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What qualifications as to citizenship, personal

character, and liberal education are required ! fron tho applicant?

What qualifications are required in the way of a

Professional study of law, and must such study study in such an office ?

Must be a citizen of the United States; nothing He must hare a knowledge of the law; it is imrequired in the way of liberal education.

material how he gets it. A committee appoint. ed by court ascertains fitness.

Must make affidarit that he is of age, a citizen Every applicant to practice law, except those

of the State, and a certified transcript from a who apply for admission upon a license granted court of record in this State showing that he in anotlier State, or upon a diploma issued by a is a man of good moral character. Nothing law school in the State, shall present to one of as to liberal education.

the appellate courts proof that he has studied law two years the same studies prescribed by the regularly established law schools in the State, or a course equivalent thereto, naming the books studied, under the direction and supervision of one or more licensed lawyers or firms of lawyers, and that the applicant has submitted to satisfactory examinations by such lawyer or lawyers at convenient intervals during such period of study, covering progressively the entiro course studied, such proof to consist of the ailidavit of the applicant and also of the certiticate or certificates of the lawyer. Exam.

ination is held in open court. Every person of good moral character, being a From the letter of the attorney-general, Hon.

voter, shall be entitled to admission to practice William A. Ketchum: The words, “being & volaw in all courts of justice. (Constitution Art. ter" has been held by the courts to have no VII, sec. 21.)

limitation in excluding those who are not voters, and women are admitted to practice. The only substantial requirement is that the applicant shall be of good moral character, and at times this may not be very rigidly insisted upon). It seems to be the theory that it is not very impor. tant who is admitted to practice law, as after he has been admitted to practice, if he does not know enough to justify his admission, he will not get any practice anyhow."

Most be a citizen (of the State) and of good moral Must pursue a regular course in the study of law

character. There is no provision regarding a for at least two years in the office of a practicing liberal education, but the want of it is consid- attorney of this state, or a course of two years ered in determining the applicant's qualifica- of thirty-six weeks each in some reputable law tions.

school in the United States. Examination is conducted by three members of the bar, one of whom must bethe attornoy-general. The written questions are prepared by the supreme court; the oral examination is conducted in open court. MEDICIYE-Continued.

What qualifications as to citizenship, personal character, and liberal education are required from the applicant?

What qualifications are required in the way of

a professional study of medicine, specifying, in addition to the branches of medicine and surgery, and practice thereof required, tho dura. tion of such study, and whether it must be supplemented by study with a physician?"

LOUISIASA: Good moral character, average edu

cation, as shown by technical examination before board.

Must have diploma from medical college in good

repute, having three courses of six months each in different years. An examination beforo the board on all the branches of medicino.

MAINE: Certificate of good moral character, only | All must pass an examination on anatomy, physi

so far as the board may tako it upon itself to ology, pathology, materia medica, therapeutice, decide.

surgery, the principles and practice of medi. cino, obstetrics, or such branches thereof as the board inay deem necessary that the appli

cant should possess. MARYLAND: Testimonials to moral character. Must be a graduate of some reputable medical

The candidate should at lcast possess a high- school having a three years' course, but an ef. school education.

fort is being made to extend the courso to fonr years. Nongradnates of a college of medicino are examined in practice, surgery, anatomy, materia medica," therapeutics, physiology, chemistry, jurisprudenco, obstetrics, gyne

cology; hygiene, and pathology. MASSACHCSETTS: Good moral character and 21 All applicants are required to pass a satisfactory years old.

examination in surgery, physiology, pathology, obstetrics, and practice of medicine. Collore diplomas not a factor in testing an applicant's

qualifications for practice. MICHIGAN: None

Every graduate of any legally authorized medi

cal college in the State, or in any one of the United States, or in any other country, shall be deemed qualified to practice mollicine and sur. gery in all its departments after having reg. istered.

MINNESOTA: Good moral character. Evidence The applicant for licenşe must present eridenco

of ignorance in ordinary spolling and writing of having attended upon three separate courses count against a candidate, at option of examiner. of medical study at à college having not less

than six months duration each. Study with physician not necessary. [Other] applicants are required to pass an examination on anatomy, physiology, histology, pathology, chemistry, inedical jurisprudence, preventive medicine, obstetrics, practice, surgery, diseases of women and children materia medica, eyo and ear discases, toxicology.


What qualifications as to citizenship, personal

character, and liberal education aro required from the applicant?

What qualifications are required in the way of a

professional study of law, and must such study be alone in a law oflice or be supplemented by study in such an ollice?

Must be citizen of State; present certificate of Must present certificate that two years have been good moral character.

spent in study of law. The court will not be satistied with the qualifications of a candidate in point of legal learning unless it shall appear that he is well read in the following course of studies at least: Constitution (Story), Law of Nations (Vattel or Wheaton), History of tho civil law in Louisiana, Louisiana Civil Code, Code of Practice, General Statutes, Institutes of Jus. tinian, Domats's Civil Law, Pothier on Obliga. tions, Blackstone's Commentaries (fourth book), Kent's Commentaries, Mercantile Law (Smith), Insurance (Wood), Negotiablo Paper (Story, or Parsons and Daniel), Evidence (Greenleaf, Starkio or Phillips), Crimes (Russell), Criminal Proceduro (Bishop), and the Jurisprudence of

Louisiana. Nothing in the way of citizenship or liberal Must have studied law two years in a lawyer's

education, but character must be satisfactory office or law school, and must be vouched for by to justico presiding at time of examination. the member of bar with whom the student has

read. The examining committee is composed of

three members of tho bar in each county. Must have been a citizen two years (of State) Must have been a student of law for tho two scars

and be of good moral character. No liberal immediately preceding his application, and must education required by law.

be examined by court if not il graduate of a law school in State. The court selects the examin. ing committee.

Just pass a thorough examination. See letter of

Mr. Fox (p. 1192), answer to seventh question.

Must be a citizen of the State, or declared his

intention to becomo such, and must be of good moral character. Undoubtedly, applicant's command of English, as shown in examina.

tion papers, is of weight. Must be a resident in the State, a citizen of the

United States, and of good moral character (affidavit of at least two members of the bar of the State in good standing and on prescribed forms). The board of examiners will regard applicants who have received bachelors' degrees from any reputable college or university as having prima facie the requisite general eilucational qualitications for admission to the bar. So also as to graduates of Michigan normal or high schools, or other reputable institntions of similar character. Recent firstgrade teachers' certificate will also be accepted. Otherwise applicant must pass examination, especially arithmetic, grammar, elementary algebra, general Aunerican and English his. tory, civil gorernment composition and rhet. orie, and English literature. If the professional examination papers of a college or other granate slios deficiencies in education the writer will be subject to examination. Must present his atidavit that he is of age and

is a citizen of the United States, or has de. elared his intention to become such. Also attidavits from two practicing attorneys that he is a person of good moral character. Board shall examine applicants in such branches of general education as it may deem expedient.

Graduates from lar department of Michigan

University or Detroit College of Law, both lar. ing a threo years' course, are admitted to bar on their diploma. Others must have studied law for three years previous to applying for admis. sion, whicli shall be conditioned on the applicant's answering correct 70 per cent of the questions asked himn in a written and oral examination on the administration of estates, agency, bailment and carriers, bills and notes, common law, contracts, constitutional law, public and privato corporations, criminal law and procedure, dam‘ages, domestic relations, oquitv jurisprudence and procedure, evidence, insurance, mortgages, partnership, pleading and practice (common and Michigan law), personal and real property, torts, legal ethics, State statute law, interna. tional law, suretyslip, frauds, United States courtg. Thero is a State board of law examiners.

Must be examined by State board of examiners in

law of real property, conveyances and trusts, equity jurisprudence, pleading and practice, common law, statute law, codo pleading and practice, constitutional law, international law, criminal law, contracts, sales, bailments and ne. gotiable instruments, landlord and tenant, insurance, partnership, agency, suretyship,frauds, damages and liens, torts, domestic relations, executors, administrators, and wills. Attorneys of five years' standing from any other State or territory of the United States or District of Co. lumbia may, in the discretion of the board, bo admitted without examination.


What qualifications as to citizenship, personal

character and liberal education are required
from the applicant?

What qualifications are required in the way of a

professional study of medicine, specifying, in
addition to the branches of medicine and sur.
gery, and practice thereof required, the dura-
tion of such study, and whether it must be
supplemented by study with a physician?"

Tunteations as to citizen-t

And literal education La tez applicant?

is an actual resident and o de Sorarlar qualitica:ion

MISSOURI: The law prescribes no qualifications; Under a recent decision of the supreme court it

but in regard to personal character and citizen- is necessary only to be the possessor of a di-
ship the board has mado a rule, which has not ploma from a legally chartered medical school
becu questioned, according to which an appli- in good standing to be admitted to registration.
cant nust present two letters of recomien. The good standing of the school to be deter.
dation from physicians as to his moral and mined, like the reputation of an individual, by
professional character, and he must be a resi. testimony. The court decided that the law did
dent of the State unless he makes atlidarit that not authorize the board to set up a standard.
ho resides in a county of another State, which

county lies upon the border of Missouri.
MONTANA: None; but board may refuse to grant Applicants must posses a diploma from a repu.
license on moral grounds.

table school of medicine whose professors and
teachers are graduates of a school of that kind,
and which after July 1, 1898, requires attend.
ance upon four courses of lectures of at least
six months each, no two terras in one year. No
credit for practice of or study with a physician

is given.

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NEVADA: None....

A medical education and a diploma from somo reg.

ularly chartered inedical school, said school to
have a bona fide existence at the time when said

diploma was granted.
NEW HAMPSHIRE: Good moral character and 21 Our State pays now (1897) no attention to medi-

years of age. Must have graduated from a reg. cal college diplomas except from Dartmouth.
istered college or satisfactorily completed a After 1893 Dartmouth graduates will have to
ful course in a registered academy or high stand examination. Applicant must have
school, or had a preliminary education consid- studied medicine not less than fourful school
ered and accepted by the regent (State super- years of at least nino months each, including
intendent of education) as fully equivalent. four satisfactory courses of at least six months

each, in four difierentcalendar years, in a medical
college registered as maintaining at the time a
satisfactory standard. The regent shall accept
as the equivalent for any part of these require.
ments or those concerning a literary education,
evidence of five or more years of reputable prac-
tice provided that such substitution be specified
in the license, or has either received the degree
of bachelor or doctor of medicine from some
registered medical school, or a diploma or license
conferring full right to practice medicine in

some foreign country. (Recent law.)
NEW JERSEY: Nothing as to citizenship, bnt at Candidates must have received a diploma confer-

least two physicians, one of New Jersey, must ring the degree of doctor of medicine from some
vouch for personal character. Candidates must legally incorporated medical college (which in
be graduates from an accredited literary or the opinion of the board was in good standing
scientific college, or have completed satisfacto. at the time of issuing said diploma) in the
rily not less than a three years' course in an United States or a diploma or license confer-
accredited high school or academy, or hare ring the full right to practice all the branches
received a preparatory education covering the of medicine and surgery in some foreign coun.
following branches, riz, orthography, arithme. try, and have also studied medicine four years,
tic, English grammar and composition, geogra- including three courses of lectures in ditierent
phy, history of the United States, algebra, and years in some legally incorporated American or
physics, or what this board of examiners may foreign medical college or colleges prior to the
consider their equivalent.

granting of said diploma or foreign license; pro-
vided, however, that two courses of medical
lectures, both of which shall be either begun or
completed within the same calendar year, shall
not be considered as satisfying the above re-
quirements. All examinations shall be written
in the English language and the questions shall
be, except in materia medica and therapeutics,
such as can be answered in common by all

schools of practice.
NEW MEXICO: Tito certificates well accredited No study with a physician required. As to pro-

as to personal character and professional stand- fessional study our board has not specified at
ing. Our board disproves of medical schools length its requirements except as to time (four
doing their own examination of candidates for years) and terms of lectures (courses] (four)
matriculation. It requires that each candidate and conditions for matriculation. [A diploma
for admission to a medical school shall furnish of a legally chartered medical institution in
as a minimum a high school certificate-prefer- good standing will admit to practice-law.)
ably a college degree.

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Must be a resident, of age, of good repute, and Graduates of the Collego of Law of the Unirersity

hare studice law for two years. Must at least of Nebraska shall lio adinitiel, as far as proteshave a good common-school education, which sional learning is concerned, without examinis judged from his con position and spelling at ation. Others are examined by court. examination. Resident of the State and of good moral charac. Familiarity with the various branches and general ter. A general education only required.

practice of the law required, and to this end study in law office is desirable, although not, required. The examination is by court or com: mittee.

Most take the oath of allegiance, be of age of No person shall be recomniended for license as a

good moral character. Must have served a counselor at law in this State unless he first clerkship of four years with some practicing submit himself to examination and give satis. attorney of the State unless he is a graduate factory evidence of his knowledge of the priu-from some college or university in the United ciples and cloetrines of the law and of his abilities States, when his clerkship may be acquitted in as a pleader, nor shall any be admitted to such thiren years. During the clerkship ho must esanuination wil he slail bare practiced as an not have been engaged in any other business attorney for three years at least. The examina. incompatible witli the full and fair vona tide tion for attorneys and counselors shall be botl service of his clerkship.

written and oral. The examining committee is. composed of six counselors, two going out each year.

Must be a citizen of the Vaited States or de. Must undergo an examination in open court.

clared intention to become such, ot good moral character, and lona fide resident of New Miexico.

ED 97-76

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