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Celtic Greek and Latin words of the same sound and significa- heard of an intended dictionary of the same tongrie;
Language. annex a few, though some of them may perhaps be We are, however, happy to find that there is now questionable.
publishing an excellent translation of both the Old and
ploughed land,” also“ crop of corn;" Agros,“ bread." who are just entering upon the first stage of improve-
a ploughman;" Gal, the two names by which this people was distin-
present occasion as presumptions that the people called themselves Cael and not Gael. We are
Parson's Rem. of Japhet, Gebelin's Monde prim. &c. that it is compounded of the two Celtic words Cal or
Kal, that is, “ Gal or Gaul," and dun, which signiness and Europe, it seems to have been amazingly copious. By fies“ a hill or mountain." Upon this ground, the antiquity of consulting Bullet's Memoires, it appears that its names Caledonii will import the Gauls of the mountains, or the Celtic. for the common and various objects of nature were very which is the same, the Highland Gauls. The Irish
numerous. The words denoting water, river, wood, fo- and Highlanders reciprocally denominate themselves
, Guethel, and Ga.
was originally the same with Gael, and the parent of it.
2 1 2
Celtic fer from two such respectable authorities as M.Pher- corresponding with many names in Europe, evidently Gothic
that neither the one nor the other appears to us well lerably acquainted with the remains of the Gothic
bravest and most just of all the Thracians. After this
period, we find them mentioned by almost every Greek § 2. Of the Gothic Language.
writer, even familiarly ; for Geta, in the comedies of
that nation, is a common name for a slave. The Getæ The Celtic and Gothic tongues at one time divided then occupied all that large tract of country which exEurope between them. Both were of equal antiqui- tended from the confines of Thrace to the banks of the ty, both originated in Asia, both were dialects of the Danube ; were a brave and virtuous people; and spoke
original language of mankind. The Celtic, however, the same language with the Thracians, with whom they Ancient
was first imported into Europe. The Gauls or Celts are often confounded both by Greek and Roman histoGothic. had penetrated farthest towards the west; a circum rians.
stance which plainly intimates the priority of their ar But the name of Goths is by no means so ancient.
vouring to expel them from Thrace, was vanquished and
according to Procopius *, de bello Goth. ; and Strabo ť After this irruption, we find them frequently in the
(B) informs us, that they spoke the same language with Latin authors under the name of Getæ or Gothi; though + Lib. ü. the Thracians, from whose confines they had spread the Greeks generally denominate them Scythæ. Torcap. 23. themselves northward as far as the western banks of the fæus tells us, that gett and got are actually the same f History of
213 Danube. Vopiscus, in the History of Probus tells us, word, which anciently, according to bim denoted a Norway, The same
that this emperor I obliged “the Thracians, and all the “ soldier." Got in Icelandic signifies a with the language
Getic tribes, either to surrender or accept of bis friend horseman,” and gata a “wanderer;" and this last was of the ship.” This expression indicates, that the Thracians perhaps the import of the term Geta, they being origiThracians, and the Getic tribes were deemed the same race of nally an unsettled vagrant people. As nations general
people. From this deduction it is clear, that the Ge- ly assume to themselves some high auspicious denomina-
they called themselves Gots or Goths from the begin-
215 from names of persons, offices, places, and customs, The orginal seat of the Goths was the country Their priamong that people, was nearly related to the Chaldean now called Little Tartary, into which they had ex-mary seat. and other oriental languages.
tended themselves from the frontiers of Thrace. This They are thought to have been the descendants of country was called Little Scythia by the Greek wri
Tiras, one of the sons of Japhet, and consequently ters; and it was the station whence those innumerable 214
must have preserved the speech of the Noachic fami swarms advanced, which, in conjunction with the AOrigin of ly. The Gothic language abounds with Pahlavi, or lani and other barbarous tribes, at length overran the Goths. old Persic words, which are no doubt remains of the and subverted the western empire. One part of the primeval dialect of mankind. The Thracians
Gothic nation was allowed by Constantine to settle in pled a considerable part of the northern coast of Asia Mæsia. Before the year 420 most of the Gothic naMinor ; and consequently we meet with many names tions who had settled within the limits of the Roman of cities, mountains, rivers, &c. in those parts, exactly empire had been converted to the Christian faith;
“ horse or
(B) Lib. vii. page 295, B.; ibid. page 305. G. (Casaubon). From this passage it appears, that the Greeks were of opinion that the Getæ were Thracians. Plin. Nat. Hist. lib. iv. cap. 11. mentions a tribe of the Getæ called Gauda,
Gothic but, unhappily, the greater part of the apostles by dence. To confirm this position, we shall anpex a few Gothic Language, whom they bad been proselyted, were Arians, which instances.
Language. proved fatal to many of the orthodox Christians ; for The Thracian tribes, in all probability, first took the Arian Goths persecuted them with unrelenting possession of those tribes of Asia Minor which stretch cruelty.
towards the east. Thence they crossed the Hellespont, Remains. About the year 367, Ulphilas bishop of the Mee and spread themselves far and wide northward. Strabo of genuine sian Goths, translated the New Testament into the supposes that they first settled in the regions to the Gothic.
Gothic language. The remains of this translation north of those straits, and thence transported numerous
and is possibly the original of the Gothic word beer, The Goths, prior to the age of Ulphilas, were igo ale. In ancient times, especially in the East, it was norant of the use of alphabetical characters. The bi- castomary to build cities in the neighbourhood of founshop fabricated an alphabet for them, which is a medley tains. The ancients called the Phrygians Beuys, Bryof Greek and Roman letters, but rather inclining to the ges, or Bruges; the Gothic word coinciding is obformer.
vious. Dyndymus, the name of a city sacred to CyGothic al. This al pliabet consists of 25 letters (see Plate XV.). bele, is compounded of two Gothic words dun and dum, phabet. Junius bas carefully analyzed those letters, and pointed both signifying "x height, an eminence;" and hence
out their powers and sounds in his Gothic alphabet, pre a town, an inclosure. The word tros seems to be the fixed to his Glossarium Gothicum. They were long very Gothic trosh, “brave, valiant.”. The words faretained in all the European languages derived from der, mader, dochter, bruder, are so obviously Persian, the Gothic. source, which will be enumerated in the that every etymologist has assigned them to that lansequel.
guage. What kind of language the ancient Gothic was, is Many futile etymologies have been given of the saplain from the fragments above mentioned; but in what cred name God, which is in reality the Persian word Chorespects it agrees with the oriental tongues, or differs da, commonly applied by them to their Hormuxd or Orofrom them, is not easy to ascertain with precision. We
The Persian bad or bod signifies a "city;" have observed in our section on the Greek, that a con. the same word in Gothic imports a house, a mansion, siderable part of that language must have been derived an abode.” Bund, in Persic, a " strait place;" in Go.
from the Thracian ;. which, according to Strabo there thic, “to bend.” Heim or ham, "a house," is geneGothic lan-quoted, was the same with the Getic or Gothic. The rally known to be of Persian original. Much critical guage de. Tıracian tongue will, we are convinced upon compari- skill has been displayed in tracing the etymology of the rived from son, be found analogous to the Chaldean or Syrian. The Scotch and old English word Yule, " Christmas." de Chal German, which is a genuine descendant of the Gothic, Yule, derived from iul, was a festival'in honour of the dcan, &c.
is full of Persian words: the old Persian or Pablavi ap sun, which was originally celebrated at the winter sol. pears to be a dialect of the Chaldean. The learned stice. Wick or wich is a Gothic term still preserved in Junius, near the beginning of his Gothic alphabet, many names of towns; it signifies " a narrow corner, remarks that a very considerable part of the lan or small strip of land jutting into the sea, or into a lake guage in question is borrowed from the most ancient or river:" hence the Latin vicus, and Greek Pouxos. Greek.
In Spanish, we have many old Gothic words; among Both the learned Jhre in his Glossarium Suio-Gothi- others hijo a son," the same with the Greek vios. In cum, and Wachter in his excellent German and La some places of Scotland, we call any thing that is little, tin Dictionary, often remark the coincidence of Go- small, wee; originally spelt wi, if we mistake not, from thic and German words with oriental vocables of the the very same word. Jike sound and of the same signification. In the old These few examples we have thrown together, withSaxon, which is another ramification of the Gothic out any regard to order, persuaded that almost every tongue, numberless terms of the very same complexion word of the language, truly Gothic, may with a little appear. From this deduction we hope it will follow, pains and judgment be traced to some oriental root or that the Gothic tongue, in its original unmixed state cognate. We may observe in passing, that many Goas it was spoken by the ancient Getæ, was a dialect thic nouns end in a, like the Chaldaic and Syriac; that of the primeval language; that language which the their substantive verb very much resembles that of the sons of Tiras brought with them from the plains Persian, Greek, and Latin ; and that their active and of Shinar or from Armenia, or from any other re- auxiliary verb bas furnished the common preterperfect gion, where the primitive mortals had fixed their resi tense of Greek verbs in the active voice : that verb is
Gothic haban, but originally ha, as the common people pro. to the Icelandic than either the Danish or Norwegian. Gothic Language. nounce it at this day, especially in the north of Scotland, That the Swedish is the daughter of the Gothic, is fully Language.
and among the Swedes, Danes, Norwegians, and Ice shown by Mr Ihre above mentioned, in his Glossarium 219 landers.
Suio-Gothicum. There is, therefore, no manner of doubt Modern We shall now leave the other inferior arrangements as to the identity of the Gothic, preserved in Ulphilas tongues deduced
of this ancient language to grammarians and lexico and other ancient remains, with the German and Scan-
makes the nearest approaches to its simplicity and rus greater extent than any other of modern Europe, re-
sembles the Gothic Gospels more than the present Da-
$ 3. Of the Sclavonian Language.
seems to have originated in the east. The language Sclavonic ocean; and from the Rhine and German ocean on the we mear
ean is the Sclavonic or rather Slavonic, which
prewest, to the river Chronns or Niemen on the east. All vails far and wide in the eastern parts of this division those nations spoke one or other of the Gothic dialects, of the globe. It is spoken by the Dalmatians, by the some approaching nearer, and others deviating farther inhabitants of the Danubian provinces, by the Poles, from, the parent language.
Bohemians, and Russians. The word slab, that is, The Francic is a dialect of the Tentonic, Tudesque, “ slave,” (whence the French word esclave, and our or old German; and the Gospels of Ulpbilas bear such word slave), signifies “noble, illustrious ;” but because a resemblance to the Francic, fragments of which are in the lower ages of the Roman empire, vast multitudes preserved in the early French historians, that some of these people were spread over all Europe in the qualearned men have pronounced those gospels to be part lity of slaves, that word came to denote the servile tribe of an old Francic version ; but others of egnal respec
way of distinction, in the same manner as the words tability have refuted this opinion, both from history Geta, Davus, and Syrus, did among the Greeks at a and comparison of the dialects. Schilter has given us more early period. large monuments of the Tudesque or old German from The Slavi dwelt originally on the banks of the Bo-spoken by the serenth century, which evidently prove that the rysthenes, now the Dnieper or Nieper. They were one the Slavi Gothic of Ulphilas is the same language. Wachter's
Wachter's of the tribes of the European Sarmatians who in ancient one of the Jearned Glossary of the ancient German likewise con times inhabited an immense tract of country, bounded tribes of the
To enumerate these, we believe, would not much eatify
Sclavonían bauk of the Danube, wbere that river falls into the landers and islanders of Scotland, who, according to Sclavonian
dceply impregnated with the Greck, which was a thing pure and entire, in consequence of their having never
that the Russian Janguage is the genuine Slavonian; nan lanthe Poles,
Thie Poles are the genuine descendants of the ancient and, secondly, that the latter is the same, or nearly the muse sea Sarmatæ (c), and consequently speak a dialect of their same,
with the ancient Sarmatian.
ronic. language, hut much adulterated with Latin words, in In the Russian, there are found a great number of consequence of the attachment the Polanders have long words resembling the old simple roots of the Greek professcd to the Roman tongue.
both in sound and signification ; its grammatical geSilesians, The Silesians and Bohemians have corrupted their di- nius is nearly the same ; and we are informed by the
alects in the very same manner. In those countries, very best authority, that there is in this language a
pages, in both original and translation, without one Russins Tie modern Russians, formerly the Rhoxani or single transposition. Mons. Leveque, who has publishleseen:kel Roxolani, are the posterity of the Sarmatæ, and are a ed a translation of a history of Russia, is so entirely confrom the
branch of the Slavi : they inbabit a part of the coun vinced of the strict analogy between the ancient Greek
2 26 than the one in question. From the ninth century, at We have indeed found a very strong resemblance be- Resemwhich era they embraced Christianity, it does not ap tireen the former and many oriental words, especially blance bepear that they moved one step forward towards civiliza. Hebrew, Chaldean, and old Persian, of which we could twveen Rus iion, till Peter the Great, not a century ago, in conse produce several instances, did the nature of our present
oriental quence of his despotic authority, compelled them to inquiry admit such a deviation. Every body knows words. adopt the manners and customs of their more polished that the Sarmatæ were divided into two great nations, neighbours.
the Asiatic and European ; the former extended very We may then conclude, that the Russians made as fareastward, behind the mountain Caucasus, the northern little change in their language during that period, as shore of the Euxine sea, and so forth. These, we may they did in their dress, habits, and manner of living. believe, derived their language from the original tongue Whatever language they spoke in the ninth century, long before the Greek language existed. This, in comthe same they employed at the beginning of the 18th. parison of the Hebrew, Phænician, Egyptian, Arabian, They were, indeed, according to Appian de bel. Mithrid. Chaldean, &c. was but of yesterday. The Greek, most once conquered by Diophantus, one of Mithridates's learned men are now convinced, was a late composition generals, but that conqnest was for a moment only: of many different dialects, incorporated with the jargon they were likewise invaded, and their country overrun, of the aboriginal Ionim or Greeks. The Sarmatian, on l.y the great Timor or Tamerlane ; but this invasion the contrary, was the tongue of a great and populous was like a torrent from the mountains, which spreads nation, civilized, in all appearance, long before the devastation far and wide while it rages, but makes little Greeks began to emerge from a state of savagism. We alteration on the face of the country.
are, therefore, by no means disposed to allow, either that We find likewise, that upon some occasions they the Greek is derived from the Russian, or the Russian made incursions upon the frontiers of the Roman em from the Greek. We believe there is just the same pire ; but we hear of no permanent settlements formed reason for this conclusion, that the Abbé Pezron and by them in these quarters. Upon the wb
Mons. Gebelin pretend to have discovered, in order to the Russians to have been, with respect to their lan support their position that the Greek is derived from the guage, in the very same predicament with the high- Celtic. Certain it is, that the resemblance among the
(c) This appears by their character, their laws, their manners, their form of government, tbeir military cquipage, their impetuosity, their aristocratic splendour.