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Sclavonian oriental languages, of which we take the Sarmatian to power. The first race of clergy in that country trore Selisonia
derate capacity who is perfectly master of one, will strious those people were in propagating their language
work must have been Greeks, who understood both lan.
the Sclavonian as to pretend to pronounce a definitive came to be fashioned so exactly according to the Greek
model. We have observed above, that the Russian letOrigin of As the Russians were a generation of savages, there ters must have been invented and introiluced into that the synt-xi-is no probability that they were acquainted with the use country by the Greek missionaries. We think it procal coin cidence be- of letters and alphabetical writing till they acquired bable, that those apostles, at the same time that they tween this that art by intercourse with their neighbours. It is cer- taught them a new religion, likewise introduced i language tain, beyond all contradiction, that few nations had made change into the idiom of their language. The influence and the
less proficiency in the fine arts than that under consider- of those ghostly teachers over a nation of savages must Greek.
ation: and we think there is little appearance of their have been almost boundless; the force of their precepts
consequence. Hence the natives, who had been ad-
try; which, prior to the period above mentioned, must
The Russians pretend that they were converted by gations, derivations, compositions, and other modifica-
2 % 2
Sclevonian latter. This, we think, was still a more difficult task ; fect, the preterite simple, the preterite compound, the Sclavonian
much greater degree than that of the Russian does from the future compound. The verbs have their numbers
lish we know not. That of Mons. Charpentier in
with a more authentic account of the origin of the Scla1. That the Sarmatian was a dialect of the original vonian language ; but this we find impossible, in conse. language of mankind.
quence of the want of memorials relating to the state 2. That the Sclavonian was a dialect of the Sarma. of the ancient Sarmatæ. Towards the era of the subtian.
version of the western empire, the nations wbo inbabited 3.
That the Russe is the most genuine unsophisticated the countries in question were so blended and confound. relick of the Sclavonian and Sarmatian.
ed with each other, and with Huns and other Scythian 4. That the Russians had no alphabetic characters or Tartar emigrants, that we believe the most acute anprior to the era of the introduction of Christianity, that tiquarian would find it impossible to investigate their reis, towards the end of the tenth century.
spective tongues, or even their original residence or ex5: That they were converted by Grecian missionaries. traction. We have selected the Russe as the most ge
6. That those missionaries copied their present letters nuine branch of the old Sclavonian, and to this predifrom those of Greece; and in conjunction with the lection we were determined by the reasons above menmore enlightened natives, reduced the original unim- tioned. We are sorry that we are not so well acquaintproved Russe to its present resemblance to the Greek ed with the idiom of the Russian language as to be able standard.
to compare it with those of the east ; but upon such a Russian The Russian language, like most others, contains eight comparison, we are persuaded that the radical materials
parts of speech, noun, pronoun, &c. Its nouns have of which it is composed would be found to have origi-
ex- Phænician also a common gender for nouns, intimating both sexes. ample, is probably the Phænician and Chaldean Sar, or and ChalIt has only two numbers, singular and plural. Its cases Zar, " a prince, a grandee.” Diodorus Siculus calls
in Russe. are seven, nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, voca- the queen of the Massagetæ, who, according to Ctesias, tive, instrumental, and prepositive. These cases are not cut off Cyrus's head, Zarina ; wbich was not many formed by varying the termination, as in Greek and years ago the general title of the empress of all the Latin; but generally by placing a vowel after the Russias. Herodotus calls the same princess Tomyris, word, as, we imagine, was the original practice of the which is the very name of the famous Timor or Tamur, Greeks (See Greek Section). Thus in Russe, qux, ruk, the conqueror of Asia. The former seems to have been “ the hand;” nominative, gux-ce," the hand;" genitive, “ the band ;' genitive, the title, and the latter the proper name, of the
queen gux-N' “ of the hand,” &c. See Les Elem. de la of the Massagetæ. In the old Persian or Pablavi, the
Langue Russe par Charpentier. Nouns substantive are word Gard signifies “ a city ;' in Russian, Gorad or
These agree with their substantives in case, gender, and in old Russe is called Tsargrad or Tsargorad. These
The numeral adjectives in Russe have three genders quently use it ; and most of the janizaries having been
ranged in the same manner as in other languages. Verbs ever, and the natives of Wallachia, speak a different 230
in the Russian language are comprehended under two language: and this language bears evident signatures of Verbs,
conjugations. The moods are only three ; the indica- the Tartarian dialect, which was the tongue of the origi-
II. The languages at present generally spoken in Modern Languages. Sect. X. Modern Languages.
Languages. If we call all the different dialects of the various na27. The Turkish and Tartarian, with their different
233 tions that now inbabit the known earth, languages, the
Asiatic 28. The Persian.
These languages are languages. number is truly great; and vain would be his ambition who should attempt to learn them, though but imper
29. The Georgian or Iberian. spoken by the Greek
Christians in Asia under fectly. We will begin with naming the principal of 30. The Albanian or Circassian.
the palriarch of Couthem: There are four, which may be called original or
31. The Armenian.
stantinople. mother-languages, and which seem to have given birth
32. The modern Indian. 232 to all that are now spoken in Europe. These are the
33. The Formosan.
The Danish missionParent dia- Latin, Celtic, Gothic, and Schivonian. It will not, how
34. The Indostanic.
aries who go to Tran. lects of
35. The Malabarian.
quebar, print books at Europe, ever, be imagined, from the term original given to these
36. The Warugian.
Hall in these languages. with their languages, that we believe them to have come down to respective us,
alteration, from the confusion of tongues 37. The Tamulic or Damulic. offspring at the building of the tower of Babel. We have re
38. The modern Arabic. peatedly declared our opinion, that there is but one tru
39. The Tangusian,
40. The Mungalic.
42. The Grusinic or Grusinian.
The Chinese. 43.
44. The Japanese. I. From the Latin came,
We have enumerated here those Asiatic languages
only of which we have some knowledge in Europe, and
even alphabets, grammars, or other books than can give
us information concerning them. There are doubtless 3. French.
other tongues and dialects in those vast regions and ad-
jacent islands; but of these we are not able to give any
234 5. The Erse, or Gaelic of the Highlands of Scotland. III. The principal languages of Africa are,
African 6. The Welsh.
languages. 45. The modern Egyptian. 7. The Irish.
46. The Fetuitic, or the language of the kingdom of
47. The Moroccan; and,
48. The jargons of those savage nations who inhabit the 9. The German.
desert and burning regions. The people on the 10. The Low Saxon or Low German.
coast of Barbary speak a corrupt dialect of the 11. The Dutch.
Arabic. To these may be added the Chilhic lan-
stantives are German, and many of the verbs tian, and that of Guinea ; the Abyssinian ; and
235 the spoils of all other languages.
IV. The languages of the American nations are but American 13. The Danish.
little known in Europe. Every one of these, though languages. 14. The Norwegian.
distant but a few days journey from each other, have 15. Swedish.
their particular language or rather jargon. The lan16. Icelaudic.
guages of the Mexicans and Peruvians seem to be the From the Sclavonian,
most regular and polished. There is also one called
Poconchi or Pocomana, that is used in the bay of Hon17. The Polonese.
duras and towards Guatimal, the words and rules of 18. The Lithuanian.
which are most known to us. The languages of North 19. Bobemian.
America are in general the Algonhic, Apalachian, Mo20. Transylvanian.
hegic, Savanabamic, Virginic, and Mexican: and in 21. Moravian.
South America, the Peruvian, Caribic, the language of 22. The modern Vandalian, as it is still spoken in Lu- Chili, the Cairic, the Tucumanian, and the languages satia, Prussian Vandalia, &c.
used in Paraguay, Brasil, and Guiana. 23. The Croatian.
V. We have already said, that it would be a vain and General
236 24. The Russian or Muscovite ; which, as we have senseless undertaking for a man of letters to attempt the reflections seen, is the purest dialect of this language. study of all these languages, and to make his head
on modern 25. The language of the Calinucs and Cossacs. universal dictionary ; but it would be still more absurd languages. 26. Thirty-two different dialects of nations who inbain us to attempt the analysis of them in this place :
bit the north-eastern parts of Europe and Asia, and some general reflections therefore must here suffice.
Modern' without scarce having any occasion for an interpreter; language ? How glad should tvc be to understand the Modern Languacs, and as in it are to be found excellent works of every Spanish tongue, though it were only to read the Arau- Langu-ges
. kind, both in verse and prose, useful and agreeable. cana of Don Alonzo D'Ercilia, Don Quixote, some There are, besides, grammars, and dictionaries of this dramatic pieces, and a small number of other Spanish language which give us every information concerning it, works, in the original; or the poem of Camoens in Porand very able masters who teach it; especially such as tuguese. come from those parts of France where it is spoken cor- VII. The other languages of Europe have each their rectly; for with all its advantages, the French language beauties and excellencies. But the greatest difficulty in lias this inconvenience, that it is pronounced scarce any- all living languages constantly consists in the pronunciawhere purely but at Paris and on the banks of the Loire. tion, which it is scarce possible for any one to attain unThe langnage of the court, of the great world, and of less he be born or educated in the country where it is men of letters, is moreover very different from that of spoken : and this is the only article for which a master the common people ; and the French tongue, in general, is necessary, as it cannot be learned but by teaching or is subject to great alteration and novelty. What pity it by conversation : all the rest may be acquired by a good is, that the style of the great Corneille, and that of Mo- grammar and other books. In all languages whatever, liere, should already begin to be obsolete, and that it the poetic style is more difficult than the prosaic: in will be but a little time before the inimitable chefs every language we should endeavour to enrich our me. d'auvres' of those men of sublime genius will be no mories with great store of words (ropia verborum), and longer seen on the stage : The most modern style of to have them ready to produce on all occasions : in all the French, moreover, does not seem to be the best. languages it is difficult to extend our knowledge so far We are inclined to think, that too much conciseness, as to be able to form a critical judgment of them. All the epigrammatic point, the antithesis, the paradox, the living languages are pronounced rapidly, and without sententious expressions, &c. diminish its force; and that, dwelling on the long syllables (which the grammarians by becoming more polished and refined, it loses much of cali moram): almost all of them have articles which dis
tinguish the genders. VI. The German and Italian languges merit like- VIII. Those languages that are derived from the wise a particular application; as does the English, per- Latin have this further advantage, that they adopt hap3 above all, for its many and great excellencies (See without restraint, and without offending the ear, LaLANGUAGE). Authors of great ability daily labour in tin and Greek words and expressions, and which by improving them; and what language would not become the aid of a new termination appear to be natives of excellent, were men of exalted talents to make constant the language. This privilege is forbidden the Germans, use of it in their works! If we had in Iroquois books who in their best translations dare not use any foreign like those which we have in English, Italian, French, word, unless it be some technical terms in case of great and German, should we not be tempted to learn that necessity.
P H I
P H I Philoma- PHILOMATHES, a lover of learning or science. gies of Bacchus when she received it, but she disguised Philomela thes,
PHILOMELA, in fabulous history, way a daugh- her resentment; and as during those festivals she was
who had married Tereus king of Thrace. Procne se- liver her sister Philomela from her confinement, and con-
I'lriko nela the fable of his metamorphosis. Procne and Philomela was glad of this opportunity to try how the troops had Philopee
died through excessive grief and melancholy; and as profited by his discipline; and accordingly, taking the Philopae: the nightingale's and the swallow's voice is peculiarly field, met the enemy in the territories of Mantinea,
plaintive and mournful, the pocts have embellished the where a battle was fought. Philopoemen, having killed
carried it from rank to rank, to encourage his victorious
ter, and incredible ardour, to the city of Tegea, which Ancient PHILOPOEMEN, a celebrated general of the A. they entered together with the fugitives. The LacedæUniversal chean league, was born in Megalopolis, a city of Ar- monians lost on this occasion above 8000 men, of wbich History,
cadia, in Peloponnesus ; and from his very infancy disvol vi.
4000 were killed on the spot, and as many taken pricovered a strong inclination to the profession of arms.
The loss of the Achæans was very inconsiderHe was nobly educated by Cassander of Mantinea ; a able, and those that fell were mostly mercenaries. This man of great probity, and uncommon abilities. He was happened about the year before Christ 204. no sooner able to bear arms than he entered among the But what most of all raised the fame and reputation troops which the city of Megalopolis sent to make in- of Philopæmen was his joining the powerful city of Lacursions into Laconia, and in these inroads never failed cedæmon to the Achæan commonwealth ; by which to give some remarkable instance of bis prudence and means ibe Achæans came to eclipse all the other states valour. When there were no troops in the field, he of Greece. This memorable event happened in the year used to employ his leisure time in hunting and such other 191. In this transaction we cannot help taking notice manly exercises. When Cleomenes king of Sparta at- of one circumstance, which, in our opinion, reflects greattacked Megalopolis, Philopæmen displayed much cou- er lustre on Philopoemen than all his warlike exploits. . rage and greatness of soul. He signalized himself no The Lacedæmonians, overjuyed to see themselves deless some time after, in the battle of Sellasia, where An- livered from the oppressions they had long groaned under, tigonus gained a complete victory over Cleomenes. An- ordered the palace and furniture of Nabis to be sold; and tigonus, who had been an eye-witness of his prudent and the sum accruing from thence, to the amount of 120 intrepid behaviour, made very advantageous oflers to talents, to be presented to Philopemen, as a token of gain him over to his interest; but he rejected them, hav- their gratitude. Deputies therefore were to be appointing an utter aversion to a court life, which be compared ed, who should carry the money, and desire Pbilopæe. to that of a slave, saying, that a courtier was but a slave men, in the name of the senate, to accept of the present. of a better condition. As he could not live idle and in- On this occasion it was that the virtue of the generous active, he went to the isle of Crete, which was then en- Achæan appeared in its greatest lustre ; for so great was gaged in war, and served there as a volunteer till he ac- the opinion which the Spartans had of his probity and quired a complete knowledge of the military art; for the disinterestedness, that no one could be found who would inhabitants of that island were in those days accounted take upon him to offer the present : struck with veneraexcellent warriors, being scarce ever at peace among tion, and fear of di pleasing him, they all begged to be themselves. Philopæemen, having served some years excused. At last they obliged, by a public decree, one. among the troops of that island, returned home, and was Timolaus, who had forinerly been bis guest, to go to upon his arrival appointed general of the borse; in which Megalopolis, where Philopcemen Jived, and offer him command he behaved so well, that the Achæan horse, this testimony of their regard. Timolaus, with great reheretofore of no reputation, became in a short time fa. Juctance, set out for Megalopolis, where he was kindly mous all over Greece. He was soon after appointed ge- received and entertained by Philopæmen. Here he had neral of all the Achæan forces, when he applied himself an opportunity of observing the strictness of his whole to the re-establishing of military discipline among the conduct, the greatness of his mind, the frugality of his troops of the republic, which he found in a very low life, and the regularity of his manners; which struck condition, and universally despised by their neig! hours. him with such are, that he did not dare once to men. Aratus, indeed, was the first that raised the Achæan tion the present he was come to offer; insomuch that, state to that pitch of power and glory to which it arriv- giving some other pretence to his journey, he returned ed; but the success of his enterprises was not so much home with the money. The Lacedæmonians sent him orving to liis courage and intrepidity as to his prudence again ; but he could no more prevail upon liimself now and politics. As he depended on the friendship of fo- than the first time to mention the true cause of his jourreign princes, and their powerful succours, he neglected ney. At last, going a third time, he ventured, with the military discipline at home ; but the instant Philo- the utmost reluctance, to acquaint Philopæmen with the pæmen was created prætor, or commander in chief, he offer he hail to make in the vame of the Lacedænionians. roused the courage of his countrymen, in order to put Philopæmen heard him with great calmness; but the inthem into a condition to defend themselves without the stant be had done speaking, le set out with him for assistance of foreign allies. With this view he made Sparta, where, after having acknowledged his obligagreat improvements in the Achæan discipline; changing tion to the Spartans, he advised them to lay out their the manner of their exercise and their arms, which were money in reforming or purchasing those miscreants who both very defective. He had thus, for the space of eight divided the citizens, and set them at variance by means months, exercised his troops every day, making them of their seditious discourses; to the end that, being paid perform all the motions and evolutions, and accustoming for their silence, they might not occasion so many di. them to manage with dexterity their arms, when news stractions in the government: “for it is much more adwas brought him that Machanidas was advancing, at visable (said he) to stop an enemy's mouth than a the head of a numerous arny, to invade Achaia. lle friend's ; as for me, I shall always be your friend, and