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Both Cudworth Platorka
Platonism. Plato the maker, and the god of Aristotle only the go made when they were not before *.”
vernor, of the world. And, to satisfy those who may and Ogilvie think this last sentence an explicit declarademand a particular proof of Plato's having taught a tion of Plato's belief in the creative power of God: but * Sophista real creation, he affirms that his writings abound with that they are mistaken bas been evinced by Mosbeim P. 161.
declarations on the subject, of which the meaning cannot with a force of argument which will admit of no reply. Pheologyof be misapprehended. “ With this purpose (says he) Pla- In that part of the Sophist from which the quotation is Plato.
to denominates at one time the principles or substance of taken, Plato considers the duospu FOINTIKRÝ, of which be all things, Tivousta Isor Anucouzyoy, the productions of is treating, as belonging both to God and to man; and the efficient Deity, and at others enters more particular. he defines it in general to be " a certain power which is ly into the question. Thus, he observes, that many per the cause that things may afterwards be which were not sons are ignorant of the nature and power of mind or in- before.” Cudworth wishes to confine this definition to tellect, ' as having existed at the beginning, antecedent the divine power; and adds from himself to the text to all bodies.' Of this mind, he observes, that it is which he quotes the following words, which are not without exception Παντων πρεσβυτατι, of all things the in Plato, or FROM AN ANTECEDENT NON-EXISTENCE most ancient ; and he subjoins, in order to remove all BROUGHT FORTH INTO BEING! That the incomparable doubt of bis purpose, that it is also Agxn ximosws, the author intended to deceive his reader, we are far from cause or principle of motion.”'
imagining : bis zeal for Platonism had deceived bimself. With all possible respect for Dr Ogilvie, of whose Plato's definition comprehends the duscepet FORTIMII † ast Meet piety and erudition we are thoroughly convinced, we well of man as of God; and therefore cannot infer at.com must take the liberty to say, that to us the declarations creative power anywhere, unless the fatber of the acade. Syst. Isti of Plato on this subject appear much less precise and my was so very absurd as to suppose human artists then.... explicit than they appear to him; and that the inference creators of those machines which they have invented which he would draw from the words of Cicero seems and made ! Mosheim thinks that Cudworth was mieled not to flow necessarily from the sense of those words. by too implicit a confidence in Ficinus ; and it is not That Plato believed God to have framed the beaven and impossible that Dr Ogilvie may have been swayed by the earth, and to have fashioned all nature, is a position the authority, great indeed, of the author of the Intelwhich as far as we know, has never been controverted ;. lectual System. but between framing or fashioning the chaos or inn That intellect existed antecedent to all bodies is inтесетіп, and calling the universe into existence from non deed a Platonic dogma, from which Dr Ogilvie, after entity, there is an infinite and an obvious difference. Cudwortlı, wishes to infer that the doctrine of the creaThe distinction made by Cicero between the God of tion was taught in the academy; but Dr Ogilvie knows, Plato and the God of Aristotle is a just distinction, but and no man knew better than Cudworth, that Plato
, it will not bear the superstructure which the learned with every other Greek philosopher, distinguished be doctor builds upon it. Aristotle maintained the eter tween body and matter; and thrat though he held the nity of the world in its present form. Plato certainly priority of intellect to the former, it by no means foltaught that the first matter was in time reduced from a lows that he believed it to have existed antecedent to chaotic state into form by the power of the Demiurgus; the latter. That he believed mind, or rather soul (for but we have seen nothing in his writings which explicitly he distinguishes between the two), to be the cause or declares his belief that the first matter was itself created. principle of motion, cannot be denied; but we are not
The learned Cudworth, who wished, like Dr Ogilvie, therefore authorised to conclude, that he likewise beto find a coincidence of doctrine between the theology lieved it to be the cause of the existence of matter. That of Plato and that of the Gospel, strained all his facul- he believed mind to be the most ancient of all things, ties to prove that his favourite philosopher taught taking the word things in the most absolute sense, canproper creation : but he laboured in vain. He gives a not be true, since by Dr Ogilvie's own acknowledgement number of quotations in support of his position ; of he held the existence and eternity of ideas, not to add which we shall here insert only those two upon which that he believed to or r'anyador the first bypostasis in Dr Ogilvie seems to lay the greatest stress. Plato, says his trinity, to be superior to mind and prior to it, though the author of the Intellectual System, calls the one not in time, yet in the order of nature. When thereGod (A) oς γης ουρανον και θεους, και παντα τα εν ουρανω fore he calls mind the most ancient of all things, be must και τα εν αδου, και υπο της απαντα εργασεται-He that be supposed to mean only, that it is more ancient tban makes earth, and heaven, and the gods, and doth all all bodies and inferior souls. It is no reflection on the things both in heuven, and hell, and under the earth. character of Plato that he could not, by the efforts of his And, again, “ he by whose efficiency the things of the own reason, acquire any notion of a proper creation ; world (ürtsgos syareto, agotagoy oux orta) were afterwards since we, who have the advantage of his writings, aud of
(A) Mosheim affirms that this quotation is nowhere to be found in the writings of Plato. He therefore at first suspected that the learned author, in looking hastily over Plato's 10th book De Legibus, had transferred to God what is there said of the anima mundi, leading by its own motions every thing in the heaven, the earth, and the sea, and that he had added something of his own. He dropped that opinion, however, when he found Plato, in the 10th book, of his Republic, declaring it to be as easy for God to produce the sun, moon, stars, and earth, &c. from limself, as it is for us to produce the image of ourselves, and whatever else we please, only by interposing a looking glass." In all this power, however, there is nothing similar to that of creation.
Platonism, writings infinitely more valuable, to instruct us, find it probably that there are three, hypostases, whom he call- Platouism. ELENA extremely difficult, if not impossible, to conceive how ed to oy and to fv, vous, and fuxin. The first he consider
any thing can begin to be. We believe the fact on the ed as self-existent, and elevated far above all mind and
knowledged in this person was goodness; and therefore
cessary emana wisdom or reason of the first, and the maker of the
bis Theology as avlodeos, the original deity, in contradi-
shall-only say, that the account which we have given of His notions of God are indeed exceedingly refined, the Platonic trinity is ably supported by the doctor. and such as it is difficult to suppose that he could ever In treating of the eternal emanation of the second have acquired but from some obscure remains of prime and third hypostases from the first, the philosophers of val tradition, gleaned perhaps from the priests of Egypt the academy compare them to light and heat proceedor from the philosophers of the East. In the Divine ing from the sun. Plato himself, as quoted by Dr CudNature he certainly believed that there are two, and worth, illustrates his doctrine by the same comparison.
Platonism. For "s'cyntar, or the first hypostasis, is in the intellec. ings of a pagan philosopher, was forced to suppose
that cual world the same (he says) to intellect and intelli- Plato beld a double puxon, or soul, one wrespetos, incorgibles that the sun is in the corporeal world to vision porated with the material world, and the other uniqresand visibles ; for as the sun is not vision itself but the helor or supramundane, which is not the soul but the gocause of vision, and as that light by which we see is not vernor of the universe. We call this a mere hypothethe sun but only a thing like the sun ; so neither is the sis; for though the author displays vast erudition, and Supreme or Highest Good properly knowledge, but the adduces many quotations in which this double psyche is cause of knowledge; nor is intellect, considered as such, plainly mentioned, yet all those quotations are taken the best and most perfect being, but only a being have from Platonists who lived after the propagation of the ing the form of perfection.” Again,
gospel, and who, calling themselves eclectics, freely other things not only to become visible but also to be stole from every sect such dogmas as they could incorgenerated; so the Supreme Good gives to things not on porate with their own system, and then attributed those ly their capability of being known, but also their very dogmas to their master. In the writings of Plato bimessences by which they subsist; for this fountain of the self, there is not so much as an allusion to this supraDeity, this highest good, is not itself properly essence, mundane psyche *; and it is for this reason (the tuya, * Moti. but above essence, transeending it in respect both of of which he treats being so very inferior to the onusevgyesed. Cut. dignity and of power."
and analer) that we have expressed with hesitation bis Sys. It's The resemblance which this trinity of Plato bears to belief of three hypostases in the divine nature. Yet that that revealed in the gospel must be observed by every be did admit so many, seems more than probable both attentive reader; but the two doctrines are likewise in from the passage illustrated by Dr Ogilvie, and from some respects exceedingly dissimilar. The third hypo- the attempt of Plotinus, one of bis followers, to demonstasis in the Platonic system appears in no point of view strate that the number can be neither greater nor less. co-ordinate with the first or second. Indeed the first is That his doctrine on this subject should be inaccurate elevated far above the second, and the third sunk still and erroneous, can excite no wonder; whilst it must be farther beneath it, being considered as a mere soul im confessed to have such a resemblance to the truth, and mersed in matter, and forming with the corporeal world, to be so incapaule of being proved by reasoning from to which it is united, one compound animal. Nay, it effects to causes, that we could not doubt of his baving does not appear perfectly clear, that Plato considered inherited it by tradition, even though we had not com his fuxin
TOV xoomov as a pure spirit, or as having subsist- plete evidence that something very similar to it was ed from eternity as a distinct Hypostasis. “This go- taught long before bim, not only by Pythagoras and verning spirit, of whom the earth, properly so called, Parmenides, but by the philosophers of the east. is the body, consisted, according to our author's philo We have said that the Demiurgus was the maker of sophy, of the same and the other; that is, of the first the world from the first matter which had existed from matter, and of pure intelligence, framed to actuate the eternity ; but in Plato's cosmogony there is anotber machinery of nature. The Supreme Being placed him principle, more mysterious, if possible, than any thing in the middle of the earth ; which, in the vivid idea of which we have yet mentioned. This is his intellectual Plato, seemed itself to live, in consequence of an influ- system of ideas, which it is not easy to collect from bis ence that was felt in every part of it. From this seat writings, whether be considered as independentexistences, his
power is represented as being extended on all sides or only as archetypal forms, which had subsisted from to the utmost limit of the heavens; conferring life, and eternity in the dogos or divine intellect. On this subject preserving harmony in the various and complicated parts he writes with such exceeding obscurity, that men of of the universe. Upon this being God is said to have the first eminence, both among the ancients and the molooked with peculiar complacency after having formed derns, have differed about bis real meaning. Some bave him as an image of bimself, and to have given beauty supposed, that by ideas he meant real beings subsisting and perfect proportion to the mansion which he was de- from eternity, independent of all minds, and separate stined to occupy. According to the doctrine of Timæ- from all matier; and that of these ideas he conceived us, the Supreme Being struck out from this original some to be living and others to be without life. In this mind innumerable spirits of inferior order, endowed with manner his doctrine is interpreted by Tertullian* among • Lib. de principles of reason ; and he committed to divinities of the ancients, and by the celebrated Bruckert among Anisa
. secondary rank the task of investing these in material the moderns; and not by them only, but by many Hister. forms, and of dispersing them as inhabitants of the sun, others equally learned, candid, and acute. Cudwortb, Decorados moon, and other celestial bodies. He taught also, that on the other hand, with his annotator Mosheim, conat death the human soul is reunited to the vuxn tov xor tend, that by his ideal world Plato meant notbing more pov, as to the source from which it originally came." than that there existed from eternity in the royos or mind
Such is the third person of the Platonic triad, as we of God a notion or conception of every thing which was find bis nature and attributes very accurately stated by in time to be made. This is certainly much more proDr Ogilvie ; and the Christian philosopher, who has no bable in itself, than that a man of enlarged understandparticular system to support, will not require another ing should have supposed, that there are somewhere in proof that the triad of Plato differs excredingly from the extramundane space real living incorporeal beings catTrinity of the Scriptures. Indeed the third hypostasis ing and drinking, which are the ideas of all the animals in this triad has so much the appearance of all that the which ever have been or ever will be eating and drinkancients could mean by that which we call a creature, ing in this world. Yet Mosheim candidly acknowthat the learned Cudworth, who wished, it is difficult ledges, that if the controversy were to be decided by to conceive for what reason, to find the sublimest my- the votes of the learned, he is doubtful whether it would stery of the Christiap faith explicitly taught in the writ- be given for or against him; and. Cudworth, though he
Platonism. pleads the cause of his master with much ingenuity, dæmons, which were superior to the souls of men, and Platonisan.
owns, that on tbis subject his language cannot be vindi- struck oll by the Demiurgus from the soul of the world.
the doctrine which has been stated concerning litude the cause that a globe does not resemble a pyra God, matter, and ideas. He taught, that the visible mid: he likewise calls them oupices, essences or substan world was formed by the Supreme Architect, uniting ces, and many of his followers have pronounced them to eternal and immutable ideas to the first matter; that the be animals.
universe is one animated being*, including within its li- * Timæus.
nic or great year. See the preceding article.
thought to enjoin certain sciences that are useless. 'Tis
were chimerical, and could only have originated in a
Platonism ting in bis republic a community of women, in order to Curtain in Shoreditch and the Theatre. In the time of
give reason an entire controul over desire. The main Shakespeare, who commenced a dramatic writer in 1592, Playhouse. object of his political institutions appears to bave been, there were no less than 10 theatres open. Four of these
the subjugation of the passions and appetites, by means were private houses, viz. that in Blackfriars, the Cock. of the abstract contemplation of ideas. A system of po- pit or Phænix in Drury-Lane, a theatre in Whitefriars, licy, raised upon such fanciful grounds, cannot merit a and one in Salisbury court. The other six were called more distinct consideration."
public theatres, viz. the Globe, the Swan, the Rose, Such is genuine Platonism as it was taught in the old and the Hope, on the Bank-side; the Red Bull, at the academy by the founder of the school and his immediate upper end of St John's street, and the Fortune in followers; but when Arcesilaus was placed at the bead White-cross street. The two last were chiefly freof the academics, great innovations were introduced both quented by citizens. Mr Malone gives us a pretty cointo their doctrines and into their mode of teaching pious account of these playhouses, in a supplement to (see ArcesiĻAUS). This man was therefore considered his last edition of Shakespeare, which we shall bere inas the founder of what was afterwards called the middle sert. academy. Being a professed sceptic, he carried bis “ Most, if not all (says he) of Shakespeare's plays maxim of uncertainty to such a height, as to alarm the were performed either at the Globe or at the Theatre in general body of philosophers, offend the governors of the Blackfriars. It appears that they both belonged to the state, and bring just odium upon the very name of the same company of comedians, viz. his majesty's servants, academy. At length Carneades, one of the disciples of which title they assumed, after a licence had been this school, relinquishing some of the more obnoxious te- granted to them by King James in 1603, having benets of Arcesilaus, founded what has been called the fore that time been called the servants of the lord chamnew academy with very little improvement on the prin- berlain. ciples of the middle. See CARNEADES.
“ The theatre in Blackfriars was a private house ; Under one or other of these forms Platonism found its but the peculiar and distinguishing marks of a private way into the Roman republic. Cicero was a Platonist, playhouse it is not easy to ascertain. It was very small, and one of the greatest ornaments of the school. A A and plays were there usually represented by candle light. school of Platonists was likewise founded in Alexandria The Globe, situated on the southern side of the river in the second century of the Christian era ; but their Thames, was a hexagonal building, partly open to the doctrines differed in many particulars from those taught weather, partly covered with reeds. It was a public in the three academies. They professed to seek truth theatre, and of considerable size, and there they always wherever they could find it, and to collect their dogmas acted by daylight. On the roof of the Globe, and the from every school. They endeavoured to bend some of other public theatres, a pole was erected, to which a the principles of Plato into a conformity with the doc- flag was affixed. These flags were probably displayed trines of the gospel; and they incorporated with the only during the hours of exhibition ; and it should seem whole many of the maxims of Aristotle and Zeno, and from a passage in one of the old comedies that they were not a few of the fictions of the east. Their system was taken down during Lent, in which season no plays were therefore extremely heterogeneous, and seldom so ration- presented. The Globe, though hexagonal at the outal as that of the philosopher after whose name they were side, was probably a rotunda within, and perhaps had called, and of whose doctrines we have given so copious its name from its circular form. It might, however, a detail. See Ammonius, ECCLECTICs, and PLOTI. have been denominated only from its sign, which was a NUS.
figure of Hercules supporting the Globe. This theatre PLAUTUS, Marcus Accius, a comic writer of was burnt down in 1613, but it was rebuilt in the folancient Rome, born in Umbria, a province of Italy. lowing year, and decorated with more ornament than His proper name was Marcus Accius, and he is suppos- had been originally bestowed upon it. The exhibitions ed to have acquired the surname of Plautus from bav at the Globe seem to have been calculated chiefly for ing splay feet. His parentage appears to bave been the lower class of people ; those at Blackfriars for a mean ; so that some have thought he was the son of a more select and judicious audience. slave. Aulus Gellius says that Plautus was distinguish - A writer informs us, that one of these theatres was ed for his poetry on the theatre, and Cato for his elo a winter and the other a summer house. As the Globe quence in the forum, at the same time ; and observes was partly exposed to the weather, and they acted there elsewhere from Varro, that he was so well paid for his usually by daylight, it was probably the summer theaplays as to double his stock in trading, in which he lost tre. The exhibitions here seem to have been more freall he gained by the muses. He is said to have been quent than at Blackfriars, at least till the year 1604 or reduced to work at a mill for his subsistence ; but Varro 1605, when the Bank-side appears to have become less adds, that his wit was his best support, as be composed fashionable and less frequented than it formerly had three of his plays during this drudgery. He died in been. Many of our ancient dramatic pieces were perthe first year of the elder Cato's censorship, about the formed in the yards of carriers inns; in which, in the year of Rome 569, and 184 before Christ. We have beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign, the comedians, 20 of his plays extant, though not all of them entire. who then first united themselves in companies, erected Five of them comedies, have been elegantly translated an occasional stage. The form of these temporary playinto English by Mr B. Thornton, and published in bouses seems to be preserved in our modern theatre. 2 vols 8vo, 1767
The galleries are in both ranged over each other on PLAYS. See the following article.
three sides of the building. The small roooms under the PLAYHOUSE. See THEATRE, AMPHITHEATRE, lowest of these galleries answer to our present boxes; &c. The most ancient English playhouses were the and it is observable that those, even in theatres which