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Philopæ- you shall reap the benefit of my friendship without ex gold, should change the gold into a substance of the
Philosopence.” Such was the disinterestedness of this noble sane nature and virtue with itself, so as thus to be sus. pher's a Achæan!
ceptible of perpetual multiplication, and which, by conPhiloso
About two years after this, the city of Messene with tinued coction, should have its power more and more
drew itself from the Achæan league. Philopæmen atStone.
exalted, so as to be able to transmute greater and greattacked them ; but was wounded, taken prisoner, and er quantities of the inferior metals, according to its difpoisoned by the magistrates. Thus died one of the ferent degrees of perfection. greatest heroes that Greece or any other country ever Alchemists have attempted to arrive at the making produced. He was no way inferior in valour, military of gold by three methods : the first by separation ; for knowledge, and virtue, to any of the boasted heroes of every metal yet known, it is affirmed, contains some Rome. Had Achaia been nearer to an equality with quantity of gold; only, in most, the quantity is so little Rome, he would have preserved his country from the as not to defray the expence of getting it out. yoke which the Roman republic forced it to bear. Both The second is by maturation ; for the alchemists the Greek and Roman writers put him upon the level think mercury is the basis and matter of all metals ; with Hannibal and Scipio, who were his contemporaries, that quicksilver purged from all heterogeneous bodies and happened to die the same year. They allow him would be much heavier, denser, and simpler, than the to bave been not only one of the greatest commanders, native quicksilver; and that by subtilizing, purifying, but also one of the greatest statesmen of his age.
To and digesting it with much labour, and long operations, his valour and prudence Achaia owed her glory, which it is possible to convert it into pure gold. upon his death began to decline, there being none after This method is only for mercury. With respect to him in that republic able to oppose her enemies with the the other metals, it is ineflectual, i. Because their matlike steadiness and prudence : whence Pbilopæmen was ter is not pure mercury, but has other heterogeneous called the last of the Greeks, as Brutus was afterwards bodies adhering to it; and, 2. Because the digestion, styled the last of the Romans.
whereby mercury is turned into gold, would not succeed PHILOSOPHER, a person versed in philosophy; in other metals, because they had not been long enough or one who makes profession of, or applies himself to, in the mines, the study of nature.
Weight is the inimitable character of gold, &c. Now PHILOSOPHER's Stone, the greatest object of alchemy, mercury, they say, has always some impurities in it, and is a long sought for preparation, which, when found, is these are lighter than mercury. Could they be purged to convert all the true mercurial part of metal into pure away, which they think is not impossible, mercury gold, better than any that is dug out of mines or per would be as heavy as gold, and what is as heavy as gold fected by the refiner's art.
is gold, or at least might very easily be made gold. Some Greek writers in the fourth and fifth centuries The third method is by transmutation, or by turning speak of this art as being then known; and towards the all metals readily into pure gold, by melting them in end of the 13th century, when the learning of the East the fire, and casting a little quantity of a certain prehad been brought hither by the Arabians, the same pre- paration into the fused matter ; upon which the fæces tensions began to spread through Europe. It is sup retire, are volatilized and burnt, and carried off, ard posed that this art, called Alchemy, was of Egyptian the rest of the mass is turned mto pure gold. That origin ; and that when the ancient Greek philosophers which works this change in the metals is called the travelled into Egypt, they brought back some of the al- philosopher's stone. legoric language of this Egyptian art, ill understood, Whether this third method be possible or not, it is which afterwards passed into their mythology. Alche difficult to say. We have so many testimonies of it my was the earliest branch of chemistry, considered as from persons who on all other occasions speak truth, a philosophical science : in the other parts of chemical that it is hard to say they are guilty of direct falseknowledge, facts preceded reasoning or speculation ; but hood, even when they say that they bave been masters alchemy was originally speculative.
of the secret. We are told, that it is only doing that The alchemists supposed the general principles of by art which nature does in many years and ages. metals to be chiefly two substances, which they called for as lead and gold disler but little in weight, there. mercury and sulphur ; they apprehended also, ihat the fore there is not much in lead beside
and pure mercurial, sulphureous, or other principles of gold. Now, if we had any body which would só agiwhich they imagined gold to be composed, were con tate all the parts of lead as to burn all that is not res. tained separately in other bodies; and these principles, cury therein, and had also some sulphur to fix the therefore, they endeavoured to collect, and to concoct mercury, would not the mass remaining be converted and incorporate by long digestions; and by thus con into gold? There is nothing in nature so heavy as joining the principles of gold, if they could be so pro- lead except gold, mercury, and platina, which was duced and conjoined, it might be expected that gold not known to these reasoners ; it is evident, therefore, would be produced. But the alchemists pretend to a there is something in lead that comes very near to gold. product of a higher order, called the elixir, ihe medicine But in lead there is likewise some beterogeneous matfor metals, the tincture, the philosopher's stone; which ter different both from mercury and gold. If therefore by being projected on a large quantity of any of the in 19 ounces of lead he dissolved by the fire, and 8 ounces ferior metals in fusion, should change them into fine be destroyed by these means, it is argued that we shall gold; which being laid on a plate of silver, copper, or have the rest good gold; the ratio of lead to gold beiron, and moderately heated, should sink into the me ing as 11 to 19. If then the philosopher's stone can tal, and change into gold all the parts to which it was purify the mercurial matter in lead, so as that nothing applied; which, on being properly heated with pure shall remain but the pure mercurial body, and you can
Philoso. fis and coagulate this by means of sulphur, out of 19 duced in certain substances by the force of heat carried Philosopher's ounces of lead you will have 11 of gold : or,
their imaginations beyond what sound judgment might pher's Stone.
reduce the lead from 18 to 14, you will then have warrant. The first instance of wbichon record is
PHILOSOPHICAL EGG, among chemists, a thin Characters “ The opinion (says Holt) that one metallic or glass body or bubble, of the shape of an egg, with a long of the Kings other foreign substance might be changed into another, neck or stem, used in digestions. and Queens
it seems, at this time (reign of He VI. of PHILOSOPHIZING, rules of. See Newtonian of England.
England) propagated by certain chemists, whose ob Philosophy, No 16. and the following article.
S a word derived from the Greek, and literally cise, and at the same time sufficiently comprehensive, History of
signifies the love of wisdom (a). In its usual ac may be questioned ; but if philosophy in its utmost 'hilosophy. phy.
ceptation, however, it denotes a science, or collec extent be capable of being adequately detined, it is.
Truth, v. i. knowledge of things existing ;" by Cicero, after Plato, per, however, to observe, that the definition given by scientia rerum divinarum et humanarum cum CAUSIS ; Cicero is better than that of Pythagoras, because the and by the illustrious Bacon, interpretatio naturæ. chief object of the philosopher is to ascertain the causes Whether any of these definitions be sufficiently pre of things; and in this consists the difference between
(A) The origin usually attributed to the term philosophy has been already assigned in the article PHILOLOGY.
History of his studies and those of the natural historian, who mere speaks of the Chaldean magi as prior to the Egyptian History of Philosophy, ly enumerates phenomena, and arranges them into sepa- priests, who were certainly men of learning before the Philosophy. rate classes.
time of Moses. For any other science than that of the Its objects.
The principal objects of philosophy are, God, nature, stars, we do not read that the Chaldeans were famous ; and man. That part of it which treats of God is called and this seems to have been cultivated by them merely theology; that which treats of nature, physics and meta as the foundation of judicial astrology. Persuading the physics ; and that which treats of man, logic and ethics. multitude that all human affairs are influenced by the That these are not separate and independent sciences, stars, and professing to be acquainted with the nature but, as Bacon expresses it (B), branches from the same and laws of this influence, their wise men pretended to trunk, we shall endeavour to show, after we have given, calculate nativities, and to predict good and bad for. agreeably to our usual plan, a short history of philosophy tune *. This was the source of idolatry and various so- * Sert. from the earliest ages to the present day.
perstitions ; and whilst the Chaldeans were given up to
Emp. ad To attempt to assign an origin to philosophy, would such dotages, true science could not be much indebted lib. 4. ja. be ridiculous ; for every man endeavours to ascertain the to their labours. If any credit be due to Plutarch and Strabo
, causes of those changes which he observes in nature ; Vitruvius, who quote Berosus, (see Berosus), it was and even children themselves are inquisitive after that the opinion of the Chaldean wise men that an eclipse of Cis de Disa which produces the sound of their drums and their rat the moon happens when that part of its body which is lib. loft. tles. Children, therefore, and the most illiterate vul- destitute of fire is turned towards the earth. " Their gar, have in all ages been philosophers. But the first cosmogony, as given by Berosus, and preserved by Synpeople among whom philosophy was cultivated as a pro- celos, seems to be this, that all things in the beginfession, was probably the Chaldeans. We certainly read ning consisted of darkness and water; that a divine of none earlier; for though we have more anthentic ac power dividing this humid mass, formed the world ; and counts of the Hebrews than of any other nation of re that the human mind is an emanation from the Divine mote antiquity, and have reason to believe that no peo naturet.
Hist. Phila ple was civilized before them, yet the peculiar circun The large tract of country which comprehended the vol.i. stances in which they were placed, rendered all philoso. empires of Assyria and Chaldea, was the first peopled phical investigation to them useless, and even tended to region on earth. From that country, therefore, the rusuppress the very spirit of inquiry. The Egyptians in- diments of science must have been propagated in every deed pretended to be the first of nations, and to have direction through the rest of the world; but wbat parti. spread the blessings of religion and the light of science cular people made the earliest figure, after the Chaldeamong every other people ; but, from the earliest re ans, in the history of philosophy, cannot be certainly cords now extant, there is reason to believe that the known. The claim of the Egyptians is probably best
Chaldeans were a civilized and powerful nation before founded; but as their science was the immediate source 3 the Egyptian monarchy was founded.
of that of the Greeks, we shall defer what we have to Philosophy Of the Chaldean philosophy much has been said, but say of it on account of the connection between the paof the Chal.
little is known. Astronomy seems to have been
rent and the offspring, and turn our attention from their favourite study; and at the era of Alexander's con Chaldean to Indian philosoplıy, as it has been cultivated quest of their country, they boasted that their ancestors from a very early period by the Brachmaps and Gymhad continued their astronomical observations through a nosophists. We pass over Persia, because we know not period of 470,000 years. Extravagant claims to anti- of any science peculiar to that kingdom, except the quity have been common in all nations (c). Calisthenes, doctrines of the magi, which were religious rather than who attended the Macedonian conqueror, was requested philosophical ; and of them the reader will find some by Aristotle to inform himself concerning the origin of account under the words Magi, POLYTHEISM, and Zoscience in Chaldea; and upon examining into the grounds of this report, he found that their observations From whatever quarter India received its wisdom, we Indian phireached no farther backwards than 1903 years, or 2234
are certain that its philosophers were held in high repute losopby. years before the Christian era. Even this is a remoter at a period of very remote antiquity, since they were viantiquity than Ptolemy allows to their science ; for he sited by Pythagoras and other sages of ancient Greece, mentions no Chaldean observations prior to the era of who travelled in pursuit of knowledge. Yet they seem Nabopassar, or 747 years before Christ. That they cul to have been in that early age, as well as at present, tivated something which they called philosophy at a more distinguished for the severity of their manners than
much earlier period than this, cannot be questioned ; for for the acquisition of science; and, as Dr Enfield obtl Apud
Aristotle +, on the credit of the most ancient records, serves, to have more resembled modern monks than anLaert. lib. 1. § 8.
(B) Convenit igitur partiri philosophiam in doctrinas tres; doctrinam de numine, doctrinam de naturd, doctrinam de homine. Quoniam autem partitiones scientiarum non sunt lineis diversis similes, quæ coeunt ad unum angulum ; sed potius ramis arborum, qui conjunguntur in uno trunco, qui etiam truncus ad spatium nonnullum integer est et continuus, antequam se partiatur in ramos. De aug. Scient. lib. iii. cap. 1.
(c) This claim of the Babylonians is thus rejected with contempt by Cicero; “ Contemnamus Babylonios, et eds, qui è Caucaso cæli signa servantes, numeris, et motibus, stellarum cursus persequuntur ; Condemnemus, inquam, hos aut stultitiæ, aut vanitatis, aut imprudentiæ, qui 470 millia annorum, ut ipsi dicunt, monumentis como prehensa continent, et mentiri judicemus, nec seculorum reliquorum judicium, quod de ipsis futurum sit, pertimescere. De Divinatione, lib. i. § 19.
Flistory of cient philosophers. The brachmans or bramins, it is visible objects ; if it emanates from the heart by the Histựry of
of them are in their own language called Pundits or taste ; if it emanates from the heart by the channel of
* Prelimi. 5 ligion.
From this passage it is plain that all the motions nary Disc: Ingrafted The philosophy of the Indians has indeed from the in the universe, and all the perceptions of man, are, Gent 20
to Halhed's or religion, begioning been engrafted on their religious dogmas, according to the Bramins, caused by the immediate Laws.
and seems to be a compound of fanatic metaphysics agency of the Spirit of God, which seems to be here
(D) To be awake, to sleep, and to be absorbed in a state of unconsciousness a kind of trance.
(E) The 24 powers of nature, according to the Bramins, are the five elements, fire, air, earth, water, and
(F) If the work from which this extract is quoted be of as great antiquity as Mr Halhed supposes, the Bra-
3 A 2
History of to have made any great progress in that science which cient Hindoos chose that point of time counted back, History of 1 luilosophy. in Europe is cultivated under the name of physics. when, according to tbeir motions as they had determin- Philosophy
. They have no inducement to investigate the laws of ed them, they must have been in conjunction in the benature; because, according to the first principles of ginning of Mésba or Aries, and coeval with which cirtheir philosophy, which, together with their religion, cumstance they supposed the creation. This, as it conth believe to have been revealed from heaven, every cerned the planets only, would have produced a modephenomenon, however regular, or however anomalous, rate term of years compared with the enormous antiquiis produced by the voluntary act of an intelligent ty that will be hereafter stated : but having discovered mind. Yet if they were acquainted with the use of a slow motion of the nodes and apsides also, and taken fire-arms 4000 years ago, as Mr Halhed seems to be it into computation, they found it would require a lieve, be who made that discovery must have bad a length of time corresponding with 1955884890 years very considerable knowledge of the powers of nature ; now expired, when they were so situated, and 2364115110 for though gunpowder may have been discovered by years more before they would return to the same situation accident in the Fast, as it certainly was in the West again, forming together the grand anomalistick period many ages afterwards, it is difficult to conceive how denominated a Calpa, and fancifully assigned as the day
mere accident could have led any man to the inven of Brahma."
logy too, they appear to have made some proficiency of the Pandits is undoubtedly respectable, their physical
supported by a series of animals. “ They suppose (says Stranger * Asiatic " It is sufficiently known (says Mr Davis *) that Mr Halhed) that there are 14 spheres, seven below and
universe. Researches, the Hindoo division of the ecliptic into signs, degrees,
and six above the earth. The seven inferior worlds are &c. is the same as ours; that their astronomical year is said to be altogether inbabited by an infinite variety of sidereal, or containing that space of time in which the ser pents, described in every monstrous figure that the sun, departing from a star, returns to the same; tbat imagination can suggest. The first sphere above the it commences on the instant of his entering the sign earth is the immediate vault of the visible heavens, in Aries, or rather the Hindoo constellation Mesha ; tbat which the sun, moon, and stars, are placed. The secach astronomieal month contains as many even days cond is the first paradise, and general receptacle of those and fractional parts as he stays in each sign; and who merit a removal from the lower earth. The third that the civil differs from the astronomical account of and fourth are inhabited by the souls of those men who. time only in rejecting those fractions, and beginning by the practice of virtue and dint of prayer, have acthe year and month at sunrise, instead of the interme quired an extraordinary degree of sanctity. The fifth diate instant of the artificial day or night. Hence is the reward of those who have all their lives performed arises the unequal portion of time assigned to each some wonderful act of penance and mortification, or month dependent on the situation of the sun's apsis, who bave died martyrs for tbeir religion. The highest and the distance of the vernal equinoctial colure from sphere is the residence of Brahma and his particular the beginning of Mésha in the Hindoo sphere ; and favourites, such as these men who have never uttered a by these means they avoid those errors which Euro- falsehood during their whole lives, and those women who peans, from a different method of adjusting their ka have voluntarily burned themselves with their husbands. lendar by intercalary days, have been subject to.” All these are absorbed in the divine essence."
Mr Davis observes, that an explanation of these mat On ethics, the Hindoos have nothing that can be Ethics of ters would bave led him beyond his purpose, which was called pbilosophy. Their duties, moral, civil, and re- the Hinonly to give a general account of the method by which ligious, are all laid down in their Vedas and Shasters; doos. the Hindoos compute eclipses, and to show that the sci and enjoined by what they believe to be divine authoence of astronomy is as well known among them now as rity, which supersedes all reasoning concerning their ever it was among their ancestors. This he does very fitness or utility. The business of their Pandits is to completely; but in the present short historical sketch, interpret those books, which are extremely ancient, and we can neither copy nor abridge his memoir. Suffice it written in a language that has long been unintelligible to say, that he has shown the practical part of the Hin to every other order of men ; but no Pandit will alter doo astronomy to be founded on mathematical principles; the text, however impossible to be reconciled to princiand that the learned Pandits appear to have truer no ples established in his own practice of astronomy. On tions of the form of the earth, and the economy of the such occasions, the usual apology for their sacred books universe, than those which are ascribed to their country- is, that “ such things may have been so formerly, and men in general.
may be so still ; but that for astronomical purposes, as- . Dari's - The same writer shows likewise, that the prodigious tronomical rules must be followed *.” The great duties. Memcer, duration which the Hindoos attribute to the world, is of morality have been prescribed in every religious code;
searches, the result of a scientific calculation, founded indeed on and they are not overlooked in that of the Hindoos, vol
. ü. very whimsical principles. “ It has been common with though the highest merit that a Bramin can have conastronomers to fix on some epoch, from which, as from a sists in voluntary acts of abstinence and mortification, radix, to compute the planetary motions; and the an and in contempt of death.