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MASSACHUSETTS: All candidates, whether grad.
nates of a law school or not, are required to pass an examination. As a matter of practice, the examiners are accustomed to ask the preliminary question whether the applicant is a grad. uate of any law school, and that fact is treatel by them as of some weight.
MICHIGAN: Graduates of the University of Michi.
gan law department. MINNESOTA: Yes; as a prerequisite to admission
to an examination. MISSOURI: Yes; the diplomas of the three law
schools in this State.
MONTANA: Yes; as a prerequisite for examination.
I can not say that knowledge of the civil law
would be regarded as of apy weight with the examiners. I am quite sire (our correspondent is an experienced examiner) that no questions of civil law, except as it is incorporated in the common law, are ever put. Members of the bar of another State file petition, which is referred to bar exan:iners, but unless there is suspicion of callowness the petition is grauted
without examination of the petitioner. No response. (In general, residents of other
States are admitted to bar on motion.] No response. (An attorney of other States of fire
years' standing may be admitteil on motion.] Only as a recomendation; no legal weight or
effect. (Member of the bar of another State is examined same as a student applying who is not a graduate of three law schools. Actual resi.
dence required.] No response; but attorneys who declare their
purpose to become citizens of the State and who have been admitted to practice in tho courts of another State or a country where the common law of England is the basis of jurig.
prudence is admitted to practice on motion. No response; but must pass an examination of
the principles of tlie comunon law. But attor. neys in the courts of record of another State or of a Territory having business in the courts of
Nebraska may be adinitted on motion. No response. (Any counselor at law from any
other of the United States, of good standing there, having a case in New Jersey, may be admitteil
hac vice to speak in that case.) No response. (Production of a certificate from a
judge of the highest court of original jurisdic. tion in another State or Territory that they have
practiced law.] No. (Foreigners who have been admitted to
practice law in the higher courts of their own
country may be admitted on motion.] Yes. (Citizenship is required in all cases.]
NEBRASKA: Yes; of the college of law of the
NEW JERSEY: No; not by the letter of the law...
New Mexico: Examination required.........
NEW YORK: Yes; as one of the papers to be filed
in making application for admission to bar. NORTH CAROLINA: Probably yes; an testifying to
at least one year of study of law. NORTH DAKOTA: Only so far as it shows that two
years have been spent in the study of law.
OKLAHOMA: Xo; not yet .....
A thorough kuowledge of the civil law would be
of great assistance to an applicant. Only as it would enable applicant to pass oral
examination in open court. [Residence in State
required.) Only in a general way. (Fire years of practice
in the courts of one of the United States may
be admitted.] Its only value would be the secondary effect
attributable to a knowledge of such principles as a basis for the understanding of our own laws. [Authenticated certificate that applicant is member of the bar in a foreign country will
admit.) In my opinion probably little; it rould depend
entirely on the feeling of the examiving committee and rules of county) court. [Citizen. ship required. Adinission of members of bar of other States or countries dependent on county court rules.]
PEKXSYLVANIA: Yes, to a certain extent. It sel.
dom obriates the necessity of a formal examina. tion.
the day then the grunp
Truber should bnade i i 20-leiters, sciences, the 12 we into the lacnlty of thi
ELSET Orsz?tor in each o de qualisdire is the coi
tihits on fatal site retor of the educat
of business men of the Ar peti_'** presides in each a
sts each without a head 13. ies with him, the co
Tre ceapril of the Univers sel by election should not i lepa universities eleet the egin abs ray. The co Distr of Sancy. The I Turersity of Lille claims t1
SOUTH CAROLINA: Yes; law school of State Uni. No response. Member of bar of another Stats versity.
must show that he is such. Citizenship rs
quired.] SOUTH DAKOTA: No....
No response. [Residence required. As to ad.
mission to practice in South Dakota conrts of
that reciprocity is practiced.]
bar of another State admitted upon motion.] TEXAS: Yes, if given by the law department of No. [If “immigrating to this State with a view the University of Texas.
of permanently residing therein" a member of
apply to members of the bar of a foreign land.] UTAJI: No
Only as it would assist him in passing the exam
ination required by law, except in a general was. VERMONT: Yes, as showing study of law for a
part of the three years of study with an at
torney. VIRGINIA: Yes
Yes. (Virginia seems to be courteons in the
matter of extending opportunity to the meni.
country.) WASHINGTOX: No..
The knowledge would bo of assistance, but a cer.
tificate from a foreign State would not be con-
by a court of last resort.
juent of the University of West Virginia. But during his examination. Members of bar of
is not considered.
States and the Territorios aro admitted to Wis.
Nevertheless, why courtesy resi-
z poil the deliberating: ay is directed by a president Li f'kus represent the unire
remarks that the recen de uitersities of the Unité an atraind be dependence up
sterud fach bare an indirit way. The Cairersity of Di La locorary professor
Ja 2 otct sea hor diderent 10. In France it would 20. USty of rather like the imeti profeus ean be ap $up by the faculty of sati section of higher educ
mitment of professors un 91 to the conditions 80 side of the facts, and is
**: vi the central governm
In America the university is a corporation, governed by a board of trustees who elect a president and appoint professors. There is, in brief, a business body accountable either to the State, to a religious or other society, or to no one except it be to somewhat vague body called the alumni. 'In France all this is different. The State grants diplomas as the United States grants patents, and a French diploma has the same value as an American patent, that is to say, it is protected by law. This is the foundation of the Université de France. It was the State regulating higher instruction. Thus all that was neces. sary was an examining board at convenient places and theso were called faculties. But the faculties soon became schools and in French terminology a faculty of science and a school of science, for example, ara perfectly convertible terms. Thus each school in Franco became a part of tho huge machine operated from Paris. In 1883 M. Jules Simon, the minister of public instruction, and others began to look for
ward to the day when the group of schools or faculties in each of the serenteen educational jurisdic. tions of France should be made a university. In 1885 a council of the faculties, of which there are five in France, letters, sciences, theology, medicine, and law-was created and by tho law of 1896 this body was made into the faculty of the university. But the minister of public instruction in France has a vice-minister or prætor in each of the seventeen academic jurisdictions of the “University of France." The officer equally directs the concerns of higher, secondary, and elementary education. Thus we havo a university with its own faculty managing its own educational concerns, presided over by a rector who is the viceroy of the educational minister at Paris for education of every grade and kind. The board of business mon of the American university at Paris is a bureau; the agent of that bureau in tho provinces presides in each academy over the university council, and the twelve universities ar ) universities each without a head. Upon the request made to the universities by the minister to communicate freely with him, the councils of several laid before him the following as information:
"The council of the University of Aix-Marseilles consider it anomalous that bodies which are recruited by election should not be allowed to freely choose their head from among their own number. All foreign universities elect their president without the central power losing any of its prerogatives or suffering in any way. The council of the University of Rennes speaks to the same effect, so also the University of Nancy. The l'niversity of Montpellier wishes its new head to be called chancellor. The University of Lille claims that the rector of the academy represents the business administration and the council the deliberating administration of higher education and proposes that the work of the council be directed by a president who should be chosen from among the members of that body and who would thus represent the university, as the rector would represent the State. The University of Grenoble remarks that the recently created French universities should not be compared with the free (private) universities of the United States and England, which are absolutely inistresses of themselves, unembarrassed by dependence upon the State, but as the new universities are well defined corporations they should each have an individual chief and it is undesirable that he should be the rector of the academy. The University of Dijon would retain the rector as president of the university but would make him an lionorary professor of the faculty."
It is at once seen how different is the management of a French university and that of an American institution. In France it would appear that everything is regulated from Paris, but in America by the university, or rather like the fellows manage the affairs of the colleges and halls of Oxford. Yot in France no professor can be appointed by the president of the Republic unless his name hroads a list gotten up by the faculty of the l’niversity in which the vacancy occurs on one side, and the permanent section of higher education on the other. In America the faculty has nothing to do with the appointment of professors unless by private solicitation. In America the business board takes testimony as to the conditions so that it may act properly; in France the council is already schooled iu a knowledge of the facts, and is in all educational matters allowed to act for itself, only modified by the power of the central government to fix the curriculum and the character of the examinations.
Compiled by Ensign Roger Wells, jr., U. S. N., and Interpreter John W. KELLY.
The U.S. S. Thetis was detailed by the Navy Department to cruise, during the summer and autumn of 1889, in the Bering Sea and Arctic Ocean, for the purpose of looking out for the whaling and commercial interests of the United States in those waters, and also for the purpose of assisting in the establishment of a house of refuge at Point Barrow, the most northerly point of our territory.
During this cruise, in order to inake it as broad and useful as possible, several of the officers on board of the Thetis were directed to prepare reports upon subjects connected with the waters and regions visited by the ship, from their observation and from other reliable sourcos. Two reports were submitted to mo upon the subject of the Eskimos of northwestern Alaska; one on the ethnography of the Eskimos, by John W. Kelly, and the other an Eskiino vocabulary, prepared by Ensign Roger Wells, jr., almost entirely from information and material furnished by Mr. John W. Kelly, the interpreter of the ship. Mr. Kelly spent three winters among the northwestern Eskimos, and has been engaged for seven years at various times in acquiring a knowledge of the language. The vocabulary is the largest in number of words that I know of treating of the language of the Eskimos upon our Arctic coast. It has a short vocabulary of the American Eskimos who are settled upon the Asiatic side of Bering Strait, which, I think, will be found particularly interesting and valuable.
The Thetis had the good fortune during this summer of roaching as far east as Mackenzie Bay and as far west as Herald Island and Wrangell Land, thus leaving an honorable name for service among Arctic cruisers. It is to be hoped that the reports, memoranda, and other contributions secured through the roady co-operation of the officers of the ship will serve also to make a permanent and useful record of the cruise creditable to the ship, interesting to the general reader, and of value as coutributions to our knowledge of the Territory of Alaska.
CHARLES H. STOCKTON, Lieutenant-Commander, United States Vary,
Commanding ('. S. S. Thetis. FEBRUARY 17, 1890.