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royal dignity, bound him with golden chains, and shut- near, he perceived Darius lying in the cart, and very Persia. ting him up in a covered cart, fed with him towards near his end, baving several darts sticking in bis body: Bactria. The cart was covered with skins, and strangers However, he had strength enough left to call for some appointed to drive it without knowing who the prisoner water, which Polystratus readily brought him. Darius, was. Bessus was proclaimed commander in chief in the after drinking, turned to the Macedonian, and with a room of Darius by the Bactrian horse ; but Artabazus faint voice told him, that, in the deplorable state to and his sons, with the forces they commanded, and the which he was reduced, it was no small comfort to bim Greeks, under the command of one Patron, retired from that his last words would not be lost : He then charged the body of the army under Bessus, and marched over him to return his hearty thanks to Alexander for the the mountains towards Partbiene. In the mean time kindvess he bad shown to his wife and family, and to Alexander arriving at Ecbatan, was informed that Da- acquaint him, that, with his last breath, he besought the rius had left the place five days before. He then dis- gods to prosper him in all his undertakings, and make patched orders to Clitus, who had fallen sick at Susa, to him sole monarch of the universe. He added, that it did repair, as soon as he recovered to Ecbatan, and from not so much concern him as Alexander to pursue and thence to follow him into Parthia with the cavalry and bring to condign punishment those traitors, who had 6000 Macedonians, who were left in Ecbatan. Alex- treated their lawful sovereign with such cruelty, that ander himself with the rest of the army pursued Darius; being the common cause of all crowned heads. Then, and the 11th day arrived at Rhages, having marched in taking Polystratus by the band, “ Give Alexander that space of time 3300 furlongs. Most of tlrose who
your band, says he, as I give you mine, and carry him, accompanied him died through the fatigue of so long in my name, the only pledge I am able to give, in this a march ; insomuch that, on bis arrival at Rhages, le condition, of my gratitude and affection.” Having utcould scarcely muster 60 horsemen. Finding that he tered these words, he expired in the arms of Polystratus. could not come up with Darius, who had already passed Alexander coming up a few minutes after, be wailed his the Caspian straits, he staid five days at Rhages, in order death, and caused his body to be interred with the bigb
47 to refresh his army and settle the affairs of Media. est honours. The traitor Bessus being at last reduced His murFrom thence he marched into Parthia, and encamped at to extreme difficulties, was delivered up by his owo men
derers pura a small distance from the Caspian. straits, which he naked and bound- into the hands of the Macedonians; passed the next day without opposition. He had scarce- on which Alexander gave him up to Oxatbres the Jy entered Parthia, when he was informed that Bessus brother of Darius, to suffer wbat punishment he should and Nabarzanes bad conspired against Darius, and de- think proper. Plutarch tells us that he was executed signed to seize bim. Hereupon, leaving the main body in the following manner : Several trees being by main of the army behind with Craterus, he advanced with a force bent down to the ground, and one of the traitor's . small troop of horse lightly armed; and having march- limbs tied to each of them, the trees, as they were sufe ed day and night without ever balting, except for a few fered to return to their natural position, flew back with hours, he came on the third day to a village where Bes- such violence, that each carried with it the. limb that sus with his Bactrians had encamped the day before. was tied to it.
48 Here he understood that Darius had been seized by the Thus ended the empire of Persia, 209 years after it Revolt of traitors; that Bessus had caused him to be shut up in a had been founded by Cyrus. After the death of A-the Parclose cart, wbich he had sent before, that he might be lexander the Persian dominions became subject to Sethe more sure of his person ; and that the whole army leucus Nicator, and continued subject to him for 62 except Artabazus and the Greeks, who had taken an. years, when the Parthians revolted, and conquered the other route, obeyed Bessus. Alexander therefore takiog greatest part of them. To the Parthians they contiwith him a small body of light-armed horse, for the nued subject for 475 years ; when the sovereignty was others could not possibly proceed further, at last came again restored to the Persians, as related under the ar. in sight of the barbarians, who were marching in great ticle PartHIA.
49 confusion. His unexpected appearance struck them, The restorer of the Persian monarchy was Arta. Persian em though far superior in number, with such terror, that xerxes, or Artaxares, who was not only a private per, restored by they immediately betook themselves to flight; and be- son, but of spurious birth. However, be possessed Artaxerxes.
cause Darius refused to follow them, Bessus and those great abilities, by which means he executed his ambi46
who were about bim discharged their darts at the un- tious projects. He was no sooner seated on the throne and mur. fortunate prince, leaving him wallowing in his blood. than he took the pompous title of king of kings, and
After this they all Aed different ways, and were pursued formed a design of restoring the empire to its ancient
As he Alexander Severus the Roman emperor. Concerning
l'crsi... great reason, 2. the Persina noma!el last none of hi-do- liers, enploved thieni continually in skirmishes; wlich Persia Love minions, and his successors vçra cually ready witis him- were sometimes lavourable to bim and sometimes otherself to invade the Roman territories.
sric. But Sad, perceiving that this lingering war Artasares dying after a reign of 12 or 15 years, would destroy his army, determined to hasten forward, by Sapor,
tras succeeded by his son Supor ; : prince of great and force ile enemy to a general engagenrent. 'The who takes abilities both of body and mind, but fierce, laughty, Persians declined this for a long time ; but at length, Tactal
untractable, and cruel. Hie was no sooner seated on fiuding a convenient plain where all their forces might
In the beginning lic was unsuccessful; being obliged, wait for the Arabs. Sad having disposed his men in
with him upon terms very to another, till at last they were entirely defeated ; and
them to fight.
with disgrace into his own dominions. In bis march towns he had left betrayed it, and called in the Turks.
trians, and other nations, to set Valerian at liberty; fisherman to whom it belonged. The king offered him
upon his neck when be mounted his horse, and, as is farthings, and that he would neither take more
be Persia continued to be subject to the Arabs till the State of 52
perly belongs to the history of Rome : and to which recline of the Saracen empire, when it was seized by B'rtoja una The Per
therefore we refer. The last of the Persian monarchs, various usurpers, till the time of Jenghis Khan, who der the
ter Mahomet. He was scarcely seated on the throne, ed by officers appointed by his successors, who reigned
Peşsi. laku,, his sou A baka succeeded to his extensive doni- Safi, who had been intoi meil of Tamerlane's clesigin to Persiz
nions; and his first care was to shut up all the avenues put the captives to death, requested of the conqueror of his empire against the other princes of the race of that he would spare the lives of those unfortunate men. Jenghiz Khan, who reigned in different parts of Tar- Tamerlane, desirous of obliging bim, not only granted tary. His precautions, bowever, were of little avail; this request, but delivered them up to him to be disfor in the very beginning of his reign he was invaded posed of as he thought fit; upon which the Sheykh furby Barkan Klian, of the race of Jagatay the son of
nished them with clothes and other necessaries as well Jenghiz Khan, from Great Bukharia, with an army or as he could, and sent them liome to their respective 300,coo men. Abaka was but indifferently prepared countries. This generous action proved very bencficial to oppose such a formidable power; but, happily for to the family; for the people were so much affected him. bis antagonist died before the armies came to an with such an extraordinary instance of virtue, that the ya engagement, upon which the invaders dispersed and re- repaired in great numbers to Safi, bringing with them turned to Tartary. In the year 1264, Armenia and A- considerable presents; and this so frequently, that few natolia were ravaged by the Mamlukes from Egypt, but days passed in which he was not visited by many. Thus they were obliged to fly from Abaka; who thus seemed the descendants of the Sheyklı made a conspicuous fito be established in the possession of an empire almost as gure till the year 1486, when they were all destroyed extensive as that of the ancient Persian kings. His by the Turcomans except Ismael, who fled to Ghilan, tranquillity, however, was of short duration ; for, in where be lived under the protection of the king of that 1268, bis dominions were invaded by Borak Khai, a country; after which he became conspicuous on the folprince likewise of the race of Jagatay, with an army of loving occasion. 100,000 men. He quickly reduced the province of There was at that time, among the Mahometans, a Chorasan, where he met with little opposition, and in vast number of people dispersed over Asia ; and among 1 269 advanced as far as Aderbijan, where Abaka had these a particular party who followed that of Hayde the bulk of his forces. A bloody battle ensued; in the father of Ismael, which Sheykh Safi, one of his anwhich Abaka was victorious, and Borak obliged to fly cestors, had brought into great reputation. Ismael, wbo into Tartary, with the loss of all bis baggage and great had assumed the surname of Sofi, or Sage, finding that part of his army. Abaka died in 1282, after a reign Persia was all in confusion, and hearing that there was of 17 years, not without suspicion of being poisoned; a great number of the Hayderian sect in Caramania, reand was succeeded by his brother Ahmed Klan. He moved thither. There be collected 7000 of his party was the first of the family of Jenghiz Khan wbo em- all devoted to the in-erest of bis family; and while lie braced Mahometanism; but neither be nor his suc
successors was yet only 14 years of age, conquered Shirwan. appear to have been in the least versed in the arts of After this he pursued his conquests; and as his antagogovernment ; for the Persian history, from this period, nists never united to oppose bim, had conquered the
becomes only an account of insurrections, murders, re- greatest part of Persia, and reduced the city of Bag.
54 Te Under Ta- bellions, and poisonings, till the year 1335, when it dad, by the year 1510. However, his conquests on the *merlane
split all to pieces, and was possessed by a great number west side were soon stopped by the Turks; for, in 1911, and his suc- of petty princes ; all of whom were at perpetual war he received a great defeat from Selim I. who took Tau.
with each other till the time of Timur Beg, or Ta- ris; and would probably bave crushed the empire of Is-
Egypt more important than that of Persia. After his
Sefi; of whose family we have the following account. obliged to retreat by an inundation, which overflowed
by Ismael Sultan Juneyd, the son of Sheykh Ibrahim, the son of lour, probably arising from the nature of the soil over
Sheykh Ali, the son of Sheykh Musa, the son of Sheykl which it passed. Thamasp, however, reduced Georgia
, who was the 13th in a direct line from Ali the son- to a province of the Persian empire ; that country be-
, or Sufi, above mentioned, longed to the Persian empire. He began with declaring reputed by the inhabitants to be a saint, and, as such, war against the latter, who had seized the finest part of much reverenced by them. The fame of Safi's sancti. Chorasan. Accordingly, having raised a powerful arty so much moved Tamerlane, that he paid him fre- my, he entered that province, where he was met by Abquent visits ; and when he was about to depart, promi. dallah Khan the chief of the Usbeck Tartars. The sed to grant whatever favour be should ask. Sheykla two armies lay in sight of each other for six nionths ;
Persia. but at length Abbas attacked and defeated his enemies, the family of Abbas, assembling an army, invited into Persia
orcing them, for that time, to abandon Chorasan. his service Nadir Khan, who had obtained great reputa-
Tartary, and plundered Bochara the capital city. Then
these relations for the crown, which has rendered Persia The princes who succeeded Shah Abbas the Great, a scene of the most horrible confusion for upwards of were remarkable only for their cruelties and debauche
40 years. ries, which occasioned a revolution in 1716, when the The reader will form some notion of the troubles of Different Shah Hussein was dethroned by the Afghans, a people this unhappy country from the following series of inhabiting the country between Persia and India; who tenders to the throne between the death of Nadir and
being oppressed by the ministers, revolted under the the accession of Kerim Khan. We give it from Franck- Persia. 57 History of conduct of one Mereweis. The princes of the Afghan lin's Observations. ist, Adil Sbah.--2d, Ibraheem Khouli race continued to enjoy the sovereignty for no more Shah.-3d, Shah Rokh Shah.—4th, Suleeman Shab.Khan. than 16 years, when Ashraff the reigning shah was de- 5th, Ismaeel Shab.-6th, Azan Khan Afghan.-7th, * See Pat- throned by one of his officers *. On this Thamasp, Hossun Khan Kejar.—8th, Ali Merdan Khan Bukhteaotherwise called Prince Thamas, the only survivor of ri.--9th, Kerim Khan Zund.
Persia. “ Their reigns, or more properly the length of time they came out of the citadel. His orders were strictiş Persia.
they respectively governed with their party, were as obeyed, and these deluded men were all massacred in his
64 Lions, at length regained the city of Mesclid: he is now “ Zikea Khan's tyranny became soon intolerable, and Murdered. alive (1787), and above 80 years of age, reigning in he was cut off by luis own body guard, when Abul FutChorasan, under the direction of his son Nussir Ullah tah Khan, who was at the time in the camp, was proMeerza. Suleeman Shah, and Ismaeel Shah, in about claimed king by the unanimous voice of the troops, forty days were both cut off, almost as soon as they whom he immediately led back to Shirauz. On bis were elevated. Azad Khan Afghan, one of Kerim arrival he was acknowledged as sovereign by all ranks Khan's most formidable rivals and competitors, was sub- of people, and took quiet possession of the governdoed by him, brought prisoner to Shirauz, and died
65 there a natural death. Hossun Khan Kejar, another of “ Mahomed Sadick Klan, only brother of the late Mahomed Kerim Khan's competitors, was besieging Shirauz, when Kerim Khan, who had during that prince's life filled Sadick
Khan atbis army suddenly mutinied and deseried him.' The the high office of beglerbeg of Fars, and had been
tempts lo mutiny was attributed to their want of pay. A party appointed guardian of his son Abul Futtal Khan, was seize the sent by Kerim Khan took him prisoner. His head was at this period governor of the city of Bassora, which governinstantly cut off, and presented to Kerim Khan. His bad been taken by the Persians, previous to the vakeel's ment; family were brought captives to Shirauz. They were death. Upon hearing the news of his brother's decease well treated, and had their liberty given them soon after, he became ambitious of reigning alone, and from that under an obligation not to quit the city. Ali Merdan instant formed schemes for the destruction of his neKhan was killed by a inusket shot as he was walking on phew; but as it was necessary for him to be on the the ramparts of Meschid encouraging bis men. Kerim spot for the advancement of his views, he determined Khan Zund, by birth a Curdistan, was a most favourite to withdraw the Persiau garrison from Bassora, who officer of Nadir Shah, and at the time of his death was were all devoted to bis interest : accordingly be evain the southern provinces. Shirauz and other places cuated that place, and marched immediately for Sbi. had declared for him. He found means at last, after various encounters with doubtful success, completely to “ The news of Sadick Khan's approach threw the in
subdue all bis rivals, and finally to establish himself as habitants of Shirauz into the greatest consternation : Kerim ruler of all Persia. He was in power about 30 years ; their minds were variously agitated on the occasion ; Khan cn- the latter part of which he governed Persia under the some, from his known public character, expected he
appellation of vakeel or regent, for he never would re- would honestly fulfil the commands of his deceased
ceive the title of Shah. He made Shirauż the cbiet brotber; others, who had been witnesses to the conyears. city of his residence, in gratitude for the assistance he fusion of former times, on similar occasions, rightly
had received from its inhabitants and those of the south- imagined that he would set up for himself; and indeed era provinces. He died in the year 1779, regretted by this proved to be the case : for having entered Shirauz all his subjects, who esteemed and honoured him as the very few days after, he caused Abul Futtah Khan to glory of Persia.
be seized, deprived of sight, and put into close confineTwenty. " When the death of Kerim Khan was announced in ment.
66 the city, much confusion arose ; two and twenty of the “ After this event, Sadick Khan openly assumed the which he cers i le
principal officers of the army, men of high rank and government. As soon as the intelligence reached Ali effects. of the citd- family, took possession of the ark, or citadel, with a Murad Khan, who was at Ispahan, that lord instantly del.
resolution to acknowledge Abul Fattah Khan (the eld- rebelled : deeming himself to have an equal right to
fend him against all other pretenders ; whereupon Zikea could ill brook the thought of being obedient to him, Kban . Khan, a relation of the late vakcel by the mother's side, and openly declared himself a competitor for the em
who was possessed of immense wealth, enlisted a great pire. Persia was by this means again involved in all
67 the expiration of which, finding he could not take it by On the night following Kerim Khan's death, this Akau saemploys force, he had recourse to treachery. To each of the man found means to make his escape from Shirauz, and Lomed means to principal khans he sent a written paper, by which he fled to the northward, where collecting some troops, he Khan col
, entice the swore upon the Koran, that if they would come out and soon made himself master of Mazanderan and Ghilan, and is proeracers out, submit to bim, not a hair of their heads should be and was proclaimed nearly about the time that Ali Mu- claimed at
touched, and that they should have their effects secured rad Khan had taken Shirauz." It is remarkable (says Mazande-
the promises that had been made them. Zikea made so whilst an infant, by the command of Nadir
62 Besieges abe citadel.