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the personnel-has chairs whose duties are too large to be performed by one professor, however great his diligence and his talent. Moreover, it happens sometimes that a professor las preferences for particu. lar parts of his subject and is inclineil to well on certain topics of his course in the detriment of tho others, thus leaving the student on some occasions without other assistance than his books. It is to overcome this inconvenience that maitres de conferences liave been attached to chairs. They are to develop the matters that the professor las merely touched upon (u'aura fait qu' indiquer) or to repeat dificult parts, using the best texts when the matter is literary (ans les lettres), or in conducting experiments caleulated to show results and their causes when the matter is in the domain of science.
The second group of maitro de conferences has quite another character. The personnel of the facul. ties of sciences and letters was created in 1808, it seems, especially in view of the necessities of exam. inations, and not long ago there were faculties with only four professors. Even now many are represcutel by five members, a ridiculously inadequate number, especially if one considers the variety of routes that new methods of criticism and experimentation have opened up during the last fifty years. Without pretending to afforil the profusion of courses that are oftered in other countries, the Gorernmeat desires io enlarge the too narrow field of work to which our faculties have been confined and to permit the student to move more freely in the way his individual aptitudes propell.im –indeed, to fortify those aptitudes by offering means of more extended research and comparisons. Viewing the question from this standpoint, the Chamber of Deputies and tho Senato have placed at my disposal the necessary sum to provide for 70 maitres do conferences, which are to be placed by the side of the regular chairs, being, as it were, probationary chairs (chaires en experience). . They are not dependent upon a professor ; their teaching belongs to themselves; but they are connected with the other chairs by an obligation upon which I insist, which is to adapt their lessons to the special work of the faculty and to the advancement of the student.
The maitres, whose functions are thus describoil, are appointed for the faculties of letters and sciences. In the faculties of law, medicine, and plarınacy those who perform the dnties of the maitres are calle<l "agrégés" and aro appointed on the result of a competitive examination, and hold the place for nine years if not previonsly permanently appointed as a professor. Tlo ol«l system of “suppleants” to the chairs has been suppressed, the place of the supplementary professor being filled by the agrégé (as a chargó de conrs), who may be transferred from one faculty to another at the will of the minister of pullie instruction. The supplement was appointed for lite and was a permanent fixtue in the faculty to which he was attached. But all this is laid down in full detail in the laws which follow; in Note A several differences between the American and Freuch university in executive matters are discussed.
THE POSITION OF THE PROFESSOR. Before entering upon the regulations governing the appointment of the agrégés and the examination of candidates for degrees in each faculty, it is convenient to give title 5 of the decree of December 28, 1855, relative to the organization of the faculties of the schools of superior instruction. This title refers entirely to the professors who occupy chairs--" professeurs titulaires":
Art. 32. Instruction is given in the faculties and in the highor schools of pharmacy by titular professors, assistant professors (adjoint), chargés de cours, and maitres de conferences [the titular professors being permanently located, the others not].
ART. 33. The titular professors are appeinted according to the form prescribed by the decrees of Darch 9, 1852, Anglist 22, 1831, and February 27, 1880. [They are appointed by the minister.] The request for a transfer from one chair to another in the saine faculty is submitted to the consideration of the council of the faculty and to the permanent section of the highor council of public instrnction. Thus, also, is tho request for transference from one faculty to another submitted to the conncils of the faculties interested and to the permanent section of tho higher council of public instruction. The appointinent to now chairg is made directly by the minister.
AET. 34. Yo titular professor shall be displaced from office for an equivalent position unless con. senieil to ly the permanent section of the higher council of public instruction after he has been heard.
ART. 33. The titular professora may obtain leave of absence, renewable for five consecutive years at the most, on account of sickness or a temporary public mission foreign to public instruction. Thoy receive, in the first case, l-alf of their pay, and in the second case, when the service in which they are einployed does not lead to a pension, 100 francs, the pay for inactivity (traitement d'inactivité). Tho titular professors may, with the consent of the council of the faculty or school, be excused from the duty of examination, losing, however, a fourth of their pay. This privilege may only be granted when the work of the faculty will not sufier, but may it not be granted to a number that are more than one. sisth of the titular professors.
1 Statistignes de l'enseiguement superióur, 1878-88, p. 95
AFTOINTMENT OF JCNIOR v
ART. 36. The suppléances are suppressed. When the leare granted to the titular professors requires it a course or conference is prorided, renewable each year, to fill the la’una. [Formerly tlio“sup. pleint" took the chair of the absentee.]
ART. 37. Whenever a chair becomes vacant by death, expulsion, retireme:t on a pension, or by rerocation, until the appointment of a new titular professor the lacuma in the instruction is filled by means of a course or conference renewable eaclı year.
ART. 38. The claims of the applicants for chargé de cours and of inaitre de conferences are suib. mitted to the consideration of the consulting committee of public instruction (ministry of public instruction at Paris, first section). In the faculties of law and medicine the courses and conferences are confided to the agrégés.
AKT. 30. The titular professors are not required to retire on a pension until they are 70 years of age, except they ask it or are unable to perform their duties. They may remain in service beyond their seventieth year detached (hors cadre) with the consent of the permanent section of the higher council of ;ublic instruction.
SALARY OF THE PROFESSOR. I'revious to 1876 the professors were paid a regular salary of from $800 to $1,200, which was increased by their fees as examiners. By the decree of January 14, 1876, these examination fees to the profit of the professor were abolished and a fixed salary paid instead—$1,200 to $2,200 for the professors in the faculties of law and letters, of $1,200 to $2,000 in the faculties of medicine and sciences. The professors were clas-ed as professors at Paris, and professors-outside-of-Paris. The practical working of the new order of things was unsatisfactory, for it only 'sowed division among colleagues who had passed the same examinations, lowered the dignity of the professors, and introduced into the faculties habits of solicitation dceply to be regretted.” In 1881 a new classification was made, the professors of the several faculties of the country outside of Paris were placed in one of four classes, calle: first, second, third, and fourth class respectively, and the professors of the Paris faculties placed in one of two classes, called first and second class respectively. The following table will show the change in salary made by the law of 1881 and the variation in the number of titular professors. It will also bring out the difference, so far as the absolute anonnt receivo:l is concernel, of being a professor at l’aris and a Government profossor in another part of France:
ruling the third section of the
for the change, in the rep
It was found that the old lar
ei organization of the exa
een exercised the most in
since his pupilage.
& conférences" or of "co
know how to utilize the i bythese general ideas, t) ind title of the 1874 law, wlii flate, bat also his professi part of practical instruction h * July 30, 1887, and reads 12. In the faculties of nie Lars the agrégés hold the levery three years. The
There are four sectior ist, for anatomical and I estad, for physical scieri
Chairs (no change
$2.000 $1,200-$2.000 $3,000 $2,400 $2,300 $2,000 $1, 600 $1,200
und nataral history.
5 (1st) 6 (2d) 23 (3d) 18 (Ith) 11 (1st) 11 (20) 55 (30) 33 (4th)
$3,000 $1,200-$2,200 $3,000 $2, 400 $2,500 $2,000 $1, 600 $1,200
for medicine, prope
Pearl for surgery and ac 42. The preparatory esa de toon upon question
Catholic theol. 03: Salary
Chairs. Frotestant the. ology:
seal lesson of forty-fi eunminel. The surveill:
didate shall have the a i mblie exhibition liy t
the candidate shall
that problems he ha Sen be has found. If son
2 (180) 3 (20) 2 (30) 11 (1st) 11 (20) 53 (30) 32 (4th)
9 (ist) 11 (21) 17 (30) 29 (4th) 2 (1st) 5 (20) 3 (3d)
te raadidates for tlie
raabia et règlements
$1,600-$2,000 $1,200-$1,000 $2,200 $1, 800 $1,700 $1,500 $1,300
10 7 2 2 5 3
(181) 4 (24)
et has two delibera
in * assembly of t a XL. Brucerdel pou
a Tbeso salaries are for the “Superior schools of pharmacy."
APPOINTMENT OF JUNIOR MEDICAL PROFESSORS (**AGRÉGÉS ”).
In repealing the third section of the statute of November 16, 1874, governing the character of the examination of the junior medical professors, the following reasons were given for the change, in the report presented to the higlier council of public instruction by the commission of the council, to whom the question had been referred'. It was found that the old law governing the examination was better caleulated to ascertain the erudition of the candidate than his personal scientific ability. Medicine has changed, says the commission, since 1812, when the original law was drawn. Physiology and pathological histology have extended their domain and experimental pathology and microbiology havo been born. In our day the greatest problems of medicine present themselves and are solver in the laboratory. Yet such is the present organization of the examination of assistant professors that a "young worker,” bright and provided with a good memory, is alilo to pass without having pat foot within a laboratory, without having made an etiort to testify concerning his own personality. Success is for the candidate wlio bas retained the most and who has been exercised the most in the art of speaking well on any subject whatso
WI th supreme end is attained and the candidate is appointed agrégé lie is 35 or 36 years of age, and it is too late then to turn to the laboratory. He has forgotten the technique that he learned when a student and is ignorant of what has been done since his pupilage.
Now, in the faculties of medicine, the agrégé has a very important role to fill in the direction of the course. He takes part in the assembly of the faculty and in the examinations; he fills the chairs of professors; he takes part, under the title of “chargé de conférences” or of cours complémentaires,” in the instruction giren by the school. It is necessary that the influence which he exercises over the students should be conformable to the scientific tendencies of the day; it is necessary that he should know how to utilize tho laboratories for the benefit of the student.
Guided by these general ideas, the commission endeavored to frame a substitute to the third title of the 1874 law, which would not only bring ont tlio crudition of the candidate, but also his "professional aptitudes, his scientific aptitudes, and the amount of practical instruction he bad received." This substitute was issued as an "arrêté” July 30, 1887, and reads as follows:
ART. 37. In the faculties of medicine and in the mixed faculties of medicine and pharmacy the agrégés hold their position for nine years; one-third being reappoiuted every threo years. [They have become titular profossors in the meantime, if capable.]
ART. 38. There are four sections of agrégés: The first, for anato:nical and physiological sciences, comprehends anatomy, physiology, and natural history.
The second, for physical sciences, comprehends physics, chemistry, pharmacy, aud toxicology.
The third for medicine, properly so callel, and medical jurisprudence.
(1) An oral lesson of forty-five minutes, had after three hours of preparation in a guarded room upon a question concerning the subject ou which the candidate is being examined. The surveillance shall be provided for by the jury of examination. The candidate shall have the aid of such books as the jury may allow.
(2) A public exhibition by the candidate of his personal work. [“During thirty minutes the candidate shall say what progress, great or small, he has made in science, what problems he has attacked, what obstacles he has encountered, what solution he has found. If some candidate gives way to the temptation to exaggerate the value of his work, he will thus give to a competent jury tho measure of his tact.3"]
(3) For candidates for the subjects of physics, chemistry, and natural history a
1 Rocueil des lois et règlements sur l'enseignement supérieur, tome 4, p. 347 et seq.
2 Each faculty has two deliberative bodies or "council of the faculty,'' made up wholly of titular professors, and an "assembly of the faculty," of which the agrégés form a part.
3 Rapport par M. Brouardel pour la commission.
composition on anatomy and plıysiology. Five hours are given for this composition, which is to take place in a closed room, under the supervision of a member of the jury. The composers are not allowed the aid of any printed or manuscript work,
ART. 40. The final examination consists (1) Of an oral lesson of an hour after forty-eight hours of independent preparation. (2) A series of practical evidences:
(a) For medicine: A clinic lesson upon one or two patients chosen by the jury, examined with all the resources of the laboratory; exercises in pathological anatomy.
(b) For surgery and accouchements: Same practical proofs as for medicine, and, in addition, an operation upon the cadaver for surgery.
(c) For anatomy: A lesson upon a subject of descriptive anatomy; practical exercises in histology.
(d) For physiology: A lesson upon a subject of histology; practical exercises in experimental physiology.
(e) For physics: A lesson upon an experiment in physics; practical exercises in physies.
(f) For chemistry: 1 lesson npon a chemical experiment; practical exorcise in chemistry.
(9) For natural history: A lesson upon a subject of natural history; practical exercises in natural history.
(1) For pharmacy: A lesson upon pharmaceutical operation; practical exercises in pharmacy.
ART. 41. The subjects and the duration of the practical «xercises are determined by the jury:
By the decree of July 30, 1886, the agrégés are made members of the faculty or school to which they are attached. They take rank after the titular professors. They are members of the assembly of the faculty or school, having a vote if they are conducting a course of instruction that is provided for by the budget or are conducting a course of practical work, the other agrégés have only the privilege of giving an opinion (voix consultative). They participate in the examination; fill the place of professors temporarily absent, and conduct courses with the view of rounding out the instruction given by the titular professors. In the faculties of medicine the mumber of agrégés having courses shall not be fewer than one-third nor more than one-half of the chairs of the faculty.
The pay of the agrégés for medicine (including pharmacy) and law was fixed in 1876 as follows:
Agrégés at Paris....
$1. 400 $600-700
By the decree of July 30, 1876, the agrégés filling the place in the courso of instruction of an oeenpant of a chair received in auldition $600 at Paris and $100 in tho other | parts of France.
APPOINTMENT OF JUNIOR LAW PROFESSORS (AGRÉGÉS). By the statute of 1874 the French law of 1857 governing the appointment of associato professors of law was modified in that which regards the tests giren at the competitive examination to the following estent:
The preparatory or eliminating tests were to be (1) a composition upon a question of French lawr; (2) two [trial] lessons, one given after four hours of independent preparation upon a subject of French civil law, the other after twenty-four hours of preparation upon a subject of Roman law.
The definite tests were to be (1) a composition in Latin upon a question of Roman law; (2) two lessons, each given after twenty-four hours of independent preparation, the first upon a question of French civil law and the second upon a question selected by the judges from another branch of French law; (3) two arguments, one upon a titlo of Justinian's Digest, the other upon it question from the French civil law. This examination was found to require too much time and to be an unnecessary multiplication of tests, and it was changed in 1880.
By the regulation of December 27, 1880, the composition in Latin on the Roman law was taken out of the definito or second examination and put in the first or eliminating examination, “ for it is necessary," says the committee of the superior council of public instruction, to which the matter had been referred, "that the candidate should have a certain habitudo of using the Latin language;" but one exhibition of teaching power was dropped from the eliminating examination. The committee found themselves, however, unable to drop either of the two lessons required in the detinite examination, as they were both calculated to show tlie ability of the candidates in different subjects of the law, and hence the completeness of his knowledge. They (leemed it equally out of the question to drop the argument upon a title of Justinian's Digest, also required in the second examination, as it is a very probing test, which assumed that those who passed through it successfully had extended knowledge and two indispensable qualities for teaching--that is to say, promptness of mind and command of language;" but the argument on a question of French law was thrown out as an unnecessary test.
But this remaniement-this rehandling of the competitive examination of the aspirant for a junior professorship-was not entirely satisfactory. Candidates showed that they were, in spite of the requirements, less and less familiar with the Latin language, and to cause them to use a medium of expression with which they were not familiar paralyzed or altered their ideas. Again, what was the value of the argumentation in point of spontaneity if the contesting parties compared notes before the mere exhibition came off? But these refornis, says the commission of 1890, are of secondary importance. We wish to go very much farther in this matter," for it appears to us that the competitive examination (concours) as organized by the statnta of December 27, 1880, is very justly criticised in several particulars which wo enumerate:
(1) Tlio duration of the examination is too long. This causes a rather considerable ontlay of money by those candidates who are not living with their family, but for all it is a long drawn out cause of feverish excitation injurious to health. (2) The preliminary proofs are too chanceful. A lesson prepared in the short space of four hours and two compositions, both upon a special question! are these satisfactory criteria upon which to judge of the merits of a candidate? Can an examiner flatter himself that he knows anything about the admissibility or inadmissibility on such contrivances ? Men 30 to 35 well instructed and of brains may have the luck to be pitted against subjects with which they are unfamiliar or which to them are distaste. ful, are trivial, or far fetched, and thus they are thrown out, eliminated, to the advantage of the otlier candidates who have not been superior but more lucky than they. (3) The tests do not correspond to the curricukım in the faculty. These tests are exclusively confined to Roman and the French law and do not permit certainty in diagnosing the special aptitudes of each candidate, nor do they interrogate those who are to treat the history of law, public law, and political economy.
The committee having thus reported, the minister immediately (1890) notified the fonrteen faculties of law that the tests were no more in relation with the curriculum of thio faculties and asked their assistance in framing a new scheme of examination. It is rather interesting to compare the position of the important faculty of law of Paris at the date of 1890 and 1897, when a new curriculum had been promulgated on each oceasioil.
Concours d'agrégation dans les facultés de droit. Enquêtes et documents relatifs à l'enseignement supérieur, Paris 1800, p. 2.