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History of the liberal arts as they were called, consisted of two est firmitudinis, Itaque spes est qua in inductione View of Philosophy. branches, the trivium and the quadrivium; of wbich vera."

Bacon's the former comprehended grammar, rhetoric, and dia To hypotheses and preconceived opinions, which he Philosopby lectics; the latter music, arithmetic, geometry, and calls idola theatri, this great man was not less inimical astronomy, to which was added, about the end of the than to syllogisms; and since his days almost every phieleventh century, the study of a number of metaphysical losopher of eminence, except Descartes and bis followsubtleties equally useless and unintelligible.

ers (see DESCARTES and CARTESIANS) has professed
Hitherto the works of the ancient Greek philoso to study nature according to the method of induction so
phers had been read only in imperfect Latin transla- accurately laid down in the Novum Organum. On this
tions; and before the scholastic system was completely method a few improvements have perhaps been made;
established, Plato and Aristotle had been alternately but notwithstanding these, Lord Bacon must undoubt-
looked up to as the oracle in science. The rigid edly be considered as the author of that philosopby
schoolmen, however, universally gave the preference to which is now cultivated in Europe, and wbich will con-
the Stagyrite; because bis analysis of body into mat tinue to be cultivated as long as men sball have more
ter and form is peculiarly calculated to keep in coun- regard for matters of fact than for hypothetical opinions.
tenance the most incredible doctrine of the Romish of this mode of philosophising we shall now give a short,
church (see TRANSUBSTANTIATION): and upon the though we hope not inaccurate, view, by stating its ob-
revival of Greek learning, this preference was conti- jects, comparing it with that which it superseded, ex-
nued after the school philosophy had begun to fall in- plaining its rules, and pointing out its uses; and from
to contempt, on account of much useful information this view it will appear, that its author shares with
contained in some of his writings on subjects of natu Aristotle the empire of science.
ral history, and his supposed merit as a natural philo-

sopher. At last the intrepid spirit of Luther and his The universe, that unbounded object of the contem- View of his
associates set the minds of men free from the tyranny plation, the curiosity, and the researches of man, may pbilosopky.
of ancient names, as well in human science as in tbeo be considered in two different points of view.
logy; and many philosophers sprang up in different In the first place, it may be considered merely as a
countries of Europe, wbo professed either to be eclec collection of existences, related to each other by means
tics, or to study nature, regardless of every authority of resemblances and distinction, situation, succession,
but that of reason.

Of these the most eminent be. and derivation, as making parts of a whole. In this
yond all comparison was Francis Bacon Lord Veru view it is the subject of pure description.

To acquire an acquaintance with, or a knowledge of, exposed as This illustrious man having read with attention the the universe in this point of view, we must enumerate futile by writings of the most celebrated ancients, and made all the beings in it, mention all their sensible qualities, Lord Ba- himself master of the sciences which were then culti. and mark all these relations for each. But this would

vated, soon discovered the absurdity of pretending to be labour immense ; and wben done, an undistinguish-
account for the phenomena of nature by syllogistic able chaos. A book containing every word of a lan-
reasoning from liy pothetical principles; and with a guage would only give us the materials, so to speak, of
boldness becoming a genius of the first order, under this language. To make it comprehensible, it must be
took to give a new chart of human knowledge. This put into some form, which will comprehend the whole
he did in his two admirable works, intitled, 1. De dig in a small compass, and enable the mind to pass easily
nitate et augmentis scientiarum ; and, 2. Novum


from one word to another related to it. Of all rela-
num scientiarum, sive Judicia vera de interpretatione tions among words, the most obvious are those of re-
Nature. In the former of these works, he takes a very semblance and derivation. An etymological dictionary,
minute survey of the wbole circle of human science, therefore, in which words are classed in consequence of
which be divides into three great branches, history, po their resemblances, and arranged by means of their de-
etry, and philosophy, corresponding to the three faculties rivative distinctions, will greatly facilitate the acquisi-
of the mind, memory, imagination, and reason. Each of tion of the language.
these general heads is subdivided into minuter branches, Just so in nature: The objects around us may be
and reflections are made upon the whole, which, though grouped by means of their resemblance, and then ar-

we can neither copy nor abridge them, will amply re ranged in those groups by means of their distinctions 27 ward the perasal of the attentive reader. The purpose


other relations. In this classification we are enwho esta- of the Novum Organum is to point out the proper me abled to proceed by means of our faculty of abstractblishes a better me

thod of interpreting nature; which the author shows ing our attention from the circumstances in which thod of can never be done by the logic which was then in fa things differ, and turning it to those only in which inquiry. shion, but only by a painful and fair induction.“ Ho- they agree. By the judicious employment of this fa

mo naturæ minister (says he) et interpres tantum facit culty we are able not only to distribute the individuals
et intelligit, quantum de naturæ ordine re, vel mente into classes, but also to distribute those classes into
observaverit ; nec amplius scit aut potest. Syllogis- others still more comprehensive, by discovering circum-
mus ad principia scientiarum non adhibetur, ad media stances of resemblance among them: for the fewer the
axiomata frustra adbibetur, cum sit subtilitati naturæ circumstances are which concur to form that resemblance
longe impar. Assensum itaque constringit, non res. which has engaged our attention, the greater is the
Syllogismus ex propositionibus constat, propositiones number of similar circumstances which are neglect-
ex verbis, verba notionum tesseræ sunt. Itaque si no ed; and the more extensive will be the class of indi-
tiones ipsæ (id quod basis rei est) confusæ sint et te viduals in which the resemblance is observed. Thus Natural
mere à rebus abstractæ, nihil in iis quæ superstruuntur, a number of individuals resembling each other in the history,

con ;



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View of single circumstance of life, composes the most extensive that constancy which is observed in the changes of na View of

Bacon's KINGDOM of ANIMALS. If it be required, that they ture in the events which are the objects of our contem- Bacon's Philosophy. shall further resemble in the circumstance of having plation. Events which have once been observed to ac

Philosoplıy. feathers, a prodigious number of animals are excluded, company each other are observed always to do so. and we form the inferior class of BIRDS. We exclude The rising of the sun is always accompanied by the Constancy a great number of birds, by requiring a further simila- light of day, and his setting by the darkness of night. in the rity of web feet, and have the order of ANSERES. If we Sound argument is accompanied by conviction, impulse changes of add lingua ciliata, we confine the attention to the genus by motion, kindness by a feeling of gratitude, and the of ANATES. In this manner may the whole objects of perception of good by desire. The unexcepted experithe universe be grouped, and arranged into kingdoms, ence of mankind informs us, that the events of nature classes, orders, genera, and species..

go on in certain regular trains ; and if sometimes exSuch a classification and arrangement is called NA. ceptions seem to contradict this general affirmation, TURAL HISTORY; and must be considered as the only more attentive observation never fails to remove the exfoundation of any extensive knowledge of nature. To ception. Most of the spontaneous events of nature are the natural historian, therefore, the world is a collection very complicated; and it frequently requires great atof existences, the subject of descriptive arrangement. tention and penetration to discover the simple event His aim is threefold.

amidst a crowd of unessential circumstances which are 1. To observe with care, and describe with accuracy, at once exhibited to our view. But when we succeed the various objects of the universe.

in this discovery, we never fail to acknowledge the per2. To determine and enumerate all the great classes fect uniformity of the event to what has been formerly of objects; to distribute and arrange them into all their observed.


But this is not all: We firmly believe that this uni-universally subordinate classes, through all degrees of subordination, till he arrive at what are only accidental varieties, formity will still continue ; that fire will melt wax, will expecteel. which are susceptible of no farther distribution ; and to burn paper, will barden clay, as we have formerly obmark with precision the principles of this distribution served it to do; and whenever we have undoubted and arrangement, and the characteristics of the various proofs that the circumstances of situation are precisely assemblages.

the same as in some fornier case, though but once ub3. To determine with certainty the particular group served, we expect with irresistible and unshaken confito which any proposed INDIVIDUAL belongs.

dence that the event will also be the same. DESCRIPTION, therefore, ARRANGEMENT, and REFE It is not surely necessary to adduce many proofs of

RENCE, constitute the whole of his employment; and in the universality of this law of human thought. The 30 this consists all bis science.

whole language and actions of men are instances of distinguish Did the universe continue unchanged, this would con the fact. In all languages there is a mode of construced from

stitute the whole of our knowledge of nature : but we tion which is used to express this relation as distinct philosophy.

ere witnesses of an uninterrupted succession of changes from all others, and the conversation of the most illite-
and our attention is continually called to the EVENTS rate never confounds them, except when the concep-
which are incessantly happening around us. These tions themselves are confounded. The general em-
form a set of objects vastly more interesting to us than ployment of the active and passive verb is regula by
the former; being the sources of almost all the pleasures it. Turris eversa est à militibus; turriseversa est terre
or pains we receive from external objects.

motu, express two relations, and no schoolboy will con-
We are therefore much interested in the study of the found them. The distinction therefore is perceived or
events which bappen around us, and strongly incited to felt by all who can speak grammatically. Nor is any
prosecute it: but they are so numerous and so multifa- language without general terms to express this relation,
rious, that the study would be immense, without some cause-effect-to occasion. Nay, it is a fact in the
contrivance for abbreviating and facilitating the task. mind of brutes, who hourly show that they expect the
The same help offers itself here as in the study of what same uses of every subject which they formerly made
may be called quiescent nature. Events, like existences, of it; and without this, animals would be incapable
are susceptible of classification, in consequence of resem of subsistence, and man incapable of all improvement.
blances and distinction; and by attention to these, we From this alone memory derives all its value; and even
can acquire a very extensive acquaintance with active the constancy of natural operation would be useless if
Dature. Our attention must be chiefly directed to those not matched or adapted to our purposes by this expecta-
circumstances in which many events resemble each tion of any confidence in that constancy.
other, while they differ perhaps in a thousand otbers. After all the labours of ingenious men to discover the

Then we must attend to their most general distinctions; foundation of this irresistible expectation, we must be
then to distinctions of smaller extent, and so on. contented with saying that such is the constitution of the

It is in this way accordingly that we have advanced human mind. It is an universal fact in human thought;
in our knowledge of active nature, and are gradually, and for any thing that has been yet discovered, it is an
and by no means slowly, forming assemblages of events ultimate fact, not included in any other still more gene-
more and more extensive, and distributing these with ral. We shall soon see that this is sufficient for making
greater and greater precision into their different classes. it the foundation of true human knowledge ; all of

In the zealous and attentive prosecution of this task which must in like manner be reduced to ultimate facts
a very remarkable and interesting observation occurs : in human thought.
In describing those circumstances of similarity among We must consider this undoubted feeling, this per-
events, and particularly in distributing them according suasion of the constancy of nature, as an instinctive
to those similarities, it is impossible for us to overlook anticipation of events similar to those wbich we have


3 B 2

View of already experienced. The general analogy of nature of these laws, and of the exerted authority of the ma. View of

Bacon's should have disposed philosophers to acquiesce in this, gistrate, observe this uniformity of conduct, he would Bacon
Philosophy, however unwelcome to their vanity. In no instance ascribe it to the genius and disposition of the people ; Philosophy.

of essential consequence to our safety er well-being are and his observation would be as useful to him for di-
we left to the guidance of our boasted reason ; God has recting the tenor of his own conduct, as the knowledge
given us the surer conduct of natural instincts. No of the subject himself of the real source of this constan-
case is so important as this: In none do we so much cy is for directing his.
stand in need of a guide which shall be powerful, in Just so in nature, while the theologian pretends, from
fallible, and rapid in its decisions. Without it we bis discoveries concerning the existence and superin.
must remain incapable of all instruction from experi- tendance of God, to know that the constant accompa-
ence, and therefore of all improvement.

niment of events is the consequence of laws wbich ebe
Our sensations are undoubtedly feelings of our mind. great Author and Governor of the universe bas imposed
But all those feelings are accompanied by an instinc on his works, the ordinary philosopher, a stranger to
tive reference of them to something distinct from the this scene, and to the unsearchable operations of the
feelings themselves. Hence arises our perception of SUPREME MIND, must ascribe this constancy to the na-
external objects and our very notions of this externeity ture of the things. There is a great resemblance be-
(pardon the term). In like manner, this anticipation tween the expression natural law and grammatical rule.
of events, this irresistible connection of the idea of fire Rule in strict language implies command; but in gram-
with the idea of burning, is also a feeling of the mind : mar it expresses merely a generality of fact, whether of
and this feeling is by a law of human nature referred, flexion or construction. In like manner, a LAW OF
without reasoning, to something external as its cause; NATURE is to the philosopher nothing but the expres-
and, like our sensation, it is considered as a sign of that sion of a generality of fact. A natural or physical law
external something. It is like the conviction of the is a generally observed fact; and whenever we treat
truth of a mathematical proposition. This is referred by any subject as a generally observed fact, we treat it
us to something existing in nature, to a necessary and physically. It is a physical law of the understanding
external relation subsisting between the ideas which are that argument is accompanied by conviction; it is a
the subjects of the proposition. The conviction is the physical law of the affection that distress is accompa-
sign or indication of this relation by which it is brought nied by pity; it is a physical law of the material world
to our view. In precisely the same manner, the irre. that impulse is accompanied by motion.
sistible connection of ideas is interpreted as the sensa And thus we see that the arrangement of events, or
tion or sign of a necessary connection of external things the discovery of those general points of resemblance, is
or events. These are supposed to include something in in fact the discovery of the laws of nature; and one of

their natnre which renders them inseparable companions. the greatest and most important is, that the laws of na33

To this bond of connection between external things we ture are constant. Our kuow- give the name of CAUSATION. All our knowledge of There is no question that this view of the universe ledge of

this relation of cause and effect, is the knowledge or is incomparably more interesting and important than causation,

consciousness of what passes in our own minds during that which is taken by the natural bistorian ; contem-
the contemplation of the phenomena of nature. If we plating every thing that is of value to us, and, in short,
adhere to this view of it, and put this branch of know- the whole life and movement of the universe. This Object of
ledge on the same footing with those called the ab- study, therefore, has been dignified with the name of philosophs.
stract sciences, considering only the relations of ideas, PHILOSOPHY and of SCIENCE ; and natural history has
we shall acquire demonstrative science. If we take been considered as of importance only in so far as it was
any other view of the matter, we shall be led into in- conducive to the successful prosecution of philosophy.
extricable mazes of uncertainty and error.

But the philosopher claims a superiority on another
We see then that the natural procedure of our fa- account : be considers himself as employed in the dis-
culty of abstraction and arrangement, in order to ac covery of causes, saying that philosophy is the study of
quire a more speedy and comprehensive knowledge of the objects of the universe as related by causation, and
natural events, presents them to our view in another that it is by the discovery of these relations that he
forny. We not only see them as similar events, but as communicates to the world such important knowledge.
events naturally and necessarily conjoined. And the ex. Philosophy, he says, is the science of causes.
pression of resemblance among events is also an expres. vulgar are contented to consider the prior of two inse-
sion of concomitancy; and this arrangement of events in parably conjoined events as the cause of the other ; the
consequence of their resemblance is in fact the discovery stroke on a bell, for instance, as the cause of sound.
of those accompaniments. The trains of natural ap. But it has been clearly shown by the philosopher, that
pearance being considered as the appointments of the between the blow on the bell and the sensation of sound
Author of Nature, has occasioned them to be consi- there are interposed a long train of events. The blow
dered also as consequences of laws imposed on his sets the bell a trembling ; this agitates the air in con-
works by their great author, and every thing is said tact with the bell; this agitates the air immediately be-

to be regulated by fixed laws. But this is the lan- yond it; and thus between the bell and the ear may be Laws of

guage of analogy. When a sovereign determines on interposed a numberless series of events, and as many Causes. nature ex- certain trains of conduct for his subjects, he issues bis more between the first impression on the ear and that plained. orders. These orders are laws. He inforces the ob- last impression on the nerve by which the mind is af

servance of them by his authority; and thus a cer- fected. He can no longer therefore follow the nomen-
tain regularity and constancy of conduct is produced. clature of the vulgar. Which of the events of this
But should a stranger, ignorant of the promulgation train therefore is the cause of the sensation ? None of

them :




View of them: It is that something which inseparably connects them philosophers) in ancient and modern times. Ari- View of Bacon's any two of them, and constitutes their bond of union. stotle's professed aim, in his most celebrated writings, Bacon's Philosophy

. These bonds of union or causes be considers as residing is the investigation of causes ; and in the opinion of this philosophy,

in one or both of the connected objects : diversities in author, he has been so successful, that he has hardly left
this respect must therefore constitute the most important any employment for his successors beside that of com-
distinctions between them. They are therefore with menting upon his works. We must on the other band
great propriety called the qualities, the properties of acknowledge that Newton makes no such pretensions,
these respective subjects.

at least in that work which has immortalized his name,
As the events from which we infer the existence of and that his professed aim is merely to investigate the
these qualities of things resemble in many respects such general laws of the planetary motions, and to apply
events as are the consequences of the exertion of our these to the explanation of particular phenomena. Nor
orn powers, these qualities are frequently denominated will we say that he has left no employment for succeed-
POWERS, forces, energies. Thus, in the instance justing inquirers; but on the contrary, confess that he has
now given of the sound of a bell, we infer the powers only begun the study, has discovered but one law, and
of impulse, elasticity, nervous irritability, and animal has enabled us to explain only the phenomena compre

bended in it alone. But he has not been unsuccessful; In consequence of this inference of a necessary con his investigation has been complete ; and he bas disconection between the objects around us, we not only in. vered, beyond all possibility of contradiction, a fact fer the posterior event from the prior, or, in common which is observed through the whole extent of the solar. language, the effect from the cause, but we also infer system; namely, that every body, nay, that every partithe prior from the posterior, the cause from the effect. cle in it, is continually DEFLECTED toward every other We not only expect that the presence of a magnet will body; and that every deflection is, in every instance, pro

be followed by certain motions in iron-filings, but when portional to the quantity of matter in that body toward 37

we observe such motions, we infer the presence and which the deflection is directed, and to the reciprocal of inferred agency of a magnet. Joy is inferred from merriment, the square of the distance from it. He bas therefore from ef poison from death, fire from smoke, and impulse from discovered a physical law of immense extent. Nor has fects.

motion. And thus the appearances of the universe are he been less successful in the explanation of particular
the indications of the powers of the objects in it. Ap. phenomena. Of this there cannot be given a better in-
pearances are the language of nature, informing us of stance than the explanation of the lunar motions from
their causes. And as all our knowledge of the senti the theory of gravity begun by Newton “Mathesi sua
ments of others is derived from our confidence in their facem præferente ;” and now brought to such a degree
veracity; so all our knowledge of nature is derived of perfection, that if the moon's place be computed
from our confidence in the constancy of natural opera- from it for any moment within the period of two thou-
tions. A veracity and credulity necessarily resulting sand years back, it will not be found to differ from the
from that law of our mental constitution by which we place on which she was actually observed by one hun-
are capable of speech, conduct us in the one case ; and dredth part of her own breadth.
the constancy of nature, and the principle of induction,

Discimus hinc tandem qua causa argentea Phæbe.
by which we infer general laws from particular facts,
conduct us in the other. As human sentinent is infer-

Passibus haud æquis eat, et cur, subdita nulli
red from language, and the existence of external things

Hactenus astronomo, numerorum frena recusat..

Quæ toties animos veterum torsere sophorum,
from sensation; so are the laws of nature, and the
powers of natural objects, inferred from the phenomena.

Quæque scholas hodie rauco certamine vexant,.

Obvia conspicimus, nube pellente mathesi ;
It is by the successful study of this language of nature
that we derive useful knowledge. The knowledge of

Qua superos penetrare domos, et ardua coeli

Newtoni auspiciis jam dat contingere templa.
the influence of motives on the mind of man enables
the statesman to govern kingdoms, and the knowledge We

e may now desire the champions of the science of
of the powers of magnetism enables the mariner to pi causes to name any one cause which has really been dis.
lot a ship throngh the pathless ocean.

covered by their great master, whether in the operations Such are the lofty pretensions of philosophy. It is of mind or of body. But they must not on tiris occato be wished that they be well founded ; for we may be sion adduce the investigation of any natural law, in which persuaded that a mistake in this particular will be fatal he has sometimes succeeded. With still greater confi

to the advancement of knowledge. An author of great dence may we challenge them to produce any remark† Anetent reputation + gives us an opportunity of deciding this able instance of the explanation of natural phenomena dictophy- question in the way of experiment. He says that the either of mind or body. By explanation we mean an

ancients were philosophers, employed in the discovery account of the production, and an appreciation of all 38 Discoveries

of causes, and that the moderns are only natural histo- the circumstances, susceptible of a scrupulous compariof Aristotle rians, contenting themselves with observing the laws of son with fact, and perfectly consistent with it. It is and New- nature, but paying no attention to the causes of things. here that the weakness of this philosopher's pretensions ton com. If he speak of their professed aim, we apprehend that is most conspicuous ; and his followers candidly acknow

the assertion is pretty just in general. With very few ledge, that in the inquiries which proceed by experiment,
exceptions indeed it may be affirmed of his favourite we have not derived great assistance from Aristotle's
Aristotle, the philosopher var stoxwv, and of Sir Isaac philosophy. But this, say they, does not derogate from
Newton. We select these two instances, both because the pre-eminence of his philosophy, because he has
they are set in continual opposition by this author, and shown that the particular fields of observation are to be
because it will be allowed that they were the most eni- cultivated only by means of experiment. But surely
Bent students of nature (for we must not yet call every field of obscrvation is particular. There is no





View of abstract object of philosophical research, the study of tion on the laws by which the operation of our ota View of Bacon's which shall terminate in the philosophy of universals. minds are regulated ; nor can they be derived from Bacon's Philosophy. In every kind of inquiry, that cause alone

must be sup- other perceptions in the way of argumentative inference. Phukasopisy posed to act which we understand so far as to be able to We cannot infer the paroxysm of terror froin the appear. appreciate its effects in particular circumstances, and ance of impending destruction, or the fall of a stone when compare them with fact, and see their perfect coinci. not supported, as we in fer the incommensurability of the dence. If we have discovered causes, they are known diagonal and side of a square. This last is implied in the as far as they are discovered. Their genuine effects are very conception or notion of a square ; not as a conseknown, and therefore the phenomena which result from quence of its other properties, but as one of its essential their agency are understood. When therefore it is ac. attributes: and the contrary proposition is not only false, knowledged, as it must be acknowledged, that mankind but incapable of being distinctly conceived. This is not have made but little advances in the knowledge of na the case with the other phenomenon, or any matter of ture, notwithstanding the pretended discovery of causes fact. The proofs which are brought of a mathematical by Aristotle, and the conducting clue of his philosophy, proposition, are not the reason of its being true, but the till of late years; and when it is also allowed that now, steps by which this truth is brought into our view; and while we are every day making great additions to this frequently, as in the instance now given, this truth is subordinate' knowledge, the causes which Aristotle has perceived, not directly, but consequentially, by the indiscovered are forgotten, and his philosophy is neglect- conceivableness of the contrary proposition.

41 ed; there is great room for suspecting (to say the least), Mr Hume derives this irresistible expectation of Mr Hune's that either the causes which philosophy pretends to have events from the known effect of custom, the association beaty a discovered are not real, or that Aristotle and bis follow. of ideas. The corelated event is brought into the mind principii

. ers have vot aimed at the discovery of causes, but only by this well known power of custom, with that vivacity at the discovery of natural laws, and have failed in the of conception which constitutes belief or expectation. attempt.

But without insisting on the futility of his theory of bePhilosophi. There seems here to be a previous question: Is it pos- lief, it is sufficient to observe, that this explanation cal causes sible to discover a philosophical cause, that something begs the very thing to be proved, when it ascribes to discovered which is neither the prior nor the posterior of the two custom a power of any kind. It is the origin of this

immediately adjoining events, but their bond of union, very power which is the subject in dispute. Besides,
and this distinct from the union itself? It is evident on the genuine principles of scepticism, this custom in-
that this is an inquiry purely experimental. It is of volves an acknowledgement of past events, of a some-
human knowledge we speak. This must depend on the thing different from present impressions, which, in this
nature of the human mind. This is a matter of con doctrine (if doctrine it can be called), are the only cer.
tingency, known to us only by experiment and observa tain existences in nature: and, lastly, it is known that
tion. By observing all the feelings and operations of one clear experience is a sufficient foundation for this
the mind, and classing and arranging them like any unshaken confidence and anticipation. General custom
other object of science, we discover the general laws of can never, on Mr Hume's principles, give superior vi-
human thought and human reasoning; and this is all vacity to any particular idea.
the knowledge we can ever acquire of it, or of any This certain nonentity of it as a separate object of Another

bypothesis thing else.

observation, and this impossibility to derive this notion

respecting Much has been written on this subject. The most of necessary and causal connection between the events casual coracute observation and sound judgment have been em of the universe from any source, have induced two of nection. ployed in the study ; and we may venture to say, that the most acute philosophers of Europe, Mr Leibnitz considerable

progress has been made in pneumatology. and Father Malebranche, to deny that there is any such
· Many laws of human thought have been observed, and connection, and to assert that the events of the universe
very distinctly marked ; and philosophers are busily em go on in corresponding trains, but without any causal
ployed, some of them with considerable success, in the connection, just as a well regulated clock will keep
distribution of them into subordinate classes, so as to time with the motions of the heavens without any
know their comparative extent, and to mark their di- kind of dependence on them. This harmony of events
stinguishing characters with a precision similar to what was pre-established by the Author of the Universe, ia
has been attained in botany and other parts of natural subserviency to the purposes he had in view in its for-
history; so that we may hope that this study will ad- mation.
vance like others. But in all these researches, no phe All those purposes which are cognisable by us, may
nomena have occurred which look like the perception certainly be accomplished by this perfect adjustment.
or contemplation of these separate objects of thought, But without insisting on the fantastic wildness of this
these philosophical causes, this POWER in abstracto. No ingenious whim, it is quite enough to observe, that it
philosopher has ever pretended to state such an object also is a begging of the question, because it supposes
of the mind's observation, or attempted to group them causation when it ascribes all to the agency of the Deity.
into classes.

Thus have we searched every quarter, without being
in the e-
We may say at once, without entering into any

de able to find a source from which to derive this perceptail, that those causes, those bonds of necessary union tion of a necessary connection among the events of the between the naturally conjoined events or objects, are universe, or of this confident expectation of the continot only perceived by means of the events alone, but nuance of physical laws; and yet we are certain of the are perceived solely in the events, and cannot be distin- feeling, and of the persuasion, be its origin wbat it may: guished from the conjunctions themselves. They are for we speak intelligibly on this subject ; we speak fa. neither the objects of separate observation, nor the pro- miliarly of cause, effect, power, energy, necessary conductions of memory, nor inferences drawn from reflec- nection, niotives and their influence, argument and con





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