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Sclavonian oriental languages, of which we take the Sarmatian to power. The first race of clergy in that country trore Selisonia
Language. have been one, is so palpable, that any person of a mo- undoubtedly Greeks. We know how active and inilu- Lingnage.

derate capacity who is perfectly master of one, will strious those people were in propagating their language
find little difficulty in acquiring any other. If, there. as well as their religion. The offices of religion might
fore, the coincidence between tbe Greek and Russian be at first written and pronounced in the Greek tongue,
should actually exist, we think this circumstance will but it would soon be found expedient to have them
not authenticate the supposition, tbat either of the two translated into Russian. The persons employed in this
is derived from the other.

work must have been Greeks, who understood both lan.
In the course of this argument, our readers will be

pleased to observe, that we all along suppose, that the As it is confessedly impossible that a people so dull
Sclavonian, of which we think the Russian is the most and unattentive as the Russians originally were, could
genuine remain, is the same with the old Sarmatian. ever have fabricated a language so artificially construct-
We shall now take the liberty to hazard a conjecture ed as their present dialect, and as it is obvious, that, till
with respect to the syntaxical coincidence of that lan- Christianity was introduced among them by the Greeks,
guage with the Greek; for we acknowledge that we they could have no correspondence with that people
are not so profoundly versed in the Russian dialect of it nust appear surprising by what means their language

the Sclavonian as to pretend to pronounce a definitive came to be fashioned so exactly according to the Greek

model. We have observed above, that the Russian letOrigin of As the Russians were a generation of savages, there ters must have been invented and introiluced into that the synt-xi-is no probability that they were acquainted with the use country by the Greek missionaries. We think it procal coin cidence be- of letters and alphabetical writing till they acquired bable, that those apostles, at the same time that they tween this that art by intercourse with their neighbours. It is cer- taught them a new religion, likewise introduced i language tain, beyond all contradiction, that few nations had made change into the idiom of their language. The influence and the

less proficiency in the fine arts than that under consider- of those ghostly teachers over a nation of savages must Greek.

ation: and we think there is little appearance of their have been almost boundless; the force of their precepts
having learned this art prior to their conversion to and example almost incontrollable. If the savage con-
Christianity. Certain it is, that the Slavi, wlio settled verts accepted a new religion from the hands of those
in Dalmatia, Illyria, and Liburnia, had no alphabetical Grecian apostles, they might with equal submission a-
characters till they were furnished with them by St Je- dopt improvements in their language. Such of the na-
rome. The Servian character, which very nearly re- tives as were admitted to the sacerdotal function must
sembles the Greek, was invented by St Cyril; on which have learned the Greck language, in order to qualify
account the language written in that character is de- them for performing the offices of their religion. A
nominated Chiurilizza. These Sclavonic tribes knew predilection for that language would be the immediate
nothing of alphabetic writing prior to the era of their

consequence. Hence the natives, who had been ad-
conversion. The Mæsian Goths were in the same con- mitted into holy orders, would co-operate with their
dition till their bishop Ulphilas fabricated them a set of Grecian masters in improving the dialect of the coun.

try; which, prior to the period above mentioned, must
If the Slavi and Goths, who resided in the neigh- have greatly deviated from the original standard of the
bourhood of the Greeks and Romans, had not learned

Sarmatian tongue.
alphabetical writing prior to the era of their conversion Upon this occasion, we imagine the Greek apostles,
to Christianity, it must hold, à fortiori, that the Rus- in conjunction with their Russian disciples, reduced the
sians, who lived at a very great distance from those language of the country to a resemblance with the
nations, knew nothing of this useful art antecedent to Greek idiom. They retained the radical vocables as
the period of their embracing the Christian faith. they found them; but by a variety of flections, conju-

The Russians pretend that they were converted by gations, derivations, compositions, and other modifica-
St Andrew; but this is known to be a fable. Christi- tions, transformed them into the Grecian air and appa-
anity was first introduced among them in the reign of rel. They must have begun with the offices of the
the grand duke Wolodimar, who marrying the daugh- church ; and among a nation of savages newly con-
ter of the Grecian emperor Basilius, became her con- verted, the language of the new religion would quickly
vert about the year 989. About this period, we ima- obtain a very extensive circulation. When the Grecian
gine, they were taught the knowledge of letters by the garniture was introduced into the church, the laity
Grecian missionaries, who were employed in teaching would in process of time assume a similar dress, The
them the elements of the Christian doctrines. Their fabric of the Grecian declensions, conjugations, &c.
alphabet consists of 31 letters, with a few obsolete ad- might be grafted upon Russian stocks without affecting
ditional ones ; and these characters resemble those of the radical parts of the language. If the dialect in
the Greeks so exactly, that there can be no doubt of question, like most others of a very ancient date, la-
their being copied from them. It is true, the shape of boured under a penurv of vocables, this manoeuvre
some has been somewhat altered, and a few barbarian would contribute exceedingly to supply that defect.
ones have been intermingled. The Russian liturgy, eve- By this expedient the Greek language itself bad been
ry body knows, was copied from that of the Greeks; enlarged from about 330 radical terms to the prodi-
and the best specimen of the old Russian is the church gious number of words of which it now consists.
fices for Easter, in the very words of Chrysostom, who The Latin tongue tre bave seen above in its original
is called by his name Zlato ustii, “ golden-mouthed.” constitution differed widely from the Greek, and not-
The power of the clergy in Russia was excessive ; and withstanding this incongruity, the improver of the for-
no doubt their infuence was proportioned to their mer have pressed it into a very strict agreement with the

2 % 2




Sclevonian latter. This, we think, was still a more difficult task ; fect, the preterite simple, the preterite compound, the Sclavonian
Language, as, in our opinion, the genius of the Latin differs in a pluperfect, the future indeterminate, the future simple, Language,

much greater degree than that of the Russian does from the future compound. The verbs have their numbers
the Greek. We know, that the genius of the Gothic and persons as in other languages. To enter into a de-
tongue and those of all its descendants are much more tail of their manner of conjugating their verbs would
in unison with the Greek than with that of the Latin. neither be consistent with our plan, nor, we are persua-
The Spanish, Italian, and French, have cudgelled many ded, of much consequence to our readers. Their other
of their Gothic, Teutonic, and Celtic verbs, into a kind parts of speech differ nothing from those of other lan-
of conjugations, imitating or rather aping those of the guages. Their syntax nearly resembles that of the
Latin. The Persians have formed most elegant and Greek and Latin. All these articles must be learned
energetic declensions and conjugations, upon inflexible from a grammar of the language. Whether there is
roots borrowed from the Pahlavi and Deri, and even any grammar of the Russian language composed in Eng-
from Tartar originals.

lish we know not. That of Mons. Charpentier in
Upon the grounds above mentioned we have taken French, printed at Petersburgh in 1768, is the only one
the liberty to hazard the following conjectures, which we have seen, and which appears to us a very excellent
we cheerfully submit to the cognizance of our more en- We could wish to be able to gratify our readers
lightened readers.

with a more authentic account of the origin of the Scla1. That the Sarmatian was a dialect of the original vonian language ; but this we find impossible, in conse. language of mankind.

quence of the want of memorials relating to the state 2. That the Sclavonian was a dialect of the Sarma. of the ancient Sarmatæ. Towards the era of the subtian.

version of the western empire, the nations wbo inbabited 3.

That the Russe is the most genuine unsophisticated the countries in question were so blended and confound. relick of the Sclavonian and Sarmatian.

ed with each other, and with Huns and other Scythian 4. That the Russians had no alphabetic characters or Tartar emigrants, that we believe the most acute anprior to the era of the introduction of Christianity, that tiquarian would find it impossible to investigate their reis, towards the end of the tenth century.

spective tongues, or even their original residence or ex5: That they were converted by Grecian missionaries. traction. We have selected the Russe as the most ge

6. That those missionaries copied their present letters nuine branch of the old Sclavonian, and to this predifrom those of Greece; and in conjunction with the lection we were determined by the reasons above menmore enlightened natives, reduced the original unim- tioned. We are sorry that we are not so well acquaintproved Russe to its present resemblance to the Greek ed with the idiom of the Russian language as to be able standard.

to compare it with those of the east ; but upon such a Russian The Russian language, like most others, contains eight comparison, we are persuaded that the radical materials

parts of speech, noun, pronoun, &c. Its nouns have of which it is composed would be found to have origi-
three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter; it has nated in the oriental regions. The word Tsar, for

ex- Phænician also a common gender for nouns, intimating both sexes. ample, is probably the Phænician and Chaldean Sar, or and ChalIt has only two numbers, singular and plural. Its cases Zar, " a prince, a grandee.” Diodorus Siculus calls

dean words

in Russe. are seven, nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, voca- the queen of the Massagetæ, who, according to Ctesias, tive, instrumental, and prepositive. These cases are not cut off Cyrus's head, Zarina ; wbich was not many formed by varying the termination, as in Greek and years ago the general title of the empress of all the Latin; but generally by placing a vowel after the Russias. Herodotus calls the same princess Tomyris, word, as, we imagine, was the original practice of the which is the very name of the famous Timor or Tamur, Greeks (See Greek Section). Thus in Russe, qux, ruk, the conqueror of Asia. The former seems to have been “ the hand;” nominative, gux-ce," the hand;" genitive, “ the band ;' genitive, the title, and the latter the proper name, of the

queen gux-N' “ of the hand,” &c. See Les Elem. de la of the Massagetæ. In the old Persian or Pablavi, the

Langue Russe par Charpentier. Nouns substantive are word Gard signifies “ a city ;' in Russian, Gorad or
Adjectives, reduced to four declensions, and adjectives make a fifth. Grad intimates the very same idea: hence Constantinople

These agree with their substantives in case, gender, and in old Russe is called Tsargrad or Tsargorad. These
number. They have three degrees of comparison, as is are adduced as a specimen only; and able etymologists
common in other languages ; the positive, comparative, might, we believe, discover a great number.
and superlative. The comparative is formed from the The Sclavonian language is spoken in Epirus, the
feminine of the nominative singular of the positive, by western part of Macedonia, in Bosnia, Servia, Bulga-
changing a into te, that is, aie in English; the superla- ria, in part of Thrace, in Dalmatia, Croatia, in Poland,
tive is made by prefixing at, pre, before the positive. Bohemia, Russia, and Mingrelia, in Asia, whence it is
These rules are general; for the exceptions, recourse frequently used in the seraglio at Constantinople. Ma-
must be had to the Russian grammar above mentioned. ny of the great men of Turkey understand it, and fre-

The numeral adjectives in Russe have three genders quently use it ; and most of the janizaries having been
like the rest, and are declined accordingly. Their pro- stationed in garrisons on the Turkish frontiers in Europe,
nouns have nothing peculiar, and are divided and ar- use it as their vulgar tongue. The Hungarians, how-

ranged in the same manner as in other languages. Verbs ever, and the natives of Wallachia, speak a different 230

in the Russian language are comprehended under two language: and this language bears evident signatures of Verbs,

conjugations. The moods are only three ; the indica- the Tartarian dialect, which was the tongue of the origi-
tive, the imperative, and the infinitive: the subjunctive nal Huns. Upon the whole, the Sclavonian is by much
is formed by placing a particle before the indicative. the most extensive language in Europe, and extends far
Its tenses are eight in number; the present, the imper- into Asia.





Asia are,


II. The languages at present generally spoken in Modern Languages. Sect. X. Modern Languages.

Languages. If we call all the different dialects of the various na27. The Turkish and Tartarian, with their different

233 tions that now inbabit the known earth, languages, the


Asiatic 28. The Persian.

These languages are languages. number is truly great; and vain would be his ambition who should attempt to learn them, though but imper

29. The Georgian or Iberian. spoken by the Greek

Christians in Asia under fectly. We will begin with naming the principal of 30. The Albanian or Circassian.

the palriarch of Couthem: There are four, which may be called original or

31. The Armenian.

stantinople. mother-languages, and which seem to have given birth

32. The modern Indian. 232 to all that are now spoken in Europe. These are the

33. The Formosan.

The Danish missionParent dia- Latin, Celtic, Gothic, and Schivonian. It will not, how

34. The Indostanic.

aries who go to Tran. lects of

35. The Malabarian.

quebar, print books at Europe, ever, be imagined, from the term original given to these

36. The Warugian.

Hall in these languages. with their languages, that we believe them to have come down to respective us,

without any

alteration, from the confusion of tongues 37. The Tamulic or Damulic. offspring at the building of the tower of Babel. We have re

38. The modern Arabic. peatedly declared our opinion, that there is but one tru

39. The Tangusian,
ly original language, from which all others are deriva-

40. The Mungalic.
tives variously modified. The four languages just 41. The language of the Nigarian or Akar Nigarian.
mentioned are original ouly as being the immediate pa-

42. The Grusinic or Grusinian.
rents of those which are now spoken in Europe.

The Chinese. 43.

44. The Japanese. I. From the Latin came,

We have enumerated here those Asiatic languages

only of which we have some knowledge in Europe, and
1. The Portuguese.
2. Spanish.

even alphabets, grammars, or other books than can give

us information concerning them. There are doubtless 3. French.

other tongues and dialects in those vast regions and ad-
4. Italian.

jacent islands; but of these we are not able to give any
From the Celtic,

234 5. The Erse, or Gaelic of the Highlands of Scotland. III. The principal languages of Africa are,

African 6. The Welsh.

languages. 45. The modern Egyptian. 7. The Irish.

46. The Fetuitic, or the language of the kingdom of
8. Basse Bretagne.

From the Gothic,

47. The Moroccan; and,

48. The jargons of those savage nations who inhabit the 9. The German.

desert and burning regions. The people on the 10. The Low Saxon or Low German.

coast of Barbary speak a corrupt dialect of the 11. The Dutch.

Arabic. To these may be added the Chilhic lan-
12. The English ; in which almost all the noun-sub- guage, otherwise called Tamazeght; The Negri-

stantives are German, and many of the verbs tian, and that of Guinea ; the Abyssinian ; and
French, Latin, &c. and which is enriched with the language of the Hottentots.

235 the spoils of all other languages.

IV. The languages of the American nations are but American 13. The Danish.

little known in Europe. Every one of these, though languages. 14. The Norwegian.

distant but a few days journey from each other, have 15. Swedish.

their particular language or rather jargon. The lan16. Icelaudic.

guages of the Mexicans and Peruvians seem to be the From the Sclavonian,

most regular and polished. There is also one called

Poconchi or Pocomana, that is used in the bay of Hon17. The Polonese.

duras and towards Guatimal, the words and rules of 18. The Lithuanian.

which are most known to us. The languages of North 19. Bobemian.

America are in general the Algonhic, Apalachian, Mo20. Transylvanian.

hegic, Savanabamic, Virginic, and Mexican: and in 21. Moravian.

South America, the Peruvian, Caribic, the language of 22. The modern Vandalian, as it is still spoken in Lu- Chili, the Cairic, the Tucumanian, and the languages satia, Prussian Vandalia, &c.

used in Paraguay, Brasil, and Guiana. 23. The Croatian.

V. We have already said, that it would be a vain and General

236 24. The Russian or Muscovite ; which, as we have senseless undertaking for a man of letters to attempt the reflections seen, is the purest dialect of this language. study of all these languages, and to make his head

on modern 25. The language of the Calinucs and Cossacs. universal dictionary ; but it would be still more absurd languages. 26. Thirty-two different dialects of nations who inbain us to attempt the analysis of them in this place :

bit the north-eastern parts of Europe and Asia, and some general reflections therefore must here suffice.
who are descended from the Tartars and Huno. Among the modern languages of Europe, the French
Scythians. There are polyglott tables which con- seems to merit great attention ; as it is elegant and
tain not only the alphabets, but also the principal pleasing in itself, as it is become so general, that with
distinct characters of all these languages. it we may travel from one end of Europe to the other



Modern' without scarce having any occasion for an interpreter; language ? How glad should tvc be to understand the Modern Languacs, and as in it are to be found excellent works of every Spanish tongue, though it were only to read the Arau- Langu-ges

. kind, both in verse and prose, useful and agreeable. cana of Don Alonzo D'Ercilia, Don Quixote, some There are, besides, grammars, and dictionaries of this dramatic pieces, and a small number of other Spanish language which give us every information concerning it, works, in the original; or the poem of Camoens in Porand very able masters who teach it; especially such as tuguese. come from those parts of France where it is spoken cor- VII. The other languages of Europe have each their rectly; for with all its advantages, the French language beauties and excellencies. But the greatest difficulty in lias this inconvenience, that it is pronounced scarce any- all living languages constantly consists in the pronunciawhere purely but at Paris and on the banks of the Loire. tion, which it is scarce possible for any one to attain unThe langnage of the court, of the great world, and of less he be born or educated in the country where it is men of letters, is moreover very different from that of spoken : and this is the only article for which a master the common people ; and the French tongue, in general, is necessary, as it cannot be learned but by teaching or is subject to great alteration and novelty. What pity it by conversation : all the rest may be acquired by a good is, that the style of the great Corneille, and that of Mo- grammar and other books. In all languages whatever, liere, should already begin to be obsolete, and that it the poetic style is more difficult than the prosaic: in will be but a little time before the inimitable chefs every language we should endeavour to enrich our me. d'auvres' of those men of sublime genius will be no mories with great store of words (ropia verborum), and longer seen on the stage : The most modern style of to have them ready to produce on all occasions : in all the French, moreover, does not seem to be the best. languages it is difficult to extend our knowledge so far We are inclined to think, that too much conciseness, as to be able to form a critical judgment of them. All the epigrammatic point, the antithesis, the paradox, the living languages are pronounced rapidly, and without sententious expressions, &c. diminish its force; and that, dwelling on the long syllables (which the grammarians by becoming more polished and refined, it loses much of cali moram): almost all of them have articles which dis

tinguish the genders. VI. The German and Italian languges merit like- VIII. Those languages that are derived from the wise a particular application; as does the English, per- Latin have this further advantage, that they adopt hap3 above all, for its many and great excellencies (See without restraint, and without offending the ear, LaLANGUAGE). Authors of great ability daily labour in tin and Greek words and expressions, and which by improving them; and what language would not become the aid of a new termination appear to be natives of excellent, were men of exalted talents to make constant the language. This privilege is forbidden the Germans, use of it in their works! If we had in Iroquois books who in their best translations dare not use any foreign like those which we have in English, Italian, French, word, unless it be some technical terms in case of great and German, should we not be tempted to learn that necessity.

iis energy


P H I Philoma- PHILOMATHES, a lover of learning or science. gies of Bacchus when she received it, but she disguised Philomela thes,

PHILOMELA, in fabulous history, way a daugh- her resentment; and as during those festivals she was
Philomela. ter of Pandion king of Athens, and sister to Procne, permitted to ro-e about the country, she hastened to de-

who had married Tereus king of Thrace. Procne se- liver her sister Philomela from her confinement, and con-
parated from Philomela, to whom she was much attach- certed with her on the best measures of punishing the
ed, spent her time in great melancholy till she prevailed cruelty of Tereus. She murdered her son Itylus, then
upon her husband to go to Athens and bring her sister in the sixth year of bis age, and served him up as food
to Thrace. Tereus obeyed; but he had no sooner ob- before her husband during the festival. Tereus, in the
tained Pandion's permission to conduct Philomela to midst of his repast, called for Itylus; but Procne im-
Thrace, than he fell in love with her, and resolved to mediately informed him that he was then feasting on his
gratify his passion. He dismissed the guards whom the flesh, when Philomela, by throwing on the table the
suspicions of Pandion had appointed to watch bim ; of- head of İtylus, convinced the monarch of the cruelty of
fered violence to Philomela ; and afterwards cut out her the scene. He drew his sword to puni-h Procne and
tongue, that she might not discover bis barbarity, and Philomela ; but as he tras going to stab them to the
the indignities she had suffered. He confined her in a heart, he was changed into a hoopoe, Philomela into a
lonely castle ; and having taken every precaution to pre- nightingale, Procne into a swallow, and Itylus into a
vent a discovery, be returned to Thrace, and told Proc- pheasant. This tragedy happened at Daulis in Phocis;
ne :hat Philomela had died by the way, and that he had but Pausanias and Strabo, who mention the whole of the
paid the last offices to her remains. At this sad intelli- story, are silent about the transformation; and the former
gence Procne put on mourning for the loss of Philome- observes, that Tereas, after this blondy repast, fled to
la ; but a year had scarcely elapsed before she was se- Megara, where he laid violent hands on himself. The
cretly informed that her sister was not dead. Philomela, inhabitants of the place raised a monument to lis me-
in her captivity, described on a piece of tapestry her mis- mory, where they offered yearly sa rifices, and placed
fortunes and the brutality of Terens, and privately con- small pebbles instead of barley. It was on this monu-
veyed it to Procne. She was going to celebrate the or- ment that the birds called hoopoes were first seen; bence



I'lriko nela the fable of his metamorphosis. Procne and Philomela was glad of this opportunity to try how the troops had Philopee

died through excessive grief and melancholy; and as profited by his discipline; and accordingly, taking the Philopae: the nightingale's and the swallow's voice is peculiarly field, met the enemy in the territories of Mantinea,

plaintive and mournful, the pocts have embellished the where a battle was fought. Philopoemen, having killed
sable by snpposing that the two unfortunate sisters Machanidas with his own hand, struck off his head, and
were changed into birds.

carried it from rank to rank, to encourage his victorious
PHILONIUM, in Pharmacy, a kind of anodyne Achæans, who continued the pursuit, with great slaugh-
opiate, taking its name from Pbilo the inventor.

ter, and incredible ardour, to the city of Tegea, which Ancient PHILOPOEMEN, a celebrated general of the A. they entered together with the fugitives. The LacedæUniversal chean league, was born in Megalopolis, a city of Ar- monians lost on this occasion above 8000 men, of wbich History,

cadia, in Peloponnesus ; and from his very infancy disvol vi.

4000 were killed on the spot, and as many taken pricovered a strong inclination to the profession of arms.

The loss of the Achæans was very inconsiderHe was nobly educated by Cassander of Mantinea ; a able, and those that fell were mostly mercenaries. This man of great probity, and uncommon abilities. He was happened about the year before Christ 204. no sooner able to bear arms than he entered among the But what most of all raised the fame and reputation troops which the city of Megalopolis sent to make in- of Philopæmen was his joining the powerful city of Lacursions into Laconia, and in these inroads never failed cedæmon to the Achæan commonwealth ; by which to give some remarkable instance of bis prudence and means ibe Achæans came to eclipse all the other states valour. When there were no troops in the field, he of Greece. This memorable event happened in the year used to employ his leisure time in hunting and such other 191. In this transaction we cannot help taking notice manly exercises. When Cleomenes king of Sparta at- of one circumstance, which, in our opinion, reflects greattacked Megalopolis, Philopæmen displayed much cou- er lustre on Philopoemen than all his warlike exploits. . rage and greatness of soul. He signalized himself no The Lacedæmonians, overjuyed to see themselves deless some time after, in the battle of Sellasia, where An- livered from the oppressions they had long groaned under, tigonus gained a complete victory over Cleomenes. An- ordered the palace and furniture of Nabis to be sold; and tigonus, who had been an eye-witness of his prudent and the sum accruing from thence, to the amount of 120 intrepid behaviour, made very advantageous oflers to talents, to be presented to Philopemen, as a token of gain him over to his interest; but he rejected them, hav- their gratitude. Deputies therefore were to be appointing an utter aversion to a court life, which be compared ed, who should carry the money, and desire Pbilopæe. to that of a slave, saying, that a courtier was but a slave men, in the name of the senate, to accept of the present. of a better condition. As he could not live idle and in- On this occasion it was that the virtue of the generous active, he went to the isle of Crete, which was then en- Achæan appeared in its greatest lustre ; for so great was gaged in war, and served there as a volunteer till he ac- the opinion which the Spartans had of his probity and quired a complete knowledge of the military art; for the disinterestedness, that no one could be found who would inhabitants of that island were in those days accounted take upon him to offer the present : struck with veneraexcellent warriors, being scarce ever at peace among tion, and fear of di pleasing him, they all begged to be themselves. Philopæemen, having served some years excused. At last they obliged, by a public decree, one. among the troops of that island, returned home, and was Timolaus, who had forinerly been bis guest, to go to upon his arrival appointed general of the borse; in which Megalopolis, where Philopcemen Jived, and offer him command he behaved so well, that the Achæan horse, this testimony of their regard. Timolaus, with great reheretofore of no reputation, became in a short time fa. Juctance, set out for Megalopolis, where he was kindly mous all over Greece. He was soon after appointed ge- received and entertained by Philopæmen. Here he had neral of all the Achæan forces, when he applied himself an opportunity of observing the strictness of his whole to the re-establishing of military discipline among the conduct, the greatness of his mind, the frugality of his troops of the republic, which he found in a very low life, and the regularity of his manners; which struck condition, and universally despised by their neig! hours. him with such are, that he did not dare once to men. Aratus, indeed, was the first that raised the Achæan tion the present he was come to offer; insomuch that, state to that pitch of power and glory to which it arriv- giving some other pretence to his journey, he returned ed; but the success of his enterprises was not so much home with the money. The Lacedæmonians sent him orving to liis courage and intrepidity as to his prudence again ; but he could no more prevail upon liimself now and politics. As he depended on the friendship of fo- than the first time to mention the true cause of his jourreign princes, and their powerful succours, he neglected ney. At last, going a third time, he ventured, with the military discipline at home ; but the instant Philo- the utmost reluctance, to acquaint Philopæmen with the pæmen was created prætor, or commander in chief, he offer he hail to make in the vame of the Lacedænionians. roused the courage of his countrymen, in order to put Philopæmen heard him with great calmness; but the inthem into a condition to defend themselves without the stant be had done speaking, le set out with him for assistance of foreign allies. With this view he made Sparta, where, after having acknowledged his obligagreat improvements in the Achæan discipline; changing tion to the Spartans, he advised them to lay out their the manner of their exercise and their arms, which were money in reforming or purchasing those miscreants who both very defective. He had thus, for the space of eight divided the citizens, and set them at variance by means months, exercised his troops every day, making them of their seditious discourses; to the end that, being paid perform all the motions and evolutions, and accustoming for their silence, they might not occasion so many di. them to manage with dexterity their arms, when news stractions in the government: “for it is much more adwas brought him that Machanidas was advancing, at visable (said he) to stop an enemy's mouth than a the head of a numerous arny, to invade Achaia. lle friend's ; as for me, I shall always be your friend, and



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