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Chaldean to reject. Herodotus, Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, Ptole- to abstract and generalize, all their ideas are borrowed Chaldean
Language, my, and most other ancient geographers and historians, from such objects as most forcibly strike their senses. Language,

are universally agreed, that Egypt, at least that part of This circumstance would naturally suggest to savages
it called Delta, was overflown by the sea, and conse the idea of conveying their sentiments to each other,
quently uninhabitable for many centuries after the dis- when absent, by delineations of corporeal objects. Thus,
persion of mankind. When we consider the low situa- if a savage asked a loan of his friend's borse, he might
tion of the Delta, and the violent current of the tide find means to have conveyed to him the figure of that
from the coast of Phænicia and Palestine towards that animal; and so of others. This was the very lowest
shore, we would be almost tempted to adopt this hypo- species of ideal communication, and has been styled
thesis ; but the sacred records avouch the contrary. Ac- picture-writing.
cording to them, we find Egypt a populous, rich, and Necessity would soon impel our savage correspondents
flourishing kingdom, as early as the age of Abraham. to fabricate a method more extensively useful, which
Had the Lower Egypt been a pool of stagnating water would likewise be suggested by the constant use of the

any time after the general deluge, we think it could metaphorical mode of speech. Some savage leader, more
not have been drained, cleared, cultivated, and stocked sagacious than the vulgar herd, would observe that cer-
with inhabitants, so early as the days of Abraham. tain sensible objects were fitted, according to the rules of

Diodorus Siculus, however, is positive that the Egyp- analogy, to represent certain human passions, and even Lib. xiii, tians I were a colony of Ethiopians; and this he endea some abstract ideas; and this would be readily enough passim. vours to prove by the similarity of features, customs, laws, adopted by the herd as a new improvement. In this

religious ceremonies, &c. between the two nations. That case a horn might be the emblem of power, a sword of
there was a constant intercourse of good offices between bravery, a lion of fury, a fox of cunning, a serpent of
these two branches of the Hamites, cannot be question- malice, &c. By and by artificial signs might be con-
ed; and that they nearly resembled each other in many trived to express such ideas as could not readily be de-
respects, is too evident to admit of contradiction. The noted by bodily objects. This might be called symbo-
excavations, originally dug out of the solid rocks of por- lical writing. Such was the foundation of the Chinese
phyry and marble, in which the natives resided before characters; and hence that prodigious number of letters
the plains were drained, have been observed by a most of which the written language of that people is compos-
judicious traveller (G) a very few years ago. At the same ed. Farther they could not proceed, notwithstanding
time, the most accurate and judicious travellers (H) who their boasted inventive powers; and farther, we believe,
have visited that region in modern times, are generally no nation ever did proceed, who had once upon a time
of opinion that the land has gained nothing on the sea no other characters but hieroglyphical. The Mexicans
since the period when Herodotus wrote his description had arrived at the very lowest stage of hieroglyphical
of that country; from which circumstances we may be writing, but bad not taken one step towards alphabeti-
led to conclude, that the idea of the inundation of the cal. The Hurons employ hieroglyphical symbols, but
Delta is not founded in fact.

never entertained a single idea of alphabetical. Hiero-
But even admitting that the Fgyptian Delta bas ac- glyphical characters are the images of objects conveyed
quired nothing from the sea since the age of Herodotus to the mind by the organs of vision ; alphabetic are ar-
to the present, it certainly does not follow that the re- bitrary artificial marks of sound, accommodated by com-
gion in question was never overflown by that element; pact to convey to the mind the ideas of objects by the
since there are in many parts of the globe, large tracts organs of hearing. In a word, we think that there is
of land, certainly once covered with sea, which have not the least analogy between these two species to con 69
continued to this day in the very same situation in which duct from the one to the other: we are therefore of opi-, Were never
they were 2000 years ago. We leave the decision of nion, that hieroglyphical characters were never the vul-
this point to the judgment of our readers.

gar channels of ideal conveyance among civilized people. We have already binted our opinion of the nature We know that in this point we differ from many of the Egyptian language ; but because Egypt is ge- learned, judicious, and ingenious writers; some of whom nerally thought to have been the native land of hiero- have taken much pains to investigate the intermediate glyphics, and because many are of opinion that hiero. stages through which the fabricators of characters must glyphical characters were prior to alphabetical, we shall have passed in their progress from hieroglyphical to hazard a few conjectures with respect to that species of alphabetical writing. These writers have adopted a writing.

plan analogous to Bishop Wilkins's project of an artifiEgyptian The end of speech, in general, is to enable men to cial language. In this theory, we own, we are led to hierogly. communicate their thoughts and conceptions one to suspect that they supposed all maukind were once upon phics.

another when present; the use of writing is to perform a time savages, and were left to hammer out words, as
the same office when people are at so great a distance well as characters, by necessity, ingenuity, experience,
that vocal sounds cannot mutually reach them. Hiero- practice, &c. For our part, we have endeavoured to
glyphics are said to have been invented to supply this prove, in our section on the Hebrew language, that
defect. The most ancient languages were everywhere alphabetical writing was an antediluvian invention; and
full of tropes and figures borrowed from sensible ob we now lay it down as our opinion, that among all
jects. As in that stage of society men have not learned those nations which settled near the centre of civiliza-


in vulgar use;


(G) See Mr Bruce's Travels, vol. i.
(H) Mr Bruce, Dr Shaw, Bishop Pococke, Savary, Volney, &c.




lib. 1.

Chaldean tion, hieroglyphics were, comparatively, a modern fa- tributes and perfections of their deities, and the myste- Chaldean Language, brication.

rious arcana of their religion, and many other circum- Language, The Orientals are, at this day, extravagantly de stances relating to objects of importance, which were voted to allegory and fiction. Plain unadorned truth deemed either too sacred or too important to be imparthas with them no charms. Hence that extravagant ed to the vulgar. medley of fables and romance with which all antiquity The Egyptians ascribed the invention of letters to a

* Euseb. is replete, and by which all ancient history is disguised person whom they called Thoth *, Theuth, or Thyoth; and corrupted. Every doctrine of religion, every pre the Greeks 'Eguns; and the Romans Mercurius. Plato+ + Phædrus.

Prop. Ev. cept of morality, was tendered to mankind in parables calls him a god, or a godlike man; Diodorus I makes Lib. i. and proverbs. Hence, says the Scripture, to under him privy counsellor to Osiris ; Sanchoniathon ap. stand a proverb, the words of the wise, and their dark Euseb. § connects him with the Phænician Cronus or s Prep. Ev. sayings. The eastern sages involved their maxims in Saturn. To this Mercury the Egyptians ascribe the this enigmatical dress for several reasons : to fix the invention of all the arts and sciences. He was proattention of their disciples ; to assist their memory; bably some very eminent inventive genius, who flourish-to gratify their allegorical taste; to sharpen their wited during the first ages of the Egyptian monarchy, and exercise their judgment; and sometimes perhaps and who perhaps taught the rude savages the art of to display their own acuteness, ingenuity, and inven- writing.

72 tion.

According to Diodorus Siculus, the Egyptians had two kinds It was among the ancients an universal opinion, that two kinds of letters *; the one sacred, the other com- of alphabe- the most sacred arcana of religion, morality, and the su mon: the former the priests taught their own children, tical chablime sciences, were not to be communicated to the un the latter all learned promiscuously. In the sacred characters in initiated rabble. For this reason every thing sacred was

racters the rites and ceremonies of their religion were * Lib. i. involved in allegorical darkness.

couched ; the other was accommodated to the ordinary Here, then, we ought to look for the origin of business of life. Clem. Alexand. mentions three dif.

hieroglyphical or picture writing among the civilized ferent styles of writing employed by the Egyptians t. + Strom . But em nations of the east, They did not employ that spe “ The pupils, who were instructed by the Egyptians, ployed to cies of writing because they were ignorant of alphabe- first learned the order and arrangement of the Egyptian sacred doc. tical characters, but because they thought fit to con letters, which is called epistolography, that is, the mantrines from ceal the most important heads of their doctrines under ner of writing letters ; next, the sacred character, which the unini- hieroglyphical figures. The Egyptian priests were the sacred scribes employed ; lastly, the bieroglyphic tiated;

most celebrated for their skill in devising those emble character, one part of which is expressed by the first ele-
matical representations ; but other nations likewise ments, and is called Cyriologic, that is, cupital, and the
employed them. We learn from the fragments of other symbolic. Of the symbolic kind, one part explains
Berosus the Chaldean historian, preserved by Syncellus properly by imitation ; and the other is written tropical-
and Alexander Polyhistor, that the walls of the temple ly, that is, in tropes and figures; and a third by certain
of Belus at Babylon were covered all over with those enigmatical expressions. Accordingly, when we intend
emblematical paintings. These characters were called to write the word sun, we describe a circle; and when :
isgol, because they were chiefly employed to represent the moon, the figure of that planet appearing horned,
sacred objects; and gaudira, because they were origi conformable to the appearance of that luminary after
nally carved or engraved. Their name points to their the change.” In this passage we have an excellent de-
original use. Instead of pursuing these observations, scription of the three different modes of writing used
which the nature of our design will not permit, we by the Egyptians; the common, the sacred, and the
must refer our readers to Herodotus, lib. ii. Diodorus hieroglyphic. The last he describes according to its
Sic. lib. i. Strabo, lib. xvii. Plut. Isis et Osiris; and three divisions, in exact conformity to our preceding ob-
among the Christian fathers to Clem. Alex. Euseb. servations.
Præp. Evang. ; but chiefly to Horapollo's Hierogly By the description above translated, it plainly ap- The sacred

pears, that the sacred character of the Egyptians was letters and From this deduction we would conclude, that this entirely different from the hieroglyplic; and by this language

of Egypt species of writing was an adventitious mode in Egypt, consideration we are in a good measure justified, in

Chaldaic, peculiar to the priests, and employed chiefly to exbi- supposing, as we have done all along, that the sacred bit things sacred'; and that among all civilized people letters of the Egyptians were actuaily the Chaldaic.

it did not supersede the use of alphabetical characters, The inscriptions on the obelisks mentioned by Cassio71

nor did the use of the latter originate froni the former. dorus, so often quoted, were certainly engraved in the and poste- When alphabetical letters were invented, if indeed they sacred character; and the character in which they were rior in

were a buman invention, they were antecedent to the drawn was that above mentioned. If the sacred lettime to al. phabetical

other in use and extent. The Egyptian priests alone ters were Chaldaic, the sacred language was probably characters. knew the true import of those sacred symbols; and com

municated that knowledge first to their own children The Egyptians pretended, that the Babyloniaris de-
from generation to generation, then to the initiated, and rived the knowledge of the arts and sciences from them;
last of all to the grandees of the nation, all of whom while, on the other hand, the Babylonians maintained,
were indeed initiated. The hieroglyphics of Egypt that the former had been tutored by them. The fact
were not then the symbols of any sacred occult lan- is, they both spoke the same language ; used the same
guage ; but signs invented by the priests, and prophets religious rites; had applied with equal success to astro-
or wise men, in order to represent their deities, the at- logy, astronomy, geometry; arithmetic, and the other



the same.

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74 The E yp

tian and

Jangu: ges the same.

Chaldean sciences ; of course a rivalship had arisen between the shown in the section of the Greek language. The latter, Chaldean
Language, two nations, which laid the foundation of those opposite we think, were from Egypt, and consequently the for. Language,

mer must have been from the same quarter. Danaus,
The most faithful specimen of the vulgar language of Perseus, Lelex, &c. were of Egyptian extraction: they
the Egyptians, is, we believe, still preserved in the Cop- too adopted the Cadmean characters, without substitut-
tic, which, however, is so replete with Grecisms, that it ing any of their own.
must be difficult to trace it out.

The Jonim or Ionians, emigrated from Gaza, a
Under the Ptolemies, the Greek was the language colony of Egyptians; and their letters are known to
of the court, and consequently must have diffused it have differed very little from those of Cadmus and the
self over all the country. Hence, we believe, two- Pelasgi. The conclusion, therefore is, tbat the vul.
thirds of the Coptic are Greek words, diversified by gar Egyptian letters were the same with the Phæni-
their terminations, declensions, and conjugations only.
To be convinced of the truth of this, our learned and We are abundantly sensible that there are found up-
curious readers need only consult Christian Scholtz's on Egyptian monuments characters altogether different
Egyptian and Coptic grammar and dictionary, cor from those we have been describing. At what time,
rected and published by Godfred Woide, Oxford, by what people, and to what language, these letters

belonged, we will not pretend to determine. The 'The Egyptians and Phoenicians were in a manner Ethiopians, the Chaldeans, the Persians, the Greeks,

cousin-germans, and consequently must have spoken the Romans, the Saracens, have, at different times, been Phnician

the same language ; that is, one of the sister dialects sovereigns of that unhappy country. Perhaps other
of the Hebrew, Chaldean, Arabian, Cushite, &c.- nations, whose memory is now buried in oblivion, may
This is not a mere conjecture ; it may be realized by have erected monuments, and covered them with in-
almost numberless examples. It is true, that when scriptions composed of words taken from different lan-
Joseph's brethren went down to Egypt, and that ruler guages, perhaps, upon some occasions, whimsically de-
deigned to converse with them, they could not un vised, with a view to perplex the curious antiquaries
derstand the Egyptian idiom which he spoke; nor of future ages. Some of these are composed of hie-
would he, bad he been actually an Egyptian, have roglyphics intermingled with alphabetical characters,
understood them without an interpreter. The only artificially deranged, in order to render them unin.
conclusion from this circumstance is, that by this time telligible. These we do not pretend to develope ; be-
the Egyptian had deviated considerably from the ori cause the most inquisitive and sagacious antiquaries
ginal language of mankind. The Irish and Welch, are not yet agreed as to their purport and signifca-
every body knows, are only different dialects of the tion.
Celtic tongue; and yet experience proves, that a native We shall now go on to show, that most part of the Egyptian
of Ireland and another of Wales cannot well compre names of persons and places, &c. which have been
hend each other's language, nor converse intelligibly conveyed down to us, may, in general, be reduced to originel
without an interpreter. The Erse, spoken in the a Hebrew, Pbænician, Syrian, or Chaldean original.
Highlands of Scotland, and the Irish, are known to be As the first of these languages is most generally
both branches of the old Celtic; yet a Scotch High- known, we shall employ it as our arch-type or stand-
lander and an Irishman can hardly understand each ard, beginning with those terms which occur in Scrip-
other's speech. By a parity of reason, a Hebrew and
an Egyptian might, in the age of Joseph, speak only The word Pharaoh, the title of the melech or king of
different dialects of the same original tongue, and yet Egypt, is, we think, compounded of two terms, which
find it difficult to understand one another. The fact plainly discover a Hebrew original. According to an
seems to be, the Hebrew dialect had been in a manner oriental tradition, the first who assumed this title was
stationary, from the migration of Abraham to tbat pe. the sovereign of the royal shepherds ; a race of people
riod; whereas the Egyptian, being spoken by a power from Arabia and Phænicia. They conquered Egypt
ful, civilized, and highly cultivated people, must have at an early period, and kept possession of it for several

received many improvements, perhaps additions, in the centuries. They gloried in the title üroo, or ixerol, 75 course of near two centuries.

which according to Josephus contra Apion, signifies The vulgar The descendants of Canaan and of Mizraim were royal shepherds." The word Pharaoh seems to be letters of Egypt

strictly connected in their religious ceremonies: they compounded of 79 Phar, " a bullock,,'and nyy, Rechah, nearly the worshipped the same objects, namely, the Host of Hea “ to feed;" hence nyrs, Pharachah, as we think it ought same with ven ; they mourned Osiris and Adonis in concert; they to be written. The name given to Joseph is evidently the He

carried on a joint commerce, and, we think, spoke the of kin with the Hebrew ; for zaphnath differs very
brew or

same language : we may, therefore conclude, that their little from the Hebrew verb_tzaphan, which signifies
vulgar letters were nearly the same, both in form, dispo “ to hide, to keep secret ;” Pancuh or Phaneah, signi-
sition, and number. Their original number was proba- fies much the same with the Hebrew Phanah, aspexit:
bly 16, viz. five vowels, six mutes, simple and middle, so that the name actually intimates one who sees bidden
four liquids, and the solitary o.-With these, it is like things; which was certainly the very idea the prince
ly, was joined a mark of aspiration, or an h, such as we intended to convey by giving him that name.
have in the Roman alphabet, and find on some Greek Potiphar, or Potipheruh, the name of Joseph's father-
monuments. Cadmus was originally an Egyptian ; that in-law, has likewise a dialectical affinity with the He-
leader brought a new set of letters into Greece. These brew idiom. In that language Patah signifies “ to open,
are generally deemed to be Phænician. They were to explain,” which was one part of the sacerdotal of.
nearly the same with the ancient Pelasgic, as will be fice; and Phar imports “a bullock.” Potipbar was


names of Hebrew


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Chaldean then priest of the bullock, that is, the ox, apis, sacred and the Hebrew oin, " a fountain;" so that the word Chaldean
Language, to the sun (1). This person was priest or prince of On, imports the king of fountains. The Hebrews always de- Language,

which, according to Cyrillus on Hosea, was an Egyp: nominated the land of Egypt the land of Mizraim; the
tian name of that luminary. The Hebrew word hon or Egyptians themselves, in later times, seemed to have
chon signifies "power, wealth, sufficiency;" a very pro called it Ayuttos, Ægyptus, “ Egypt,” which some
per epithet for the sun, who was thought to bestow think is compounded of Ai, Hebrew, an island, a
those blessings. The name of Joseph's wife was Asenath country, a province," and Copt or Cupt, “ a famous ci-
or Asnath, compounded of Ishah, “ a woman," and Naith ty in that country."
or Neit, an Egyptian name of Minerva, “ a votary of From this specimen, we hope it will appear that the

Egyptian language in the more early ages was one of
Almost all the names of cities belonging to Egypt those dialects into which that of the descendants of the
wliich are mentioned in Scripture are evidently Hebrew. postdiluvian patriarchs was divided, and perhaps subdi.

To be satisfied as to this position, our curious readers vided, a few centuries after the deluge. Among all 77 may consult Jamieson's Spicilegia, an excellent book ve those, we believe, such an affinity will be found, as cant in the ry little known. The names of most of the Egyptian plainly demonstrates that they originally sprung from language.

deities are significant in the Hebrew tongue; and in that one common stock. Here we might easily follow the
dialect the names appear to have been imposed with great Egyptian language into Greece; and there we are per-
judgment and propriety, plainly indicating some office suaded we might trace a vast number of Egyptian terms
assigned them, or pointing to some peculiar attribute. into that tongue, which, however, the nature of this in-
We shall produce a few instances.

quiry will not permit. If our learned readers should in-
Osiris was the great divinity of Egypt; he was cer cline to know more of the affinity of the Egyptiaa
tainly the sun. The Egyptians gave their deities a va tongue with the others so often mentioned, they may
riety of names in allusion to their various offices and at consult Bochart's Chanaan, Walton's Proleg. Gebelin's
tributes. Jablonski has in a manner wearied himself Monde Prim. Jamieson's Spicilegia, &c.
with tracing the signification of this name. In Hebrew
we bave Oshir,
rich, to be enriched.” The

Sect. IV. Of the Persian Language.
sun may be called the great enricher of nature, and
therefore might properly be called by a name alluding The Persian language is divided into the ancient and
to that quality. Isis was both the moon and the earth. modern ; the former of which is at this day very imper-
Ishah is the Hebrew word for woman, and Horapollo fectly known, the latter is at present one of the most ex-
assigns this very derivation. Anubis was one of the pressive, and at the same time one of the most highly
names of Mercury among the Egyptians : He was al- polished, in the world. We shall, in treating of this
ways figured with the head of a dog. He accompanied language, in compliance with the plan we have all along
Isis in her peregrinations in quest of Osiris, and frighted followed, begin with the ancient.

78 away the wild beasts from attacking the princess. In When Mohammed was born, and ANU'SHI'RAVA'N, At the Hebrew, Nubah signifies to bark."

." Here the analo- whom he calls the just king, sat on the throne of Persia, birth of gy, we think, is evident. Many Egyptian nanies be two languages were generally prevalent in that em- Mohamgin with Can, such as CanobusCanopus, &c. The pire (K). The one was called Deri, and was the dia- languages Hebrew word Cahen or Cohen, Syr. Con or Chon, inti lect of the court, being only a refined and elegant branch prevalent mates both a prince and a priest." Ob or Aub, in Hé- of the Parsi, so called from the province of which Shi- in Persia. brew, imports “ a bottle, a flaggon," any thing round rax is now the capital ; and that of the learned, in and prominent like the human belly. In the language which most books were composed, and which had the of Egypt it was often applied to the sun, in allusion to name of Pahlavi, either from the heroes who spoke it his rotundity. In the temple of Jupiter Ammon or Amon, in former times, or from pahlu, a tract of land which in the desert of Libya, there was a statue of the god re included some considerable cities of Iran : The ruder presenting the navel of the human body, which was pro dialects of both were spoken by the rustics of several bably framed in allusion to this fancy. Hence the Py- provinces; and many of these distinct idioms were verthoness, or people who, according to the Scripture, had nacular, as happens in every kingdom of considerable familiar spirits, were said to prophecy by the inspiration extent. Besides the Parsi and Pahlavi, a very ancient And a of Ob, as the Delphic priestess did by that of Apollo. and abstruse tongue was known to the priests and philo- more anAgain, many Egyptian names end with siris, as Calasi- sophers, called the language of the Zend, because a book cient lan. ris, Termosiris. This termination is no doubt a cog on religious and moral duties which they beld sacred, guage than nate of the Hebrew and Chaldean sar or zar, signifying and which bore that name, had been written in it ; known only " a prince, or grandee, &c.” The river Nile in the while the Paxend or comment on that work was com- to the Ethiopic dialect is called Siris ; that is, we believe, the posed in Pahlavi, as a more popular dialect. The let-priests. king of rivers. The same flood seems to derive the name ters of this book were called xend, and the language by which it is generally known, from the Hebrew nehel, uvesta. “ a valley, or torrent ruðning down a valley.” The The Zend and the old Pahlavi are now almost extinct same river was often called Oceanus, a word composed in Iran, and very few even of the Guebres can read it; of og, or oc, or och, which signifies “ a king, a leader,” while the Parsi remaining almost pure in Shabnameh,



(1) The Septuagint (Gen. xli. v. 45. and 50.) translate On by 'Halotoxis.
(K) The moderns call the empire of Persia Iran; a name unknown to the ancients.
VOL. XVI. Part I.


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so Parsi lau


daic and

Persian has, by the internixture of Arabic words, and many the ancient Persian was a cognate dialect of the Chal- Persian
Language. imperceptible changes, now become a new language, ex- dean, Hebrew, Arabic, Phænician, &c. M. Anquetil Language.

quisitely polished by a series of fine writers both in prose bas annexed to his translation of the Zendavesta two
and verse, analogous to the different idioms gradually vocabularies in Zend and Pahlavi, which he found in
formed in Europe after the subversion of the Roman an approved collection of Rawayat or Traditional

Pieces in modern Persian. His vocabulary of the PahThe very learned and laborious Sir William Jones is lavi strongly confirms this opinion concerning the Chalguage, and confident that the Parsi abounds with words from the daic origin of that language. But with respect to the

Sinscrit, with no other change than such as may be ob Zend, it abounded with vast numbers of pure Sanscrit
served in the numerous dialects of India : that very ma words, to such a degree, that six or seven words in ten
niy Persian imperatives are the roots of Sanscrit verbs; belonged to that language.
and that even the moods and tenses of the Persian verb From this deduction it would appear, that the oldest derived

froin Chal.
substantive, which is the model of all the rest, are dedu- languages of Persia were Chaldaic and Sanscrit: and
cible from the Sanscrit by an easy and clear analogy. that when they had ceased to be vernacular, the Pahlavi

From this he infers that the Parsi, like the various and Zend were deduced from them respectively, and &c.
idiom dialects, is derived from the language of the Bra the Parsi either from the Zend, or immediately from
mins. This conclusion, we imagine, is not altogether the dialect of the Brahmans : but all had perhaps a mix-
just, since by the same train of reasoning we may infer ture of Tartarian; for the best lexicographers assert,
that the Sanscrit is derived from the Parsi.

that numberless words in ancient Persian are taken
The same learned gentleman adds, that the multitude from the Cimmerians. With respect to the last of
of compounds in the Persian language proves that it is these, we cannot help being of opinion, that colonies of
not of Arabic but Indian original. This is undoubtedly people from the neighbourhood of Persia did transport
true; but though the Parsi is not of Arabic original, it themselves into Crim Tartary, and perhaps into Europe.
does not necessarily follow that it is of Sanscrit. We These colonists brought along with them those vocables
might with the same propriety, and with an equal show which still occur in their dialect. Emigrants from those
of reason, conclude, that the Greek language is de quarters must have found their way into Scandinavia,
scended of the Sanscrit, because it too abounds with since numberless Persian words are still current in those
compounds. We may then rest assured, that peither regions. Perhaps Odin and his followers emigrated
the one nor the other argument adduced by the ingeni- from the neighbourhood of Media and Persia, and
ous president proves that the Parsi tongue is a descen- brought with them the dialect of the nations from whose
dant of the Sanscrit.
country they had taken their departure.

83 The gentleman so often mentioned, assures us, that With respect to the Zend, it might well be a dialect

The Zend the Zend bears a strong resemblance to the Sanscrit; of the Sanscrit, and was probably a sacred language ; from the which, however, it might do without being actually de and if so, concealed from the vulgar, and reserved for same rived from it, since we believe every oriental scholar

the offices of religion. If Zoroastres, or Zaratusht as source. will find that all the languages from the Mediterranean the orientals call him, travelled into Egypt, and was to the utmost coast of Hindostan exhibit very strong initiated in the mysteries of the Egyptian religion, as signatures of a common original. The Parsi, however, some pretend he was, he might be instructed in the sanot being the original dialect of Iran or Persia, we shall cred dialect of that people by the priests under whom pursue it no farther at present, but return to give some he studied. When that philosopher returned into Peraccount of the Pahlavi, which was probably the primi- sia, and became the apostle of a new religion, be might

tive language of the country. We have observed above, compose the volume of his laws and religious instituthe Pahla

that the Pazend or comment on the Zend was com tions in the sacred language of bis Egyptian tutors.
posed in the Pahlavi for the use of the volgar. This, This language then became that of the Magi, who con-
according to Sir William, was a dialect of the Chal- cealed it carefully from the knowledge of the uninitiat-
daic; and of this assertion he exhibits the following ed, as the priests did in Egypt and the Brahmaps in

By the nature of the Chaldean tongue, most words In our Section on the Sanscrit language, we shall
ended in the first long vowel, like shemaiá, “ heaven;" give a detail of a number of particulars, which to us
and that very word, unaltered in a single letter, we find seem to furnish a presumption that the language in
in the Pazend, together with lailiá, “ night,” meya, question was imported from Egypt into Hindostan. We
^ water,” nirá, “fire,” matrá, “ rain,” and a multi- confess there are not sufficient data to improve these
tude of others, all Arabic or Hebrew, with a Chaldean presumptions into absolute certainty ; but we hope the
termination; so zamar, by a beautiful metaphor from time is at hand when the worthy members of the Asiatic
pruning trees, means in Hebrew to compose verses, and Society will discover abundant materials to ascertain
thence, by an casy transition, to sing them; now in the truth of this position. We are the rather inclined
Pahlavi we see the verb samarýniten, “ to sing," with to adopt this hypothesis, when we consider the charac-
its forms zamaraunemi, “ I sing,

," and zamzunid, ter of Zoroastres in connection wish that of the Egyp-
" he sang;” the verbal terminations of the Persian tian Cohens and of the Indian Brahams.
being added to the Chaldaic root.

All these words are If this opinion should one day appear to be well-
integral parts of the language ; not adventitious like founded, we believe the coincidence between the lan-
the Arabic nouns and verbals engrafted on the modern guage of the Zend and the Sanscrit will be easily ac-

counted for, without making the Hindoos masters of From this reasoning it plainly appears, 1st, Tbat Pal- Iran or Persia, and then driving them back to the shores fari was the ancient language of Persia ; and, 2d, Tbat of the Ganges. That the nations of Turan or Scytbja

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