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Pucocke modesty and humility, and all the virtues that can adorn It was founded by one of those colonies from Greece Pastes
a Christian. His theological works were republished which in the early ages established themselves in Italy; Pæstum at London in 1740, in two volumes in folio.
and it flourished before the foundation of Rome iteelf. PODAGRA, or the Gout. See MEDICINE, N° It was destroyed by the Goths on the decline of the
Roman empire, who in their barbarous zeal for the PODALIRIUS, son of Æsculapius and Epione, Christian religion overturned every place of Pagan worwas one of the pupils of the Centaur Chiron, under whom ship which was exposed to their ravages. Since that lie made himself such a master of medicine, that during time it has been in ruins ; and these ruins were unknown the Trojan war the Greeks invited him to their camp to till they were discovered in the following manner: “In stop a pestilence which had baffled the skill of all their the year 1755 (says the author of the Antiquities, Hiphysicians. Some suppose, however, that he went to story, and Views of Pæstum), an apprentice to a painter the Trojan war, not in the capacity of a physician in at Naples, who was on a visit to his friends at Capaccio, the Grecian army, but as a warrior, attended by his by accident took a walk to the mountains which surbrother Machaon, in 30 ships, with soldiers from Oe- round the territory of Paestum. . The only babitation chalia, Ithome, and Trica. At his return Podalirius he perceived was the cottage of a farmer, who cultivated was shipwrecked on the coast of Caria, where he cured the best part of the ground, and reserved the rest for of the falling sickness a daughter of the king of the pasture. The ruins of the ancient city made a part of place. He fixed his habitation there; and built two this view, and particularly struck the eyes of the young towns, one of which he called Syrna, after his wife. painter; who approaching nearer, saw with astonishThe Carians, on his death, built liim a temple, and paid ment walls, towers, gates and temples. Upon his rehim divine honours.
turn to Capaccio, he consulted the neighbouring people PODEX, in Anatomy, the same with Anus. about the origin of these monuments of antiquity. He PODGRAJE. See ASISIA.
could only learn, that this part of the country bad been
the king of Naples, who ordered the ruins to be cleared,
Our author gives the following description of it in
about two miles and a half in circumference. It has POE-BIRD is an inhabitant of some of the South sea four gates, which are opposite to each other. On the islands, where it is held in great esteem and veneration key-stone of the arch of the north gate, on the outside, by the natives. It goes by the name of kogo in New is the figure of Neptune in basso relievo, and within a Zcaland: but it is better known by that of poë-bird. hippocampus. The walls which still remain are coniIt is somewhat less than our blackbird, and is remark- posed of very large cubical stones, and are extremely able for the sweetness of its note, as well as the beauty thick, in some parts 18 feet. That the walls have reof its plumage. Its flesh is also delicate food.
mained unto this time is owing to the very exact manner
many vestiges still remain.
POESTUM, or PosiDONIA, an ancient city of an amphitheatre, and three temples. The theatre and
Paestum. hexastylos, and amphiprostylos. At one end, the pi- mention of bases for this order : and the only instance
lasters and two columns which divided the cella from we have of it is in the first order of the Colisæum at
PO E T R Y.
A MIDST .
first of the world, reason and history throw the most savage of the ancient barbarians, and the most some lights on the origin and primitive employment of desolate of all the Americans. Nature asserts her rights this divine art. Reason suggests, that before the inven- in every country and every age. Tacitus mentions
tion of letters, all the people of the earth had no other the verses and the hymns of the Germans, at the time Origin of method of transmitting to their descendants the prin- when that rough people yet inhabited the woods, and poetry. ciples of their worship, their religious ceremonies, their while their manners were still savage. The first inha
Jaws, and the renowned actions of their sages and heroes, bitants of Runnia and the other northern countries,
But what is Poetry ? It would be to abridge the Definition
Apollo was accompanied ly the equally on imitation. The justest definition seenis to Muses—those nine learned sisters—the daughters of be that given by Baron Bielfield *, That poetry is the * Elem. of Memory: and he was constantly attended by the Graces. art of expressing our thoughts by fiction. In fact, it is l'hi. Erud. Pegasus, his winged courser, transported him with a ra- after this manner (if we reflect with attention) that all pid fight into all the regions of the universe. Happy the metaphors and allegories, all the various kinds of emblems! by which we at this day embellish our poe. fiction, form the first materials of a poetic edifice: it try, as no one has ever yet been able to invent more is thus that all images, all comparisons, allusions, and brilliant images.
figures, especially those which personify moral subjects, The literary annals of all nations afford vestiges of as virtues and vices, concur to the decoration of such a VOL. XVI. Part II.
structure. A work, therefore, that is filled with in- tion could subsist without it: for it will perhaps, upotz vention, that incessantly presents images which render examination, be found, that in every poetical description the reader attentive and affected, where the author gives some of the qualities of Animal Nature are ascribed to interesting sentiments to everything that he makes speak,' things not having life. Every work, therefore, where and where he makes speak by sensible figures all those the thoughts are expressed by fictions or images, is poobjects which would affect the mind but weakly when etic; and every work where they are expressed natural
. clothed in a simple prosaic style, such a work is a poem. ly, simply, and without ornament, although it be in While that, thongh it be in verse, which is of a didactic, verse, is prosaic. dogmatic, or moral nature, and where the objects are Verse, however, is not to be regarded as foreign or presented in a manner quite simple, without fiction, superfluous to poetry. To reduce those images, those without images or ornaments, cannot be called poetry, fictions, into verse, is one of the greatest difficulties in but merely a work in verse ; for the art of reducing poetry, and one of the greatest merits in a poem: and thoughts, maxims, and periods, into rhyme or metre, is for these reasons, the cadence, the barmony of sounds, very different from the art of poetry.
particularly that of rhyme, delight the ear to a high An ingenious fable, a lively and interesting romance, degree, and the mind insensibly repeats them while the a comedy, the sublime narrative of the actions of a hero, eye reads them. There results therefore a pleasure to such as the Telemachus of M. Fenelon, though written the mind, and a strong attachment to these ornaments : in prose, but in measured prose, is therefore a work of but this pleasure would be frivolous, and even childish, poetry: because the foundation and the superstructure if it were not attended by a real utility. Verses were Verse, are the productions of genius, as the whole proceeds. invented in the first ages of the world, merely to aid though it from fiction ; and truth itself appears to bave employed and to strengthen the memory: for cadence, harmony, an innocent and agreeable deception to instruct with ef- and especially rhyme, afford the greatest assistance to people ficacy. This is so true, that the pencil also, in order to the memory that art can invent; and the images, or ceilbot please and affect, has recourse to fiction ; and this part poetic fictions, that strike our senses, assist in graving of painting is called the poetic composition of a picture. It them with such deep traces in our minds, as even time is therefore by the aid of fiction that poetry, so to speak, itself frequently cannot efface. How many excellent paints its expressions, that it gives a body and a mind apophthegms, sentences, maxims, and precepts, would to its thoughts, that it animates and exalts that which have been buried in the abyss of oblivion, if poetry
bad would otherwise bave remained arid and insensible. It not preserved them by its harmony? To give more is the peculiar privilege of poetry to exalt inanimate efficacy to this lively impression, the first poets sung things into animals, and abstract ideas into persons. their verses, and the words and phrases niust necessarily The former licence is so common, that it is now con- have been reduced, at least to cadence, or they could sidered as nothing more than a characteristical dialect not have been susceptible of musical expression. One appropriated by the poets to distingnish themselves from of the great excellencies, therefore, though not a nethe writers of prose; and is at the same time so essen- cessary constituent of poetry, consists in its being ex. tial, that we question much if this species of composi. pressed in verse. See Part III.
PART I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE ART.
touches, and animates and embellishes whatever it treats; SECT. I. Of the Essence and End of Poetry.
there seems to be no subject in the universe to wbich
poetry cannot be applied, and which it cannot render THE essence of Polite Arts in general, and conse- equally brilliant and pleasing. From this universality quently of poetry in particular, consists in expression; of poetry, from its peculiar property of expression by and we think that, to be poetic, the expression must fiction, which is applicable to all subjects, bave arisen necessarily arise from firtion, or invention. (See the ar- its different species, of which a particular description
ticle Art, particularly from No 12. to the end). This in. will be given in the second part. Essence of
vention, which is the fruit of happy genius alone, arises, Horace, in a well-known verse, has been supposed to Poetry
1. From the subject itself of which we undertake to declare the end of poetry to be twofold, to please, or to
Aut prodesse volunt, aut delectare poetæ.
. which, by the way, confirms our idea, that antiquity
our idea, that antiquity thing inconsistent with this doctrine. The author is chapi . itself made the essence of poetry to consist in fiction, and there stating a comparison between the Greek and Ra. not in that species of verse which is destitute of it, or in man writers, with a view to the poetry of the stage; and, that which is not capable of it. But since this art bas after commending the former for their correctness, and risen to a great degree of perfection ; and as poetry, for the liberal spirit where with they conducted their like electricity, communicates its fire to every thing it literary labours, and blaming his countrymen for their
Essence inaccuracy and avarice, he proceeds thus: “The ends without touching their hearts, elevating their fancy, or or and End proposed by our dramatic poets (or by poets in ge- leaving any durable remenibrance. Even of those who Invention. Poetry, neral) are, to please, to instruct, or to do both. When pretend to sensibility, how many are there to whom the
instruction is your aim, let your moral sentences be lustre of the rising or setting sun; the sparkling concave
reign countries, and perpetuate the author's name But some minds there are of a different make; who, Hor. Ar. through a long succession of agest.”—Now, what is the even in the early part of life, receive from the contenPost. 333. meaning of all this? What, but that to the perfection plation of Nature a species of delight which they would 347
of dramatic poetry (or, if you please, of poetry in ge. hardly exchange for any other, and who, as avarice and
I care not, Fortune, what you me deny;
You cannot rob me of free Nature's grace ; another place have celebrated with so much affection
You cannot shut the windows of the sky, and rapture the melting strains of Sappho, and the Hor Carm. playful genius of Anacreon 1,-two authors transcen
Through which Aurora shows her bright’ning face ;
You cannot bar my constant feet to trace dently sweet, but not remarkable instructive. We are
The woods and lawos by living stream at eve. sure, that pathos, and harmony, and elevated language, Hor. Sat. were, in Horace's opinion, essential to poetry ; and
Castle of Indolence. bilec.62.4
. 4 of these decorations nobody will afirm that instruction Such minds have always in them the seeds of true taste,
is the end, who considers that the most instructive books and frequently of imitative genius. At least, though
their enthusiastic or visionary turn of mind (as the man
little or no instruction; but verses, whose sole merit who would imitate the works of nature, must first ac-
To a mind thus disposed no part of creation is indif
ferent. In the crowded city and howling wilderness ; SECT. II. Of the Standard of Poetical Invention. in the cultivated province and solitary isle; in the
flowery lawn and craggy mountain; in the murmur of Poetical Homer's beantiful description of the heavens and the rivolet and in the uproar of the ocean; in the rainvention
earth, as they appear in a calm evening by the light of diance of summer and gloom of winter; in the thunder torba regu- the moon and stars, concludes with this circumstance, of heaven and in the whisper of the breeze; he still * Iliad, viii." And the heart of the shepherd is glad *.” Madame finds something to rouze or to soothe his imagination, 555 Dacier, from the turn she gives to the passage in her to draw forth bis affections, or to employ bis under
version, seenis to think, and Pope, in order perhaps to standing. And from every mental energy that is not
they who discern the causes and effects of things must This happy sensibility to the beauties of nature should Beattie's
be more rapturously entertained than those who perceive be cherished in young persons. It engages them to
dour and a magnificence to which even untutored minds and intellectual discipline ; it supplies an endless source
of amusement; it contributes even to bodily health :
standard of nature.
Tour in Si
object of contempt and abomination. An intimate ac- tify imagination, which is repugnant to reason.-BeInvention. quaintance with the best descriptive poets, Spenser, sides, belief and acquiescence of mind are pleasant, as levention.
İlilton, and Thomson, but above all with the divine distrust and disbelief are painful: and therefore, that
Poetry, therefore, and indeed every art whose end is
charm from the beholder's amazement, which is quick- so great variety of exercise to our moral and intellectual *Brydone's ly over.
We read indeed of a man of rank in Sicily faculties, as man. Human aflairs and human feelings are eily, let. 24.
who chooses to adorn his villa with pictures and statues universally interesting. There are many who have no
of the body.
could entirely subdue. As no sort of education could,
Habit bas Let it be remarked, too, that though we distinguish make man believe the contrary of a self-evident axiom, great inour internal powers by different names, because other- or reconcile him to a life of perfect solitude ; so we quence wise we could not speak of them so as to be understood, should imagine, that our love of nature and regularity they are all but so many energies of the same individual might still remain with us in some degree, though we had ment and mind; and therefore it is not to be supposed, that wbat been born and bred in the Sicilian villa above mentioned, feeling, and contradicts any one leading faculty should yield perma- and never beard any thing applauded but what deserved upon nent delight to the rest. That cannot be agreeable to censure, nor censured but what merited applause. Yet poetry
. reason, which conscience disapproves; nor can that gra- habit must be allowed to have a powerful iufluence over