces, and loading his feet with an immense booty.
against them, resolved to push on the war as vigorous After this, Conon obtained leave of him to repair to
lý as possible ; and for this purpose sent over Agesi- Athens with 80 ships and 50 talents, in order to re-
kaus one of their kings, and a most experienced com- build the walls of that city; having first convinced



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Feria. Phamabazus, that nothing could more eflectua!ly con- himself up ia Salamine, he was closely lesiegedly sra Teris.

tribute to the weakening of the power of Sparta than avd land. llere at lasi lie was obliged io capitulate, and
putting Athens again in a condition to rival its power. abandon to the l'esians the whole ciche islands except San
lle no sooner arrived at Piræus the port of Athens, but lamine, which he held a : a hinguibutary to Araxornes.
be began to work; whichi, as he had a great number of The Cyprian war leing anded, Artaxerxes turned
hands, and was seconded by the zeal of all those that his arms against thie Cadusians, whose country lay be-
trere well inclined to the Athenians, was soon complet- tween the Euxine and Caspian scas. But these nations

Ursuceessed, and the city not only restored to its former splendour, were too well acclistomed to war to be overcome by the

ditions Are obli- but rendered more formidable than ever. The Laceda's Persians; and therefore the king was obliged to aban-gainst the ged to wake peace

monians were now reduced to the necessity of accepting don the project, after having lost a great number of his One ustans with the such terms of peace as they could procure. The terms troops and all the horses which he took out with him. and EgypPersians, were, that all the Greek cities in Asia should be subject In bis Lyyptian expedition, which happened immedi. Lians.

to the king of Persia, as also the islands of Cyprus and ately after the Cadusian war, he was attended with little
Clazomena ; that the islands of Scyros, Lemnos, and better success; which, however, was owing to the bad
Imbros, should be restored to the Athenians, and all the conduct of his general Pharnabazus. This commander
cities of Greece, whether small or great, should be de- being entrusted with the management of the Egyptian
clared free; and by the same treaty, Artaxerxes en- war, sent an ambassador to Athens, complaining that
gaged to join those who accepted the terms he proposed, Chabrias bad engaged in the service of an e chemy

and to assist them to the utmost of his power against the king of Persia, with whom the state of Athens was
such as should reject them.

in alliance, and threatening the republic with bis maCyprus re. Artaxerxes, being now disengaged from the Grecian ster's resentment if proper satisfaction was not given : dn.ed.

var, turned bis arms against Evagoras king of Cyprus. at the same time he demanded ! phicrates, another A.
This man was descended from the ancient kings of Sa. thenian, and the best general of his time, to command
lamine the capital city of the island of Cyprus. His the Greek mercenaries in the Persian service. This the
ancestors had held that city for many ages in quality of Athenians complied with; and Iphicrates having mu.
sovereigns; but were at last driven out by the Persians, stered his troops, so exercised them in all the arts of
who, making themselves masters of the whole island, re- war, that they became afterwards very famous among
duced it to a Persian province. Evagoras, however, be- the Greeks under the name of Iphicratesian soldiers.
ing a man of an enterprising genius, soon became weary Indeed he had sufficient time to instruct them ; for the
of living in subjection to a foreign power, drove out the Persians were so slow in their preparations, that tiro
Persian governor, and recovered his paternal kingdom. whole years elapsed before they were ready to take the
Artaxerxes attempted to drive him out of it; but, be- field. At the same time Ariaxerxes, that he might
ing diverted by the Greek war, was obliged to put off draw the niore mercenaries out of Greeco, sent ambassa-
the enterprize. However, Conon, by means of Ctesias dors to the different states in it, declaring it to be his
chief physician to Artaxerxes, got all differences accom- will and pleasure that they should live at peace with
modated, and Artaxerxes promised not to molest him each other, on the terms of the treaty lately concluded:
in the possession of his small kingdom. But Evagoras which declaration was received with pleasure by all the
soon becoming discontented with such a narrow posses- states except Thebes, who aspired at the sovereignty of
sion, gradually reduced under his subjection almost the Greece; and accordingly refused to conform to it. All
whole of the island. Some, however, there were, who things, however, at last being ready for the expedition,
held out against him, and these immediately applied to the troops were mustered at the city then called Acc,
Artaxerxes for assistance; and he, as soon as the war and since Ptolemais; where they were found to consist
with Greece was at an end, bent all bis force against of 200,000 Persians under the command of Pharnaba-
Evagoras, intending to drive bim quite out of the island. zus, and 20,000 Greeks led by Iphicrates. The fleet
The Athenians, however, notwithstanding the favours consisted of 300 galleys, besides a vast number of other
lately conferred upon them by the king of Persia, vessels which followed with provisions. The fleet and
could not forbear assisting their old ally in such a dread- army began to move at the same time; and that they
ful emergency. Accordingly, they sent him ter men might act in concert, they separated ay little as possible.
of war under the command of Philocrates; but the It was proposed, that the war should begin with the
Lacedæmonian fleet, commanded by Talentias brother siege of Pelusium; but Nectanebus, the revolted king
to Agesilaus, falling in with them near the isle of of Egypt, bad provided so well for the defence of the
Rhodes, surrounded them, so that not one ship could place, that it was thought expedient to drop the enter-
escape. The Atheniaos, determined to assist Evago, prize, and make a descent at one of the mouths of the
ras at all events, sent Chabrias with another fleet and Nile. In this they succeeded : for the Egyptians not
a considerable body of land forces; and with the as- expecting them at that place, had not taken such care
sistance of these be quickly reduced the whole island. to fortify it as at Pelusium. The fortress of consequence
But in a short time, the Athenians being obliged, in was easily taken, and all the Egyptians in it put to the
consequence of the treaty concluded with the Persians, sword.

sword. After this, Iphicrates was for embarking the
to recal Chabrias, Artaxerxes attacked the island with troops without loss of time, and attacking Memphis the
an army of 309,000 men, and a fleet of 300 ships. capital of Egypt. Had this opinion been followed be-
Evagoras applied to the Egyptians, Libyans, Arabians, fore the Egyptians recovered from the consternation
Tyrians, and other nations, from whom he received into which ihey were thrown, it is highly probable that
supplies both of men and money; and fitted out a fleet, the whole country might have been reduced at once :
with which he ventured an engagement with that of but Pharnabazus would undertake nothing before the
Artaxerxes. But being defeated, and obliged to shut rest of the forces were come up. Iphicrates then, in

Ba. Fersia.



Persia. the utmost vexation at losing so favourable an oppor- vinces of Upper Asia, and the latter all the rest.

tunity, pressed Pharnabazos to allow him to attack the goas, being by birth an Egyptian, had a great zeal
place with the Greek mercenaries only; but he refused for the religion of his country, and endeavoured, on
this also, from a mean jealousy of the honour which the conquest of Egypt, to influence the king in fa-
Iphicrates might acquire ; and in the mean time the vour of the Egyptian ceremonies ; but, in spite of all
Egyptians recovered sufficient courage to put themselves his endeavours, Ochus not only refused to comply, but
in such a posture of defence, that they could not be at- killed the sacred bull, the emblem of the Egyptian god
tacked with any probability of saceess; and at the same Apis, plundered the temples, and carried away their
time, the Nile overflowing as usual, obliged them to re- sacred records. This Bagoas supposed to be the highest Ochus mur.
turn to Phænice. The expedition was again under guilt which a luman creature could commit; and there-derel by
taken 12 years after, but without success.
fore poisoned his master and benefactor in the 21st year

Bagoas, Ochus suc. The last years of the reign of Artaxerxes were great of his reign. Nor did his revenge stop bere ; for he ceeds Ar.

ly disturbed by dissensions in his family; which at last kept the king's body, causing another to be buried in taxerxes.

broke his heart, and he died in the 94th year of his its stead; and because the king had caused his attend-
age, and 46th of his reign. He was succeeded by one ants eat the flesh of Apis, Bagoas cut his body ir pieces,
of his sons wamed Ochus, who behaved with such cruel-

and gave it so mangled to be devoured by cats, making
ty, that almost one half of his dominions revolted as handles for swords of bis bones. He then placed Arses
soon as he came to the throne. But, by reason of the the youngest of the deceased king's sons on the throne,
dissensions of the rebels among themselves, all of them that he might the more easily preserve the whole power
were reduced, one after another; and among the rest, to bimself.
the Sidonians, finding themselves betrayed, burnt them- Arses did not long enjoy even the shadow of power
selves to the number of 40,000, together with their which Bagoas allowed him, being murdered in the

wives and children. 41

second year of his reign by that treacherous eunuch, Reduces Ochus, having quelled all the insurgents, immedi- who now conferred the crown on Darius Codomannus, Darius Car Egypt. ately set himself about reducing Egypt, and for this a distant relation of the royal family. Neither did he domannus

purpose procured a reinforcement of other 10,000 mer. incline to let him enjoy the crown much longer than
cenaries from Greece. On bis march, he lost a great his predecessor ; for, finding that he would not suffer
number of his men drowned in the lake Serbonis, which himself to be guided by him in all things, the trea-
lies between Phænice and Egypt, extending about 30 cherous Bagoas brought him a poisonous potion ; but
miles in length. When the south wind blows, the Darius got rid of him

by his own artifice, causing him
whole surface of this lake is covered with sand, in such to drink the poison which he brought. This establish-
a manner that no one can distinguish it from the firm ed Darius in the throne as far as security from internal
land. Several parties of Ochus's army were lost in it enemies could do so; but in a very little time his do-
for want of proper guides ; and it is said that whole minions were invaded, and, we may say, the same mo-

44 armies have sometimes perished in the same place. ment conquered, by Alexander the Great. The parti- Persia conWhen he arrived in Egypt, he detached three bodies to culars of that hero's conquest are related under the ar-quered by invade the country in different parts ; each being com- ticle Macedon ; we shall therefore bere only take Alexander manded by a Persian and a Greek general. The first notice of the fate of Darius himself, with which the Perwas led by Lachares the Theban, and Rosaces governor sian empire concluded for many ages. After the battle of Lydia and Ionia : the second by Nicostratus the of Arbela, which was decisive in favour of Alexander, Theban and Aristazanes; the third by Mentor the the latter took and plundered Persepolis, from whence Rhodian and Bagoas an eunuch. The main body of he marched into Media, in order to pursue Darius, who the army he kept with bimself, and encamped near Pe- had fled to Ecbatan the capital of that province. This fusium, with a design to watch the events of the war unhappy prince bad still an arnıy of 30,000 foot, among there. The event was successful, as we have related whom were 4000 Greeks, who continued faithful to under the article Egypt; and Ochus having reduced the last. Besides these, he had 4000 slingers and 3000 the whole country, dismantled their strongholds, plun- horse, most of them Bactrians, and commanded by Besdered the temples, and returned to Babylon loaded with sus governor of Bactria. When Darius heard that booty.

Alexander was marching to Ecbatan, he retired into The king, having ended this war with such success, Bactria, with a design to raise another army; but soon conferred very high rewards on bis mercenaries and after, changing his mind, he determined to venture a others who bad distinguished themselves. To Mentor battle with the forces he still had left. On this Bessus the Rhodian he gave 100 talents, and other presents governor of Bactria, and Nabarzanes a Persian lord of to a great value ; appointing bim also governor of all great distinction, formed a conspiracy against him, prothe coasts of Asia, and committing to his care the posing to seize his person, and, if Alexander pursued whole management of the war which he was still carry them, to gain bis friendship and protection by betraying ing on against some provinces that bad revolted in the their master into his hands; but if they escaped, their beginning of his reign ; and all these either by strata- design was to murder him, and usurp the crown.

The gems, or by force, he at last reduced ; restoring the troops were easily gained over, by representing to them, king's authority in all these places. -Ochus then, find- the desperate situation of Darius's affairs; but Darius ing himself free from all troubles, gave his attention to himself, though informed of their proceedings, and sonothing but his pleasures, leaving the administration licited to trust his person among the Greeks, refused to of affairs entirely to Bagoas the eunuch, and to Men- give credit to the report, or follow such a salutary coun- Darius se tor. These two agreed to share the power between sel. The consequence of this was, that he was in a few zed by his them; in consequence of which the former had the prodays seized by the traitors; who, out of respect to the own sube





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