« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
Pucocke modesty and humility, and all the virtues that can adorn It was founded by one of those colonies from Greece Pastes
a Christian. His theological works were republished which in the early ages established themselves in Italy; Pæstum at London in 1740, in two volumes in folio.
and it flourished before the foundation of Rome iteelf. PODAGRA, or the Gout. See MEDICINE, N° It was destroyed by the Goths on the decline of the
Roman empire, who in their barbarous zeal for the PODALIRIUS, son of Æsculapius and Epione, Christian religion overturned every place of Pagan worwas one of the pupils of the Centaur Chiron, under whom ship which was exposed to their ravages. Since that lie made himself such a master of medicine, that during time it has been in ruins ; and these ruins were unknown the Trojan war the Greeks invited him to their camp to till they were discovered in the following manner: “In stop a pestilence which had baffled the skill of all their the year 1755 (says the author of the Antiquities, Hiphysicians. Some suppose, however, that he went to story, and Views of Pæstum), an apprentice to a painter the Trojan war, not in the capacity of a physician in at Naples, who was on a visit to his friends at Capaccio, the Grecian army, but as a warrior, attended by his by accident took a walk to the mountains which surbrother Machaon, in 30 ships, with soldiers from Oe round the territory of Paestum. . The only babitation chalia, Ithome, and Trica. At his return Podalirius he perceived was the cottage of a farmer, who cultivated was shipwrecked on the coast of Caria, where he cured the best part of the ground, and reserved the rest for of the falling sickness a daughter of the king of the pasture. The ruins of the ancient city made a part of place. He fixed his habitation there; and built two this view, and particularly struck the eyes of the young towns, one of which he called Syrna, after his wife. painter; who approaching nearer, saw with astonishThe Carians, on his death, built liim a temple, and paid ment walls, towers, gates and temples. Upon his rehim divine honours.
turn to Capaccio, he consulted the neighbouring people PODEX, in Anatomy, the same with Anus. about the origin of these monuments of antiquity. He PODGRAJE. See ASISIA.
could only learn, that this part of the country bad been
PODOLIA, a province of Russian Poland, bounded uncultivated and abandoned during their memory; that
on the north and north-east, by Volhinia and Kiew; on about ten years before, the farmer, whose habitation he
the south-east, by Cherson, and on the south-west and had noticed, established himself there; and that having
west, by Moldavia and Buckovina. The principal dug in many places, and searched among the ruins that
rivers are the Dneister and the Bug. This province lay round him, he had found treasures sufficient to enable
is extremely fertile in grain, great quantities of which him to purchase the whole. At the painter's return
are conveyed by the rivers to Odessa, and thence ship to Naples, he informed his master of these particulars,
ped to the Mediterranean. It also abounds in cattle. whose curiosity was so greatly excited by the descrip-
The chief town is Kaminiek. In 1815, this province tion, that he took a journey to the place, and made
contained 1,181,200 inhabitants upon an area of 14,700 drawings of the principal views. These were shown to
the king of Naples, who ordered the ruins to be cleared,
PODOPHYLLUM, a genus of plants belonging and Pæstum arose from the obscurity in which it had
to the polyandria class; and in the natural method remained for upwards of 700 years, as little known to
ranking under the 27th order, Rhææde. See BOTANY the neighbouring inhabitants as to travellers.”
Our author gives the following description of it in
PODURA, or SPRINGTAIL, a genus of insects of its present state. It is, says he, of an oblong figure,
the order of aptera. See ENTOMOLOGY Index.
about two miles and a half in circumference. It has POE-BIRD is an inhabitant of some of the South sea four gates, which are opposite to each other. On the islands, where it is held in great esteem and veneration key-stone of the arch of the north gate, on the outside, by the natives. It goes by the name of kogo in New is the figure of Neptune in basso relievo, and within a Zcaland: but it is better known by that of poë-bird. hippocampus. The walls which still remain are coniIt is somewhat less than our blackbird, and is remark posed of very large cubical stones, and are extremely able for the sweetness of its note, as well as the beauty thick, in some parts 18 feet. That the walls have reof its plumage. Its flesh is also delicate food.
mained unto this time is owing to the very exact manner
POECILE was a famous portico at Athens, which in which the stones are fitted to one another (a circum-
received its name from the variety (Foixinos) of paint stance observed universally in the masonry of the an-
ings which it contained. Zeno kept his school there; cients), and perhaps in some measure to a stalactical
and there also the stoics received their lessons, whence concretion which has grown over them. On the walls
their name à soce, a porch. The Pæcile was adorned, bere and there are placed towers of different heights:
among many others, with a picture of the siege and those near the gates being much higher and larger than
sacking of Troy, the battle of Theseus against the the others, and evidently of modern workmanship. He
Amazons, and the fight between the Lacedaemonians observes, that from its situation among marshes, bitu-
and Athenians at Oenoe in Argolis. The only reward minous and sulphureous springs, Pæstum must have been
which Miltiades obtained after the battle of Marathon unwholesome; a circumstance mentioned by Strabo,
was to have bis picture drawn more conspicuous than Morbosam eam facit fluvius in paludes diffusus. In such
that of the rest of the officers that fought with him, in a situation the water must have been bad. Hence the
the representation which was made of the engagement, inhabitants were obliged to convey that necessary of life
and which was hung up in the Pæcile in commemora from purer springs by means of aqueducts, of which
tion of that celebrated victory.
many vestiges still remain.
POEM, a poetical composition. See POETRY. The principal monuments of antiquity are a theatre,
POESTUM, or PosiDONIA, an ancient city of an amphitheatre, and three temples. The theatre and
Grecia Magna, now part of the kingdom of Naples. amphitheatre are much ruined. The first temple is
Paestum. hexastylos, and amphiprostylos. At one end, the pi- mention of bases for this order : and the only instance
lasters and two columns which divided the cella from we have of it is in the first order of the Colisæum at
the pronaos are still remaining: Within the cella are Rome, which was built by Vespasian. The pillars of
two rows of smaller columns, with an architrave, which these temples are fluted with very shallow Butings in
support the second order. This temple our author takes the manner described by Vitruvius. The columns di-
to be of that kind called by Vitruvius hyphæthros, and minish from the bottom, which was the most ancient
supports his opinion, by a quotation from that author. method almost universally in all the orders. The co-
The second temple is also amphiprostylos : it has nine lumns have astragals of a very singular form ; which
columns in front and 18 in flank, and seems to be of that shows the error of those who imagine that this member
kind called by Vitruvius pseudodipteros. The third is was first invented with the Ionic order, to which the
likewise amphiprostylos. It has six columns in front and Greeks gave an astragal, and that the Romans were the
13 in flank. Vitruvius calls this kind of temple peri- first who applied it to the Doric. The echinus of the
pteros. “ The columns of these temples (says our au Capitol is of the same form with that of the temple of
thor) are of that kind of Doric order which we find em Corinth described by Le Roy." See Swinburne's Tra.
ploved in works of the greatest antiquity. They are vels in the Two Sicilies, vol. ii. p. 131–140.
hardly five diameters in height. They are without bases, POET, the author of a em. See the article
which also has been urged as a proof of their antiquity;
but we do not find that the ancients ever used bases to Provençal Poets. See TROUBADOURS.
this order, at least till very late. Vitruvius makes no
A MIDST .
first of the world, reason and history throw the most savage of the ancient barbarians, and the most some lights on the origin and primitive employment of desolate of all the Americans. Nature asserts her rights this divine art. Reason suggests, that before the inven- in every country and every age. Tacitus mentions
tion of letters, all the people of the earth had no other the verses and the hymns of the Germans, at the time Origin of method of transmitting to their descendants the prin- when that rough people yet inbabited the woods, and poetry. ciples of their worship, their religious ceremonies, their while their manners were still savage. The first inha
Jaws, and the renowned actions of their sages and heroes, bitants of Runnia and the other northern countries,
than by poetry; which included all these objects in a those of Gaul, Albion, Iberia, Ausonia, and other na-
kind of hymns that fathers sung to their children, in tions of Europe, had their poetry, as well as the an-
order to engrave them with indelible strokes in their cient people of Asia, and of the known borders of A.
hearts. History not only informs us, that Moses and frica. But the simple productions of nature have con-
Miriam, the first authors that are known to mankind, stantly something unformed, rough, and savage. The
sung, on the borders of the Red sea, a song of divine Divine Wisdom appears to have placed the ingenious
praise, to celebrate the deliverance which the Almighty and polished part of mankind on the earth, in order to
had vouchsafed to the people of Israel, by opening a refine that which comes from her boson rude and in-
passage to them through the waters ; but it has also perfect : and thus art has polished poetry, which issued
transmitted to us the song itself, which is at once the quite naked and savage from the brains of the first of
most ancient monument and a masterpiece of poetic mankind.
But what is Poetry ? It would be to abridge the Definition
The Greeks, a people the most ingenious, the most limits of the poetic empire, to contract the sphere of of poetry.
animated, and in every sense the most accomplished, that this divine art, should we say, in imitation of all the
the world ever produced --strove to ravish from the He dictionaries and other treatises on versification, That
brews the precious gift of poetry, which was vouchsafed poetry is the art of making rerses, of lines or periods that
them by the Supreme Author of all nature, that they are in rhyme or metre. This is rather a grammatical
might ascribe it to their false deities. According to explanation of the word, than a real definition of the
their ingenious fictions, Apollo became the god of por- thing, and it would be to degrade poetry thus to de-
try, and dwelt on the hills of Phocis, Parnassos and fine it. The father of criticism has denominated poe-
Helicon, whose feet were washed by the waters of Hip- try tiyon tespertoxen, an imitative art: but this, though
pocrene, of which each mortal that ever drank was just in itself, is too general for a definition, as it does
seized with a sacred delirinm. The immortal swans not discriminate poetry from other arts which depend,
floated on ts waves.
Apollo was accompanied ly the equally on imitation. The justest definition seenis to
Muscs—those nine learned sisters—the daughters of be that given by Baron Bielfeld *. That poetry is the * Elem. of
Memory: and he was constantly attended by the Graces. art of expressing our thoughts by fiction. In fact, it is l'u. Erud.
Pegasus, his winged courser, transported him with a ra after this manner (if we reflect with attention) that all
pid fight into all the regions of the universe. Happy the metaphors and allegories, all the various kinds of
emblems! by which we at this day embellish our poe. fiction, form the first materials of a poetic edifice: it
try, as no one has ever yet been able to invent more is thus that all images, all comparisons, allusions, and
figures, especially those which personify moral subjects,
The literary annals of all nations afford vestiges of as virtues and vices, concur to the decoration of such a
VOL. XVI. Part II.
structure. A work, therefore, that is filled with in tion could subsist without it: for it will perhaps, upotz vention, that incessantly presents images which render examination, be found, that in every poetical description the reader attentive and affected, where the author gives some of the qualities of Animal Nature are ascribed to interesting sentiments to everything that he makes speak,' things not having life. Every work, therefore, where and where he makes speak by sensible figures all those the thoughts are expressed by fictions or images, is poobjects which would affect the mind but weakly when etic; and every work where they are expressed natural
. clothed in a simple prosaic style, such a work is a poem. ly, simply, and without ornament, although it be in While that, thongh it be in verse, which is of a didactic, verse, is prosaic. dogmatic, or moral nature, and where the objects are Verse, however, is not to be regarded as foreign or presented in a manner quite simple, without fiction, superfluous to poetry. To reduce those images, those without images or ornaments, cannot be called poetry, fictions, into verse, is one of the greatest difficulties in but merely a work in verse ; for the art of reducing poetry, and one of the greatest merits in a poem: and thoughts, maxims, and periods, into rhyme or metre, is for these reasons, the cadence, the barmony of sounds, very different from the art of poetry.
particularly that of rhyme, delight the ear to a high An ingenious fable, a lively and interesting romance, degree, and the mind insensibly repeats them while the a comedy, the sublime narrative of the actions of a hero, eye reads them. There results therefore a pleasure to such as the Telemachus of M. Fenelon, though written the mind, and a strong attachment to these ornaments : in prose, but in measured prose, is therefore a work of but this pleasure would be frivolous, and even childish, poetry: because the foundation and the superstructure if it were not attended by a real utility. Verses were Verse, are the productions of genius, as the whole proceeds. invented in the first ages of the world, merely to aid though it from fiction ; and truth itself appears to bave employed and to strengthen the memory: for cadence, harmony, an innocent and agreeable deception to instruct with ef and especially rhyme, afford the greatest assistance to people ficacy. This is so true, that the pencil also, in order to the memory that art can invent; and the images, or ceilbot please and affect, has recourse to fiction ; and this part poetic fictions, that strike our senses, assist in graving of painting is called the poetic composition of a picture. It them with such deep traces in our minds, as even time is therefore by the aid of fiction that poetry, so to speak, itself frequently cannot efface. How many excellent paints its expressions, that it gives a body and a mind apophthegms, sentences, maxims, and precepts, would to its thoughts, that it animates and exalts that which have been buried in the abyss of oblivion, if poetry
bad would otherwise bave remained arid and insensible. It not preserved them by its harmony? To give more is the peculiar privilege of poetry to exalt inanimate efficacy to this lively impression, the first poets sung things into animals, and abstract ideas into persons. their verses, and the words and phrases niust necessarily The former licence is so common, that it is now con have been reduced, at least to cadence, or they could sidered as nothing more than a characteristical dialect not have been susceptible of musical expression. One appropriated by the poets to distingnish themselves from of the great excellencies, therefore, though not a nethe writers of prose; and is at the same time so essen cessary constituent of poetry, consists in its being ex. tial, that we question much if this species of composi. pressed in verse. See Part III.
PART I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE ART.
touches, and animates and embellishes whatever it treats; SECT. I. Of the Essence and End of Poetry.
there seems to be no subject in the universe to wbich
poetry cannot be applied, and which it cannot render THE essence of Polite Arts in general, and conse equally brilliant and pleasing. From this universality quently of poetry in particular, consists in expression; of poetry, from its peculiar property of expression by and we think that, to be poetic, the expression must fiction, which is applicable to all subjects, bave arisen necessarily arise from firtion, or invention. (See the ar its different species, of which a particular description
ticle Art, particularly from No 12. to the end). This in. will be given in the second part. Essence of
vention, which is the fruit of happy genius alone, arises, Horace, in a well-known verse, has been supposed to Poetry
1. From the subject itself of which we undertake to declare the end of poetry to be twofold, to please, or to
treat: 2. From the manner in which we treat that sub- instruct :
ject, or the species of writing of which we make use :
3. From the plan that we propose to follow in conformi-
Aut prodesse volunt, aut delectare poetæ.
iy to this manner; and, 4. From the method of exe But Dr Beattie * maintains, that the ultimate end of End
cuting this plan in its full detail. Our first guides, the this art is to please ; instruction being only one of the poetry
ancients, afford us no lights that can elucidate all these means (and not always a necessary one) by which that * Els per
objects in general. The precepts which Aristotle lays ultimate end is to be accomplished. The passage rightly you
down, relate to epic and dramatic poetry only: and understood, he observes, will not appear to contain any parti
. which, by the way, confirms our idea, that antiquity
our idea, that antiquity thing inconsistent with this doctrine. The author is chapi . itself made the essence of poetry to consist in fiction, and there stating a comparison between the Greek and Ra. not in that species of verse which is destitute of it, or in man writers, with a view to the poetry of the stage; and, that which is not capable of it. But since this art bas after commending the former for their correctness, and risen to a great degree of perfection ; and as poetry, for the liberal spirit where with they conducted their like electricity, communicates its fire to every thing it literary labours, and blaming his countrymen for their
Essence inaccuracy and avarice, he proceeds thus: “The ends without touching their hearts, elevating their fancy, or or and End proposed by our dramatic poets (or by poets in ge- leaving any durable remenibrance. Even of those who Invention. Poetry, neral) are, to please, to instruct, or to do both. When pretend to sensibility, how many are there to whom the
instruction is your aim, let your moral sentences be lustre of the rising or setting sun; the sparkling concave
expressed with brevity, that they may be readily un of the midnight sky; the mountain-forest tossing and
derstood, and long remembered; where you mean to roaring to the storm, or warbling with all the melodies
please, let your fictions be conformable to truth or of a summer evening; the street interchange of hill and
probability. The elder part of your audience (or dale, shade and sunshine, grove, lawn, and water, which
readers) have no relish for poems that give pleasure only , an extensive landscape offers to the view; the scenery
without instruction; nor the younger for such writings of the ocean, so lovely, so majestic, and so tremendous ;
as give instruction without pleasure. He only can se and the many pleasing varieties of the animal and vege-
cure the universal suffrage in his favour, who blends table kingdoms, could never afford so much real satis.
the useful with the agreeable, and delights at the same faction, as the steams and noise of a ball-room, the in-
time that he instructs the reader. Such are the works sipid fiddling and squeaking of an opera, or the vexations
that bring money to the bookseller, that pass into fo. and wranglings of a card-table!
reign countries, and perpetuate the author's name But some minds there are of a different make; who, Hor. Ar. through a long succession of agest."-Now, what is the even in the early part of life, receive from the contenPoct. 333. meaning of all this? What, but that to the perfection plation of Nature a species of delight which they would 347
of dramatic poetry (or, if you please, of poetry in ge. hardly exchange for any other, and who, as avarice and
neral) both sound morals and beautiful fiction are re ambition are not the infirmities of that period, would,
quisite ? But Horace never meant to say, that instruc- with equal sincerity and rapture, exclaim,
tion, as well as pleasure, is necessary to give to any
I care not, Fortune, what you me deny;
composition the poetical character; or be would not in
You cannot rob me of free Nature's grace ; another place have celebrated with so much affection
You cannot shut the windows of the sky, and rapture the melting strains of Sappho, and the Hor Carm. playful genius of Anacreon 1,-two authors transcen
Through which Aurora shows her bright’ning face ;
You cannot bar my constant feet to trace dently sweet, but not remarkable instructive. We are
The woods and lawos by living stream at eve. sure, that pathos, and harmony, and elevated language, Hor. Sat. were, in Horace's opinion, essential to poetry ; and
Castle of Indolence. bilec.62.4
. 4 of these decorations nobody will afirm that instruction Such minds have always in them the seeds of true taste,
is the end, who considers that the most instructive books and frequently of imitative genius. At least, though
in the world are written in plain pro-e.
their enthusiastic or visionary turn of mind (as the man
In short, our author bas endeavoured by many inge- of the world would call it) should not always incline
nious arguments and illustrations to establish it as a them to practise poetry or painting, we need not scruple
truth in criticism, that the end of poetry is to please. to affirm, that without some portion of this enthasiasm
Verses, if pleasing, may be poetical, though they con no person ever became a true poet or painter. For he
little or no instruction; but verses, whose sole merit who would imitate the works of nature, must first ac-
it is that they convey instruction, are not pretical. In- curately observe them; and accurate observation is to
struction, however, be admits, especially in poems of be expected from those only who take great pleasure in
length, is necessary to their perfection, because they it.
would not be perfectly ogrceable without it.
To a mind thus disposed no part of creation is indif
ferent. In the crowded city and howling wilderness ; Sect. II. Of the Standard of Poetical Invention. in the cultivated province and solitary isle; in the
flowery lawn and craggy mountain; in the murmur of Poetical Homer's beantiful description of the heavens and the rivolet and in the uproar of the ocean; in the rainvention
earth, as they appear in a calm evening by the light of diance of summer and gloom of winter; in the thunder torba regu- the moon and stars, concludes with this circumstance, of heaven and in the whisper of the breeze; he still * Iliad, viii." And the heart of the shepherd is glad *.” Madame finds something to rouze or to soothe his imagination, 555 Dacier, from the turn she gives to the passage in her to draw forth bis affections, or to employ bis under
version, seems to think, and Pope, in order perhaps to standing. And from every mental energy that is not
make out his couplet, insinuates, that the gladness of attended with pain, and even from some of those that
the shepherd is owing to his sense of the utility of those are, as moderate terror and pity, a sound mind derives
luminaries. And this may in part be the case : but satisfaction ; exercise being equally necessary to the
this is not in Homer; nor is it a necessary consideration. body and the soul, and to both equally productive of
It is true, that, in contemplating the material universe, health and pleasure.
they who discern the causes and effects of things must This happy sensibility to the beauties of nature should Beattie's
be more rapturously entertained than those who perceive be cherished in young persons. It engages them to
Part i. nothing but shape and size, colour and motion. Yet, contemplate the Creator in his wonderful works; it pu-
chap. 2. in the mere outside of Nature's work, there is a splen rifies and harmonizes the soul, and prepares it for moral
dour and a magnificence to which even untutored minds and intellectual discipline ; it supplies an endless source
cannot attend without great delight.
of amusement; it contributes even to bodily health :
Not that all peasants or all philosophers are equally and, as a strict analogy subsists between material and mo-
susceptible of these charming impressions. It is strange ral beauty, it leads the heart by an easy transition from
to observe the callousness of some men, before whom all the one to the other; and thus recommends virtue for
the glories of heaven and earth pass in daily succession, its transcendant loveliness, and makes vice appear the
object of contempt and abomination. An intimate ac- tify imagination, which is repugnant to reason.-BeInvention. quaintance with the best descriptive poets, Spenser, sides, belief and acquiescence of mind are pleasant, as levention.
İlilton, and Thomson, but above all with the divine distrust and disbelief are painful: and therefore, that
Georgic, joined to some practice in the art of drawing, only can give solid and general satisfaction, which has
will promote this amiable sensibility in early years : for something of plausibility in it; something which we
then the face of nature las novelty superadded to its conceive it possible for a rational being to believe. But
other charms, the passions are not pre-engaged, the heart no rational being can acquiesce in what is obviously
is free from care, and the imagination warm and 10 contrary to nature, or implies palpable absurdity.
Poetry, therefore, and indeed every art whose end is
But not to insist longer on those ardent emotions that to please, must be natural; and if so, must exbibit real
are peculiar to the enthusiastic disciple of nature, may it matter of fact, or sometbing like it ; that is, in other
not be affirmed of all men, without exception, or at words, must be either according to truth or according
least of all the enlightened part of mankind, that they to verisimilitude.
are gratified by the contemplation of things natural, as And though every part of the material universe a-
opposed to unnatural ? Monstrous sights please but for bounds in objects of pleasurable contemplation, yet no-
a moment, if they please at all; for they derive their thing in nature so powerfully touches our hearts, or gives
charm from the beholder's amazement, which is quick so great variety of exercise to our moral and intellectual *Brydone's ly over.
We read indeed of a man of rank in Sicily faculties, as man. Human aflairs and human feelings are eily, let. 24.
who chooses to adorn his villa with pictures and statues universally interesting. There are many who have no
of most unnatural deformity : but it is a singular in- great relish for the poetry that delineates only irrational
stance; and one would not be much more surprised to or inanimate beings; but to that wbich exbibits the
hear of a person living without food, or growing fat by fortunes, the characters, and the conduct of men, there
the use of poison. To say of any thing, that it is is hardly any person who does not listen with sympatby
contrary to nature, denotes censure and disgust on the and delight. And hence to imitate human action, is
part of the speaker; as the epithet natural intimates an considered by Aristotle as essential to this art; and must
agreeable quality, and seems for the most part to imply be allowed to be essential to the most pleasing and most
that a thing is as it ought to be, suitable to our own instructive part of it, Epic and Dramatic composition,
taste, and congenial with our own constitution. Think Mere descriptions, bowever beautiful, and moral reflec-
with what sentiments we should peruse a poem, in tions, however just, become tiresome, where our passions
which nature was totally misrepresented, and principles are not occasionally awakened by some event that con-
of thought and of operation supposed to take place, re cerns our fellow men. Do not all readers of taste re-
pugnant to every thing we had seen or heard of :-in ceive peculiar pleasure from those little tales or episodes
which, for example, avarice and coldness were ascribed with which Thomson's descriptive poem on the Seasons
to youth, and prodigality and passionate attachment to is here and there enlivened ? and are they not sensible,
the old ; in which men were made to act at random, that the thunder-storm would not have been half so in-
sometimes according to character, and sometimes con teresting without the tale of the two lovers (Summer, v.
trary to it; in which cruelty and envy were productive 1171); nor the harvest-scene, without that of Palemon
of love, and beneficence and kind affection of hatred : and Lavinia (Autumn, v. 177.): nor the driving snows,
in which beauty was invariably the object of dislike, and without that exquisite picture of a man perishing among
ugliness of desire; in which society was rendered happy them (Winter, v. 276) ? It is much to be regretted,
by atheism and the promiscuous perpetration of crimes, that Young did not employ the same artifice to animate
and justice and fortitude were held in universal contempt. his Night-Thoughts. Sentiments and descriptions may
Or think, how we should relish a painting, where no be regarded as the pilasters, carvings, gildings, and
regard was had to the proportions, colours, or any of other decorations of the poetical fabric : but human ac-
the physical laws, of Nature :—where the ears and eyestions are the columns and the rafters that give it sta-
of animals were placed in their shoulders ; where the bility and elevation. Or, changing the metaphor, we
sky was green and the grass crimson ; where trees grew may consider these as the soul which informs the lovely
with their branches in the earth and their roots in the frame; while those are little more than the ornaments
air ; where men were seen fighting after their beads were
of the body.
cut off, ships sailing on the land, lions entangled in cob Whether the pleasure we take in things natural, and
webs, sheep preying on dead carcases, fishes sporting in our dislike to what is the reverse, be the effect of habit
the woods, and elephants walking on the sea. Could or of constitution, is not a material inquiry. There is
such figures and combinations give pleasure, or merit nothing absurd in supposing, that between the soul, in
the appellation of sublime or beautiful? Should we lie- its first formation, and the rest of nature, a mutual har-
sitate to pronounce their author mad? And are the ab- mony and sympathy may have been established, which
surdities of madmen proper subjects either of amuse experience may indeed confirm, but no perverse habits
inent or of imitation to reasonable beings ?
could entirely subdue. As no sort of education could,
Habit bas Let it be remarked, too, that though we distinguish make man believe the contrary of a self-evident axiom, great inour internal powers by different names, because other or reconcile him to a life of perfect solitude ; so we quence wise we could not speak of them so as to be understood, should imagine, that our love of nature and regularity they are all but so many energies of the same individual might still remain with us in some degree, though we had ment and mind; and therefore it is not to be supposed, that wbat been born and bred in the Sicilian villa above mentioned, feeling, and contradicts any one leading faculty should yield perma and never beard any thing applauded but what deserved upon nent delight to the rest. That cannot be agreeable to censure, nor censured but what merited applause. Yet poetry
. reason, which conscience disapproves; nor can that gra habit must be allowed to have a powerful iufluence over