Page images

it is fatal to the character of the dairy. Sooner or later it must come to light, and then you may be sure, a very black mark is made against such a factory by those who have anything to do with the buying, shipping, or selling of it. A little care and judgment in filling your hoops, would put a stop to all such complaints in the future. If necessary, it would be better to make a few very small, rather than spoil several fullsized cheeses. Complaints have also been made of some dairies, otherwise fair, presenting a mottled appearance, as if the curd from different vats had been carelessly mixed together.

Shortly after the factory system was fairly started in this State, I ventured to predict that its manifest advantages would enable you in course of time to produce an article fully equal to the very finest English cheese; but some of my English friends were scarcely inclined to be as sanguine as I was in this matter. While from the first there have been a few factory dairies and occasional drafts of others, that have come very nearly, if not quite, up to the highest English standard, it was not till the August and September make of the present season was reached, that we were able to show the English dealers any considerable quantity of American cheese, that in point of quality, make and flavor, could not be beaten by any country in the world. During my visit to London last October, I went through a carefully selected stock of over 10,000 boxes of New York State cheese, with one of the largest and most experienced cheese-factors in the South of England. The inspection was close and critical. When it was concluded, I asked two questions. The first was: “How do these cheeses compare with the English make of the current season ?" Said this most competent authority: • The season has been so unfavorable that I don't think I could get returns of equal quality in all the South of England." I then asked: “How does the stock we have been looking through compare with the best English cheese of an average season ?" The reply was: “They are just as good, and I did not think it possible to get together so many fine American cheeses.” This is high praise, and the character and position of the speaker adds very much to the value of his testimony. I regret to have in any way to qualify it, but I am here to tell the whole truth. Indeed, the only claim I have on your atttention is that, without fear or favor, I endeavor to represent things to you as they really are. Much of this cheese that we examined in the month of October, has been disposed of and given great satisfaction to the consumers. Several of the dairies, those apparently most likely to keep well, have been held over, and I regret to say that the latest advices from London report many of them to have faded in color, and become strong or rank in flavor. The result of the closing season then, as regards quality, would seem to be, that during two or three months you have made a larger quantity of finer quality than you ever made before, but also that the cheese lacks keeping qualities. Still, you have made a great step in advance, which should stimulate you to zealous anä intelligent efforts in the same direction. I can honestly compliment and heartily congratulate you on the position you have gained, but much yet remains to be accomplished. Your endeavor must be to make superfine cheese, not only in one or two months, but from the beginning to the end of the season, and so to make it that it will retain its good qualities for a reasonable length of time. This is no easy task, especially in a climate of such extreme and sudden changes; but from what you have accomplished in the past, I am very sanguine of the improvement you will make in the future. The problem thus presented for your solution is undoubtedly one of great difficulty, but it has been well said, that “difficulty is only the measure of resistance to be overcome by superior force." In this age, and in this country, superior force is only another name for superior intelligence.

Mr. Webb's address was heartily applauded, and at its conclusion, Mr. Weeks, of Onondaga, moved that the thanks of the Association be presented to Mr. Webb for the valuable paper which he had read to the Convention.

[ocr errors]


The value of red clover as a preparatory crop for wheat, is well known to the agriculturist. The reason for this has, however, never been clearly ascertained. It is very true that other green crops have been successfully introduced into our rotations; but then these have been commonly fed off by sheep. Other crops, such as rape, buckwheat or mustard, plants which derive the chief portion of their purely organic matters from the atmosphere, have long been grown, to be either fed off, or ploughed into the soil. But here we appear to understand the chemistry of the operation, since a large amount of carbon is absorbed by the crop from the atmosphere and added to the soil. But, in these cases, the cultivator is careful to feed off or plough in his crop before it has ripened its seed. He uses the crop just when it is coming into flower. But these facts do not apply in explanation of the beneficial effects produced on the soil by the growth of red clover. In commencing a recently published very valuable report on this subject, Professor Voelcker observes (Jour. Roy. Ag. Soc., Vol. iv., p. 397, N. S.): “The heaviest crops of clover removed from the soil, appear to render it more capable of yielding a good crop of wheat. The addition of even powerful saline manures to such clover-leys, seems hardly to improve the subsequent wheat crop."

To refer to only one series of experiments, with these saline dressings, carefully, conducted, at Rothamsted: In this case the produce of wheat, grown after red clover, which had been cut three times, was nearly as great without any manure as when portions of the same clover-ley were dressed with various fertilizers. Thus, the produce of wheat per acre was:



Bush. From the unmanured land...

29 “ superphosphate of lime (150 lbs. bone-ash, 112 lbs. sulphuric acid). 32 " 300 lbs. sulphate of potash......

300 lbs. sulphate of potash and superphosphate of lime..

mixed alkalies-300 lbs. sulphate of potash, 100 lbs. sulphate of soda,
109 lbs. sulphate of magnesia.....

mixed alkalies and superphosphate of lime.


[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

Various, indeed, have been the attempts to explain the phenomena observed in the cultivation of red clover. Robert Baker, of Writtle, in his prize report upon the agriculture of Essex, remarked:

“Clover is grown only once in six or eight years, for if sown oftener it is apt to fail in plant; and even when in plant it is not very productive, unless highly manured, which is done upon the young plants in autumn. In that case it is mostly afterwards mown, but the usual practice is to feed with sheep through the summer, or to feed close until 1st June, when the stock is removed, and the clover is reserved for seed, producing from four to eight bushels per acre. Wheat generally succeeds it, but not so well as when the clover is grown for hay, the late period of sowing giving opportunity to the slug, which frequently destroys the plant of wheat.”

Then, again, Mr. C. Sewell Read, in his prize report on the farming of Oxfordshire, observes:

One-eighth of the land is sown with broad or red clover. Its return only once' in eight years does not, on light soils, guarantee a crop; and to insure a plant, some excellent farmers drill the seed instead of sowing it. The clover is deposited with a Suffolk drill having the turnip-seed barrel, the coulters being six inches. It is best done across the barley when it is up, and is afterwards rolled in. On most soils the clover is sown alone, without any mixture of rye-grass, and from 12 to 20 lbs. of seed are used per acre. Better crops of wheat are frequently grown after the clover has been twice mown. Tbe

« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »