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royal dignity, bound him with golden chains, and shut- near, he perceived Darius lying in the cart, and very Persia. ting him up in a covered cart, fed with him towards near his end, baving several darts sticking in bis body: Bactria. The cart was covered with skins, and strangers However, he had strength enough left to call for some appointed to drive it without knowing who the prisoner water, which Polystratus readily brought him. Darius, was. Bessus was proclaimed commander in chief in the after drinking, turned to the Macedonian, and with a room of Darius by the Bactrian horse ; but Artabazus faint voice told him, that, in the deplorable state to and his sons, with the forces they commanded, and the which he was reduced, it was no small comfort to bim Greeks, under the command of one Patron, retired from that his last words would not be lost : He then charged the body of the army under Bessus, and marched over him to return his hearty thanks to Alexander for the the mountains towards Partbiene. In the mean time kindvess he bad shown to his wife and family, and to Alexander arriving at Ecbatan, was informed that Da- acquaint him, that, with his last breath, he besought the rius had left the place five days before. He then dis- gods to prosper him in all his undertakings, and make patched orders to Clitus, who had fallen sick at Susa, to him sole monarch of the universe. He added, that it did repair, as soon as he recovered to Ecbatan, and from not so much concern him as Alexander to pursue and thence to follow him into Parthia with the cavalry and bring to condign punishment those traitors, who had 6000 Macedonians, who were left in Ecbatan. Alex- treated their lawful sovereign with such cruelty, that ander himself with the rest of the army pursued Darius; being the common cause of all crowned heads. Then, and the 11th day arrived at Rhages, having marched in taking Polystratus by the band, “ Give Alexander that space of time 3300 furlongs. Most of tlrose who

your band, says he, as I give you mine, and carry him, accompanied him died through the fatigue of so long in my name, the only pledge I am able to give, in this a march ; insomuch that, on bis arrival at Rhages, le condition, of my gratitude and affection.” Having utcould scarcely muster 60 horsemen. Finding that he tered these words, he expired in the arms of Polystratus. could not come up with Darius, who had already passed Alexander coming up a few minutes after, be wailed his the Caspian straits, he staid five days at Rhages, in order death, and caused his body to be interred with the bigb

47 to refresh his army and settle the affairs of Media. est honours. The traitor Bessus being at last reduced His murFrom thence he marched into Parthia, and encamped at to extreme difficulties, was delivered up by his owo men

derers pura a small distance from the Caspian. straits, which he naked and bound- into the hands of the Macedonians; passed the next day without opposition. He had scarce- on which Alexander gave him up to Oxatbres the Jy entered Parthia, when he was informed that Bessus brother of Darius, to suffer wbat punishment he should and Nabarzanes bad conspired against Darius, and de- think proper. Plutarch tells us that he was executed signed to seize bim. Hereupon, leaving the main body in the following manner : Several trees being by main of the army behind with Craterus, he advanced with a force bent down to the ground, and one of the traitor's . small troop of horse lightly armed; and having march- limbs tied to each of them, the trees, as they were sufe ed day and night without ever balting, except for a few fered to return to their natural position, flew back with hours, he came on the third day to a village where Bes- such violence, that each carried with it the. limb that sus with his Bactrians had encamped the day before. was tied to it.

48 Here he understood that Darius had been seized by the Thus ended the empire of Persia, 209 years after it Revolt of traitors; that Bessus had caused him to be shut up in a had been founded by Cyrus. After the death of A-the Parclose cart, wbich he had sent before, that he might be lexander the Persian dominions became subject to Sethe more sure of his person ; and that the whole army leucus Nicator, and continued subject to him for 62 except Artabazus and the Greeks, who had taken an. years, when the Parthians revolted, and conquered the other route, obeyed Bessus. Alexander therefore takiog greatest part of them. To the Parthians they contiwith him a small body of light-armed horse, for the nued subject for 475 years ; when the sovereignty was others could not possibly proceed further, at last came again restored to the Persians, as related under the ar. in sight of the barbarians, who were marching in great ticle PartHIA.

49 confusion. His unexpected appearance struck them, The restorer of the Persian monarchy was Arta. Persian em though far superior in number, with such terror, that xerxes, or Artaxares, who was not only a private per, restored by they immediately betook themselves to flight; and be- son, but of spurious birth. However, be possessed Artaxerxes.

cause Darius refused to follow them, Bessus and those great abilities, by which means he executed his ambi46

who were about bim discharged their darts at the un- tious projects. He was no sooner seated on the throne and mur. fortunate prince, leaving him wallowing in his blood. than he took the pompous title of king of kings, and

After this they all Aed different ways, and were pursued formed a design of restoring the empire to its ancient
with great slaughter by the Macedonians. In the mean glory. He therefore gave notice to the Roman gover-
time the horses that drew the cart in which Darius was, nors of the provinces bordering on bis dominions, that
stopped of their own accord (for the drivers had been he had a just right, as the successor of Cyrus, to all
killed by Bessus), near a village about four furlongs from the Lesser Asia; which he therefore commanded them
the highway. Thither Polystratus a Macedonian, be- immediately to quit, as well as the provinces on the
ing pressed with thirst in the pursuit of the enemy, was frontiers of the ancient Parthian kingdom, which were
directed by the inhabitants to a fountain to refresh bim- already bis. The consequence of this was a war with
self, not far from the place where they stopped. As he

As he Alexander Severus the Roman emperor. Concerning
was filling his helmet with water, he beard the groans the event of this war there are very different accounts.
of a dying man; and looking round him, discovered a It is certain, however, that on account of his exploits
Cart with a team of horses, unable to move by reason of against Artaxares, Alexander took the titles of Para
the many wounds they had received. When he drew thicus and Persicus ; though, it would seem, with no



SO Sucecded

l'crsi... great reason, 2. the Persina noma!el last none of hi-do- liers, enploved thieni continually in skirmishes; wlich Persia Love minions, and his successors vçra cually ready witis him- were sometimes lavourable to bim and sometimes otherself to invade the Roman territories.

sric. But Sad, perceiving that this lingering war Artasares dying after a reign of 12 or 15 years, would destroy his army, determined to hasten forward, by Sapor,

tras succeeded by his son Supor ; : prince of great and force ile enemy to a general engagenrent. 'The who takes abilities both of body and mind, but fierce, laughty, Persians declined this for a long time ; but at length, Tactal

untractable, and cruel. Hie was no sooner seated on fiuding a convenient plain where all their forces might
the Roman the throne iban he began a new war with the Romans. act, clicy drew up in order of battle, and resolved to

In the beginning lic was unsuccessful; being obliged, wait for the Arabs. Sad having disposed his men in
by the young emperor Gordian, to withdraw from the the Lest order he could, attacked the Persians with the
Roman dominions, and was even invaded in his turn; utmost fury. The battle lasted three days and thrce
but, in a short time, Gordian being murdered by Philip, night; the Persians retiring cortinually from one post
the nese emperor


with him upon terms very to another, till at last they were entirely defeated ; and
atlvantageous to the Persians. He was no sooner gone thus the capital city, and the greatest part of the do-
than Sapor renewed his incursions, and made such alarm. minions of Persia, fell into the bands of the Arabs. The
ing progress, that the emperor Valerian, at the age conquerors seized the treasures of the king ; which
of 70, marched against him in person with a numerous were so vast, that, according to a Mahometan tradition,
army. An ongazement ensued, in which the Romans their prophet gave the Saracen army a miraculous view
were defeated, and Valerian taken prisoner. Sapor of those treasures before the engagement, in order to
pursued his advantages with such insolence of cruelty, encourage

them to fight.
that the people of the provinces took arms, first under After the loss of this battle, Jezdegerd retired into
Callistus a Roman general, and then under Odenatus Chorasan, where be maintained binself as king, having
prince of Palmyrene. Thus they rot only protected under bis subjection two other provinces, named Kerman
themselves from the insults of the Persians, but even and Segestan. But after he had reigned in this limited
gained many great victories over them, and drove Sa- manner for 19 years, one of the governors of the few

with disgrace into his own dominions. In bis march towns he had left betrayed it, and called in the Turks.
he is said to have made use of the bodies of his unfor- This place was called Merou, seated on the river Gihon
tunate prisoners to fill up the hollow roads, and to fa- or Oxus. Jezdegerd immediately marched against the
cilitate the passage of his carriages over such rivers as rebels and their allies. The Persians were defeated;
lay in his way. On his return to Persia, he was soli- and the unfortunate monarch, having with much diffi-
cited by the kings of the Cadusians, Armenians, Bac- culty reached the river, found there a little boat, and a

trians, and other nations, to set Valerian at liberty; fisherman to whom it belonged. The king offered him
and tre its but to no purpose. On the contrary, he used him the a bracelet of precious stones ; but the sellow, equally
him cruelly. worse ; treated him daily with indignities, set bis foot brutal and stupid, told him that his sare was five

upon his neck when be mounted his horse, and, as is farthings, and that he would neither take more
affirmed by some, flayed him alive after some years con- less. While they disputed, a party of the rebel horse
finement; and caused his skin to be tanned, which he came up, and knowing Jezdegerd, killed him, in the
kept as a monument of his victory over the Romans.
'This extreme insolence and cruelty was followed by an Jezdegerd left behind bim a son named Firouz. and a
uninterrupted course of misforturie. Odenatus defeat- daughter named Dara. The latter espoused Bostenay,
ed lim in every engagement, and even seemed ready to whom the rabbinical writers bave dignified with the
uverthrow his empire ; and after bim Aurelian took title of the head of the captivity; and who, in fact, was
ample vengeance for the captivity of Valerian. Sapor the prince of the Jews settled in Chaldea. As for Fi.
died in the year of Christ 273, after having reigned rouz, he still preserved a little principality ; and when
31 years; and was succeeded by his son Hormisdas, and he died, left a daughter named Olah Afrid, who married
he by Varanes I. Concerning both these princes we Walid the son of the caliph Abdalmalek, by whom she
know nothing more than that the former reigned a had a son named Ycxid, who became caliph, and conse-
year and ten days, and the latter three years ; alter quently sovereign of Persia ; and so far was this prince
wbich he left the crown to Varanes II. who seems to from thinking himself above claiming the title derived
have been so much awed by the power of the Romans, from liis mother, that he constantly styled himself the
that he durst undertake nothing. The rest of the Per- son of Khosrou king of Persia, the descendant of the ca-
sian history, to the overthrow of the empire by the Sa- liph Maroan, and among whose ancestors on the side of
racens, affords nothing but an account of their conti- the mother were the Roman emperor and the khacan.
pued invasions of the Roman empire, which more pro-

be Persia continued to be subject to the Arabs till the State of 52

perly belongs to the history of Rome : and to which recline of the Saracen empire, when it was seized by B'rtoja una The Per

therefore we refer. The last of the Persian monarchs, various usurpers, till the time of Jenghis Khan, who der the
sian empire of the line of Artaxares, was Isdigertes, or Jezdegerd, conquered it as well as almost all the rest of Asia. Af-
overthrown as he is called by the Arabian and Persian historians, ter his death, which happened in the vear 1227, Persia,
by the Sa- who was cotemporary with Omar the second caliph af- together with the neighbouring countries, were govern.

ter Mahomet. He was scarcely seated on the throne, ed by officers appointed by his successors, who reigned
when he found himself attacked by a powersul army of at Kærakorom, in the eastern parts of Tartary, till the
Saracens under the command of one Sad, who invaded year 1253, when it became once more the seat of a
the country through Chaldea. The Persian general miglity empire under Hulaku the Mogul, who in 1256
took all imaginable pains to harass the Arabs on their abolished the caliphate, by taking the city of BAGDAD,
march; and having an army superior to them m num. as related under that article. After the death of Hu-



year 652.

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Peşsi. laku,, his sou A baka succeeded to his extensive doni- Safi, who had been intoi meil of Tamerlane's clesigin to Persiz

nions; and his first care was to shut up all the avenues put the captives to death, requested of the conqueror of his empire against the other princes of the race of that he would spare the lives of those unfortunate men. Jenghiz Khan, who reigned in different parts of Tar- Tamerlane, desirous of obliging bim, not only granted tary. His precautions, bowever, were of little avail; this request, but delivered them up to him to be disfor in the very beginning of his reign he was invaded posed of as he thought fit; upon which the Sheykh furby Barkan Klian, of the race of Jagatay the son of

nished them with clothes and other necessaries as well Jenghiz Khan, from Great Bukharia, with an army or as he could, and sent them liome to their respective 300,coo men. Abaka was but indifferently prepared countries. This generous action proved very bencficial to oppose such a formidable power; but, happily for to the family; for the people were so much affected him. bis antagonist died before the armies came to an with such an extraordinary instance of virtue, that the ya engagement, upon which the invaders dispersed and re- repaired in great numbers to Safi, bringing with them turned to Tartary. In the year 1264, Armenia and A- considerable presents; and this so frequently, that few natolia were ravaged by the Mamlukes from Egypt, but days passed in which he was not visited by many. Thus they were obliged to fly from Abaka; who thus seemed the descendants of the Sheyklı made a conspicuous fito be established in the possession of an empire almost as gure till the year 1486, when they were all destroyed extensive as that of the ancient Persian kings. His by the Turcomans except Ismael, who fled to Ghilan, tranquillity, however, was of short duration ; for, in where be lived under the protection of the king of that 1268, bis dominions were invaded by Borak Khai, a country; after which he became conspicuous on the folprince likewise of the race of Jagatay, with an army of loving occasion. 100,000 men. He quickly reduced the province of There was at that time, among the Mahometans, a Chorasan, where he met with little opposition, and in vast number of people dispersed over Asia ; and among 1 269 advanced as far as Aderbijan, where Abaka had these a particular party who followed that of Hayde the bulk of his forces. A bloody battle ensued; in the father of Ismael, which Sheykh Safi, one of his anwhich Abaka was victorious, and Borak obliged to fly cestors, had brought into great reputation. Ismael, wbo into Tartary, with the loss of all bis baggage and great had assumed the surname of Sofi, or Sage, finding that part of his army. Abaka died in 1282, after a reign Persia was all in confusion, and hearing that there was of 17 years, not without suspicion of being poisoned; a great number of the Hayderian sect in Caramania, reand was succeeded by his brother Ahmed Klan. He moved thither. There be collected 7000 of his party was the first of the family of Jenghiz Khan wbo em- all devoted to the in-erest of bis family; and while lie braced Mahometanism; but neither be nor his suc

successors was yet only 14 years of age, conquered Shirwan. appear to have been in the least versed in the arts of After this he pursued his conquests; and as his antagogovernment ; for the Persian history, from this period, nists never united to oppose bim, had conquered the

becomes only an account of insurrections, murders, re- greatest part of Persia, and reduced the city of Bag.

54 Te Under Ta- bellions, and poisonings, till the year 1335, when it dad, by the year 1510. However, his conquests on the *merlane

split all to pieces, and was possessed by a great number west side were soon stopped by the Turks; for, in 1911, and his suc- of petty princes ; all of whom were at perpetual war he received a great defeat from Selim I. who took Tau.

with each other till the time of Timur Beg, or Ta- ris; and would probably bave crushed the empire of Is-
merlane, who once more reduced them all under one mael in its infancy, had he not thought the conquest of

Egypt more important than that of Persia. After his
After the death of Tamerlane, Persia continued to defeat by Selim, Ismael never undertook any thing of
be governed by his son Shah Rukh, a wise and valiant consequence. He died in 1523, leaving the crown to
prince but immediately after his death fell into the bis eldest son Thamasp I.
same confusion as before; being held by a great num- The new shah was a man of very limited abilities,
ber of petty tyrants, till the beginning of the 16th cen.. and was therefore in vaded by the Turks almost instant-
tury, when it was conquered by Shah Ismael Safi, or ly on bis accession to the throne. However, they were

Sefi; of whose family we have the following account. obliged to retreat by an inundation, which overflowed
Conquered His father was Sheykh Hayder or Haydr, the son of their camp, and which frightened them with its red co-

by Ismael Sultan Juneyd, the son of Sheykh Ibrahim, the son of lour, probably arising from the nature of the soil over
- Seti.

Sheykh Ali, the son of Sheykh Musa, the son of Sheykl which it passed. Thamasp, however, reduced Georgia

, who was the 13th in a direct line from Ali the son- to a province of the Persian empire ; that country be-
in-law of the prophet Mahomet. When Tamerlane re, ing in his time divided among a number of petty prin-
turned from the defeat of Bajazet the Turkish sultan, ces, who, by reason of their divisions, were able to make
be carried with him a great number of captives out of little opposition.
Caramania and Anatolia, all of whom he intended to The reigns of the succeeding princes afford nothing Reign of
put to death on some remarkable occasion; and with remarkable till the time of Shah Abbas I. surnamed the Shah Abu
this resolution he entered Ardebil, or Ardevil, a city Great. He ascended the throne in tbe year 1584; and bas the
of Aderbijan, about 25 miles to the east of Taurus, his first care was to recover from the Turks and Tartars Great.
where he continued for some days. At this time lived the large provinces they bad seized which formerly be-
in that city the Sheykh Safi

, or Sufi, above mentioned, longed to the Persian empire. He began with declaring reputed by the inhabitants to be a saint, and, as such, war against the latter, who had seized the finest part of much reverenced by them. The fame of Safi's sancti. Chorasan. Accordingly, having raised a powerful arty so much moved Tamerlane, that he paid him fre- my, he entered that province, where he was met by Abquent visits ; and when he was about to depart, promi. dallah Khan the chief of the Usbeck Tartars. The sed to grant whatever favour be should ask. Sheykla two armies lay in sight of each other for six nionths ;


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Persia. but at length Abbas attacked and defeated his enemies, the family of Abbas, assembling an army, invited into Persia

orcing them, for that time, to abandon Chorasan. his service Nadir Khan, who had obtained great reputa-
Here he continued for three years ; and on bis leaving tion for his valour and conduct. He was the son of a
that place, fixed the seat of government at Isaphan, Persian nobleman, on the frontiers of Usbeck Tartary;
where it has continued ever since. His next expedition and his uncle, who was his guardian, keeping him out
was against the Turks. Understanding that the garri- of possession of the castle and estate which was bis in-
son of Tauris was in no expectation of an enemy, he heritance, he took to robbing the caravans; and, baving
formed a design of surprising the place; and having increased his followers to upwards of 5000 men, be-
privately assembied a few forces, he marched with such came the terror of that part of the country, and espe.
celerity, that he reached a pass called Shibli very near cially of his uncle, who had seized his estate. His uncle
Tauris, in six days, though it is usually 18 or 20 days therefore resolved to make his peace with him, and with
journey for the caravans. Here the Turks had posted that view invited him to the castle, where he cntertain-
a few soldiers, rather for the purpose of collecting the ed him in a splendid manner; but Nadir Khan ordered
customs on such commodities as were brought that way, bis throat to be cut next night, and all his people to be
than of defending the pass against an enemy. Before turned out of the castle. No sooner bad Nadir Khan
they came in sight of this pass, Abbas and some of his got the command of the Persian army, than be attack-
officers left the rest of the army, and rode briskly up ed and defeated the usurper E-riff, put him to death,
to the turnpike. Here the secretary of the custom- and recovered all the places the Turks and Russians
house taking them for merchants, demanded the usual had made themselves masters of during the rebellion ;
duties. Abbas replied, that the person who bad the and then Prince Thamas seemed to be established on the
purse svas behind, but at the same time ordered some throne : but Nadir Khan, to whom Thamas bad given
money to be given him. But wbile the secretary was the name of Thumas Kouli Khan, that is, the Slave of
counting it, he was suddenly stabbed by the Shah's or- Thamas, thinking bis services not sufficiently reward-
der; and the officers who were with bim suddenly fal. ed, and pretending that the king bad a design against
ling upon the few soldiers who were there, obliged them his life, or at least to set him aside, conspired against
to submit; after which he entered the pass with his ar- his sovereign, and put him to death, as is supposed :
my. The governor of Tauris marched out with all the after which, he usurped the throne, styling himself
troops he could collect on so short a warning ; but being Shuh Nadir or King Nadir.
inferior to the Persians, be was utterly defeated, and He afterwards laid siege to Candahar, of whicb a sou
himself taken prisoner ; after which the city was obliged of Mereweis had possessed himself. During this siege,
to submit, as also a number of places in the neighbour- the court of the Great Mogul being distracted with
hood. One city only called Orumi, being very strong- factions, one of the parties invited Shah Nadir to come
ly situated, resisted all the efforts of Abbas; but was at to their assistance, and betrayed the Mogul into bis
last taken by the assistance of the Curds, whom he gain- hands. He thereupon marched to Delhi, the capital
ed over by promising to share the plunder of the place of India, and summoned all the viceroys and governors
with them. But instead of this, he formed a design to of provinces to attend bim, and bring with them all the
cut them all off at once; fearing that they might at treasures they could raise ; and those that did not bring
another time do the Turks a service of the same nature as much as he expected, be tortured and put to death.
that they had done to him just now. For this reason Having thus amassed the greatest treasure that ever
he invited their chiefs to dine with him ; and having prince was master of, he returned to Persia, giving the
brought them to a tent, the entrance to which bad Mogul his liberty, on condition of his resigning the
several turnings, he stationed on the inside two execu- provinces on the west side of the Indus to the crown of
tionera, who cut off the heads of the guests as soon as Persia.' He afterwards made a conquest of Usbeck
they entered.

Tartary, and plundered Bochara the capital city. Then
After this Shah Abbas considerably enlarged his do- he marched against the Dagbestan Tartars; but lost
minions, and repelled two dangerous invasions of the great part of his army in their mountains, without fight-
Turks. He attempted also to promote commerce, and ing. He defeated the Turks in several engagements ;
civilize his subjects; but stained all his great actions, by but laying siege to Bagdad, was twice compelled to
his abominable cruelties, which he practised on every raise the siege. He proceeded to change the religion
one who gave him the least cause of offence; nay fre- of Persia to that of Omar, barged up the chief priests,
quently without any cause at all. He took the isle of put his own son to death, and was guilty of such cruel-
Ormus from the Portuguese, who had kept it since ty, that he was at length assassinated by his own rela-
3 507, by the assistance of soine English ships in 1622; tions, anno 1747. A contest upon this ensued between
and died six years after, aged 70.

these relations for the crown, which has rendered Persia The princes who succeeded Shah Abbas the Great, a scene of the most horrible confusion for upwards of were remarkable only for their cruelties and debauche

40 years. ries, which occasioned a revolution in 1716, when the The reader will form some notion of the troubles of Different Shah Hussein was dethroned by the Afghans, a people this unhappy country from the following series of inhabiting the country between Persia and India; who tenders to the throne between the death of Nadir and

being oppressed by the ministers, revolted under the the accession of Kerim Khan. We give it from Franck- Persia. 57 History of conduct of one Mereweis. The princes of the Afghan lin's Observations. ist, Adil Sbah.--2d, Ibraheem Khouli race continued to enjoy the sovereignty for no more Shah.-3d, Shah Rokh Shah.—4th, Suleeman Shab.Khan. than 16 years, when Ashraff the reigning shah was de- 5th, Ismaeel Shab.-6th, Azan Khan Afghan.-7th, * See Pat- throned by one of his officers *. On this Thamasp, Hossun Khan Kejar.—8th, Ali Merdan Khan Bukhteaotherwise called Prince Thamas, the only survivor of ri.--9th, Kerim Khan Zund.

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reign of

Persia. “ Their reigns, or more properly the length of time they came out of the citadel. His orders were strictiş Persia.

they respectively governed with their party, were as obeyed, and these deluded men were all massacred in his
follows : Adil Shah, nine months. Ibraheem Shah, six presence ; he was seated the whole time, feasting his
months. Shah Rokh Shah, after a variety of revolu- eyes on the cruel spectacle.

64 Lions, at length regained the city of Mesclid: he is now Zikea Khan's tyranny became soon intolerable, and Murdered. alive (1787), and above 80 years of age, reigning in he was cut off by luis own body guard, when Abul FutChorasan, under the direction of his son Nussir Ullah tah Khan, who was at the time in the camp, was proMeerza. Suleeman Shah, and Ismaeel Shah, in about claimed king by the unanimous voice of the troops, forty days were both cut off, almost as soon as they whom he immediately led back to Shirauz. On bis were elevated. Azad Khan Afghan, one of Kerim arrival he was acknowledged as sovereign by all ranks Khan's most formidable rivals and competitors, was sub- of people, and took quiet possession of the governdoed by him, brought prisoner to Shirauz, and died

65 there a natural death. Hossun Khan Kejar, another of “ Mahomed Sadick Klan, only brother of the late Mahomed Kerim Khan's competitors, was besieging Shirauz, when Kerim Khan, who had during that prince's life filled Sadick

Khan atbis army suddenly mutinied and deseried him.' The the high office of beglerbeg of Fars, and had been

tempts lo mutiny was attributed to their want of pay. A party appointed guardian of his son Abul Futtal Khan, was seize the sent by Kerim Khan took him prisoner. His head was at this period governor of the city of Bassora, which governinstantly cut off, and presented to Kerim Khan. His bad been taken by the Persians, previous to the vakeel's ment; family were brought captives to Shirauz. They were death. Upon hearing the news of his brother's decease well treated, and had their liberty given them soon after, he became ambitious of reigning alone, and from that under an obligation not to quit the city. Ali Merdan instant formed schemes for the destruction of his neKhan was killed by a inusket shot as he was walking on phew; but as it was necessary for him to be on the the ramparts of Meschid encouraging bis men. Kerim spot for the advancement of his views, he determined Khan Zund, by birth a Curdistan, was a most favourite to withdraw the Persiau garrison from Bassora, who officer of Nadir Shah, and at the time of his death was were all devoted to bis interest : accordingly be evain the southern provinces. Shirauz and other places cuated that place, and marched immediately for Sbi. had declared for him. He found means at last, after various encounters with doubtful success, completely to “ The news of Sadick Khan's approach threw the in

subdue all bis rivals, and finally to establish himself as habitants of Shirauz into the greatest consternation : Kerim ruler of all Persia. He was in power about 30 years ; their minds were variously agitated on the occasion ; Khan cn- the latter part of which he governed Persia under the some, from his known public character, expected he

appellation of vakeel or regent, for he never would re- would honestly fulfil the commands of his deceased

ceive the title of Shah. He made Shirauż the cbiet brotber; others, who had been witnesses to the conyears. city of his residence, in gratitude for the assistance he fusion of former times, on similar occasions, rightly

had received from its inhabitants and those of the south- imagined that he would set up for himself; and indeed era provinces. He died in the year 1779, regretted by this proved to be the case : for having entered Shirauz all his subjects, who esteemed and honoured him as the very few days after, he caused Abul Futtah Khan to glory of Persia.

be seized, deprived of sight, and put into close confineTwenty. " When the death of Kerim Khan was announced in ment.

66 the city, much confusion arose ; two and twenty of the “ After this event, Sadick Khan openly assumed the which he cers i le

principal officers of the army, men of high rank and government. As soon as the intelligence reached Ali effects. of the citd- family, took possession of the ark, or citadel, with a Murad Khan, who was at Ispahan, that lord instantly del.

resolution to acknowledge Abul Fattah Khan (the eld- rebelled : deeming himself to have an equal right to
est son of the late vakeel) as their sovereign, and to de- the government with Sadick Khau, as in fact he had, he

fend him against all other pretenders ; whereupon Zikea could ill brook the thought of being obedient to him, Kban . Khan, a relation of the late vakcel by the mother's side, and openly declared himself a competitor for the em

who was possessed of immense wealth, enlisted a great pire. Persia was by this means again involved in all
part of the army into his pay, by giving them very con- the horrors of a civil war. Ali Murad Khan indeed
siderable bounties. Zikea Khan was of the tribe of took possession of Shirauz, assumed the government, and
Zund (or the Lackeries); a man remarkably proud, gave to the empire the flattering prospect of being set-
cruel, and unrelenting. Having assembled a large body tled under the government of one man; but this prospect
of troops, be immediately marched them to the citadel, was soon obscured by the power and credit acquired by
and laid close siege to it for the space of three days; at
Akau Mahomed Khan.”

67 the expiration of which, finding he could not take it by On the night following Kerim Khan's death, this Akau saemploys force, he had recourse to treachery. To each of the man found means to make his escape from Shirauz, and Lomed means to principal khans he sent a written paper, by which he fled to the northward, where collecting some troops, he Khan col

, entice the swore upon the Koran, that if they would come out and soon made himself master of Mazanderan and Ghilan, and is proeracers out, submit to bim, not a hair of their heads should be and was proclaimed nearly about the time that Ali Mu- claimed at

touched, and that they should have their effects secured rad Khan had taken Shirauz." It is remarkable (says Mazande-
to them. Upon this a consultation was held by them; our author), that from his first entering into competition run and
and it appearing that they could not subsist many days for the government, he has been successful in every bat-Ghilan.
Jonger, they agreed to surrender themselves, firmly rely- tle which he has fought. He is an eunuch, having been

the promises that had been made them. Zikea made so whilst an infant, by the command of Nadir
Khan, in the mean time, gave private orders, for the Shah, but possesses great personal bravery."
khans to be seized, and brought separately before him as Ali Murad Khan, bearing of the success of Akau
VOL. XVI. Part I.




Bear 30


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61 Zikea

62 Besieges abe citadel.




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