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nitude of that disaster people outside have perlaps never justly conceived. The report says of it several things, of which the following is a portion:

*** Those living outside of the State and not engaged in the cultivation of tropical fruits and vegetables have but slight appreciation of what is meant by a 'freeze, which impoverishes the rich and takes away the visible means of subsistence from tens of thousands of industrious citizens in one night. Groves which had given employment to thousands of laborers, yielded large incomes, had required inany years and much capital to grow, were worth the bare land the next morning. The effect upon the State was the same as if erory manufactory in New England without insurance had been burued to the ground in one night.”

In view of the universal distress the county commissioners, by request of the governor and the executive council, withlield collection of taxes until the fall of the year. Yet the public schools had won so much favor from the people that reluction of the school tax was not made. Indeed this could not have been done, because assessment for education had been made mandatory by the constitution. The result was that beyond some lowering of salaries, slıortening of terms, and delay in estab. lishing schools which were expected to be started, educational interests underwent little suffering.

The rebuke of the delay and negligence of county school officials administered in the foregoing report seems to have had intenderl gooil results, as the showings made by them are in the main satisfactory in the matter of clearness and accuracy.

The statistics show a very slight falling off of the several itens since the freeze. With the exception of the year 1895 there has been a constant increase in the number of pupils enrolled and in daily attendance. The decrease in the number of teachers has been mainly among those of lower grades and by the union of some small schools, in which better if fewer teachers were emploved.

Counting the whites alone in the enrollment, it is claimed that tho percentage of school population is greater than the average for all the United States, greater than the New England, and only a little lower than the North Central, and it is a gratifying fact that, whenover enrolled, white children and colored attend with like punctuality. In this respect Florida, it is claimed, leads every Southern State, as it does in the number of school days.

Thero is great difference among the counties in the length of the school term, the longest for both races being 157 and the sliortest 72 days, 8 below the number required by law. The disparity is peculiar to neither race, in several counties tho colored schools being in this respect ahead of the white. It is suggested that the maximum limit of the school levy should be abolished, and it is asserted with confidence that such action would be ratified by the people.

The law passed, in accordance with the recommendation of tho snperintendent, for the uniform examination of teachers met at first with much opposition and from sources whence it was expected, a class on whom the report pours some ridicule, and it congratulates that such opposition has subsided almost entirely before the evident benefits resulting from its operation. In the matter of framing questions for such examinations tho superintendent, in view of the delicacy and other things attending them, asks for tho appointment of a commission of two or more special experts to perform tho work, arguing that the small cost incurred would be far remunerated by the value of tho service rendered, part of which would be pre ention of the jealousies on the part of such as for political or other special reasons seek the position and indulge in unreasonable coinplainings when disappointed in that behalf.

It is noteworthy that whereas it is made by tho Stato constitution optional among the counties to levy a school tax anywhere between 3 and 5 mills, the number is constantly increasing of those which come up to the maximum. Even after the great freeze thero was falling off in only two counties. Every one of thom, with exception of three, levies at least 4 mills, and not ono went as low as the minimum.

It is claimed by tho report that with the exception of Texas the average of teachers' salaries is above that in any other Southern State.

Regarding that delicato, difficult problem, the education of the colored race, we give the following extract:

"The race is receiving all the educational advantages they are capable of appreciating. Their schools are as closely supervised as any others, the very best teachers are secured that can be had, and they are paid better salaries than tho samo grade of teachers are paid in any other part of the country, North or Sonth. And further than that, every possible encouragement and help is given them to prepare for a better grade of work. Besides a well-oqnipped State Normal Collego, equal advantages are offered their teachers in summer schools and institutes. It is my opinion that the race neeils, moro than anything else, to be let alone by their overzealous friends, and given time to work ont their own destiny. ... The race is manifesting, as a wholo, as commendable ambition to improve its condition as any race in like intellectual, social, and financial conditions under the sun. .. The people of the Stato


are willing to be taxed for their education, and to extend to them every assistance except to lower their own social status, that they may elevate by a mite the negro's. . . . Any assistance rendered from abroad in the attempt to better the condition of these people by the charitably disposed will be most heartily welcomed unless it is attended with the insult to the public sentiment of the State in trying to educate white and black side by side in the same schools."


Report for 1895, Hon. G. R. Glenn, State school commissioner.

The present system of public school education in the State is totally and radically inadequate,” and the legislature is urged to come to its help. Tbe commissioner had already visited the schools in every county in the State except ten, and would visit these before the meeting of the legislature. This observation has convinced him of the sore needs of very many rural districts whose meager facilities of getting education for the children has been one of the principal causes of that constantly growing exodus from the country into the towns, which, in his opinion, tends to hurt the general well-being of the State.

Investigation of criminal statistics in many of the counties shows that far larger amounts have been expended in the prosecution of criminals than toward education. From this fact the commissioner argues that, the greater number of crimes being committed by illiterate persons, saving woulil bo mado by making more efficient provision for exincation of the people, and he cites the great diminution of crimes in England, which are plainly shown to be attributed to the increase of intelligence.

Conimendation is made of the results of establishing teachers' institutes. These have been held in conformity to law, experts being hired to conduct the meetings. This expert is most inadequately paid for his services, the wages, $25, often being exhausted by expenses, leaving nothing for his work. For the purpose of providing better payment for such valuable work, the commissioner combined several counties in the last year.

A large space is given to the evidently rapid increase of cducation among the negroes. It is maintained that on the whole they have made good use of their opportunities, and the commissioner trusts that in good time they are to become of much increased value to the State. He says:

“By nature the negro is impulsive, by nature he is sympathetic, by nature he is emotional and easily excited; he is instinctively loyal and generous. If the good qualities of his head and heart are wisely directed by proper educational processes, he can become, and I believe will become, a most potential factor in aiding the Southern people to work ont their industrial problem. It is a great mistake to suppose that education hiirts tho colored man an unfits him for service. A little false education and misdirected education may do this, but the natural and normal devel. opment of the life and character of the negro, as has been shown already in so many notable instances, will make him a most valuable aid to us as a people. I find, wherever I have gone in the State, a growing disposition on the part of the intelligent colored men to show their sense of gratification for the aid that the white people of Georgia are giving the race by cultivating tho kindliest and most helpful relations between themselves and their whito neiglıbors and friends."

The commissioner calculates that 250,000 children of school age do not attend school. The greater part of the latter are in rural districts, where a majority of the children labor on the farm. Besides, as he says, “tle schoolhouses in the country are so uncomfortable that the schools inust be held in tho spring and suminer.”

Some improvement has been made in the matter of reading circles through the praise worthy instigation of the county school commissioners, a fact promising good results in the growing professional spirit generally among teachers, leading them to increased habits of becoming acquainted, through reading, with general literature outside of text-books.

Much congratulation is indulged on the entire success of the normal school at Athens, which is now under the management of Mr. S. D. Bradwell, former State school commissioner Pupils from at least eighty counties are in attendance, and interest amounting to enthusiasm prevails among them and the professors.

Much praise is bestowed upon the Georgia Normal and Industrial College at Mil. ledgeville, fouuded upon the highly satisfactory report of President Chappell. The rush to this institution has been noteworthy. At the opening, which took place only a few days before the issuing of this report, more than one hundred applicants bai to bo rejected, not withstanding the fact that a large builling had been recently erected which furnisdiel accommodations for 135 additional stuents.

The Georgia Agriuultural College at Dahlonega, getting an allowance of only $2,000 from the State, far overpays, it is claimed, in returns.

The Georgia School of Technology at Atlanta, under the managernent of Lyman Hall, president, is fulfilling the expectation of those who were foremost in suggesting its foundation,

The Georgia State Industrial College, intended for coloroil youths, situate at College, a snburb of Savannah, designed to give instruction in mechanical and industrial arts, is reported to be doing well.



Report for 1896, Daniel R. Cameron, president of the board of education, Albert G. Lape, superin

tendent of schools.

It is a gratifying fact that the new sittings provided during the year were fully up to increased enrollment. The latter has gone to 215,784, an increase over last year of 14,404. Increase of sittings have been equivalent to sixteen twenty-room buildings.

It seems a misfortune that the financial resources had to be reduced. Under the lead of "Need of more responsible management" many well-considered observations are made. Want of entire certitude in the educational laws makes inevitable occasional conflict of claims among some school officials, and it is intimated that a more certain and strong authority should be intrusted to the governing head in the system. The report says:

“A clear, well-balanced mind is seldom at conflict with itself, hence the wisdom of making selection of one respectable head of affairs, to whom may be committed the management of the same, but who is empowered to work out his own plans with an eye single to an accountability that is commensurate with his trusted powers. . . . It is my belief that a competent man of affairs, with large executive powers, conversa it with men and values, if chosen in the capacity of, let me suggest. a business director of all its business aftairs, subject always to review by the board, at a liberal salary, would, by the introduction of business methods into the administration of our affairs, so effect a saving in our expenditures as would compensate for his salary many times over and bring about a more rational system of procedure in all our business relations."

The board h:18 accepted from the board of commissioners what was known as the Cook County Normal School.

Suggestions are made regarding vacation schools for the children who can not leave the city during July and August and regarding the introduction into the high schools of a conrse upon commercial interests for the purpose of having men trained for foreign service and correspondence.

Organization has been effected under the law of the last legislature providing a pension and retireinent fund for disabled teachers. The pension board consists of the board of education, the superintendent of schools, and two members to be annually elected by teachers and employers.


Report for 1895 and 1896, Hon. David M. Geoting, State superintendent. The report appeals to the general assembly for additional school legislation. One is that high-school accommodations bo furnished free to common-school graduates; another that teachers' licenses should be given by the State superintendent, thereliy making them valid throughout the State; another that a law be enacted providing for qualification of county and city superintendents; another for a district library system; another for authority in the State board of education to recognize certificates from other States.

The report discusses and clearly defines the word “uniformity” in the law, showing that it means that actual advantages of every kind must be distributed equably. It says:

"While the boys and girls of the cities and towns have access to the privilege of high schools free, the children of the rural districts have been shut off from these privileges, except in some of the best counties and townships. The scliool laws of the State not only grant to township tristees the privilege of establishing higher departments of learning for the childreu in the country districts, but I believe they compel these officers to furnish these advantages to all who are sufficiently advanced.”

Yet, so the report says, the law is so framed that the trustees, if tbey see fit to do so, may refuse. Enrollment is shown to be much larger iu townships wherein State advantages may be had than elsewhere. The following are among the concluding words of the superintendent on this subject:

"I believe that if every township in Indiana would support a good high school, so se to which end the

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that every child would have advantage of the same free, it would be only a few years until we would have as large a voluntary attendance in the public schools in the rural districts as a compulsory law would give.'

The report urges a change in the license law so that examination papers may bo graded by the State superintendent and become a State instead of a county license. As it is there are now as many as ninety-two different standards, the result of which is that in some localities there are excellent, in others very poor, teachers. The change proposed would equalizo school advantages, equalize ways, do away with personal partisan influences, and allow to county superintendents time to plan their proper work.

Complaint is repeated in the matter of incapacity of many county superintendents, the law unfortunately prescribing no educational qualification. Quito a large space is given to this subject, which has been much discussed among county superintendents, the views of many of whom are against those presented in this report.

Again the report calls attention to the fact that the State delays to recognizo teachers' certificates granted in other States. This operates to the hurt of teachers going into other States and having their certificates ignored, because, as it says, *many of the States, particularly in the West, are authorized to extend such courtesies only to such States as reciprocate the favor.".

Tho State manual and uniform course of study is reviewed at considerable length.

The Teachers' Reading Circle and the Young People's Reading Circle advanco in development.

There are two grades for State licenses-one for a period of eight years, termed a professional license, the other for life, called life State license.

The eight years licenso is obtained after having gotten consecntively two of thirtysix months, but holders must pass examination before the county superintendent prescribed by the State board of education, whose approval must accompany the license.

The report gives with some minuteness an acconnt of the various school funds. Tho Congressional township fund, beginning with the grant of land by Congress in 1816, which, by permission of that body, was sold in 1827, and the proceeds became a trust fund. Another is the State's share of the surplus revenue of the United States distributed in 1836. This is called the surplus revenue fund. Another is the bank-tax sund, raised upon the State's interest in the State bank established in 1834. Another is the saline fund, dating back to an act of Congress in 1816 regarding the salt springs within the then Territory. Another is the sioking fund created in 1831. Another is what is known as the seminary fund, created in 1816.

County institutes have advanced much in importance. Some needed improvements are recommended. One is that the State board of education or other oducational body” be empowered to certify to the fitness of teachers; another that in township institutes attendance should be made compulsory, and another for the more liberal compensation for instruction. The institution needs moro compact and intelligent organization. This would do away with the want of money, much of which is dissipated by lack of such organization as is recommended.

The report gives a history of the Indiana University. This is accompanied by excellent photogravures of several of its buildings. Increaso in students becomes constantly larger, those in the summer courses of 1896 being more than iu the entire year ten years back.

The question whether tho State should adopt compulsory education is discussed at much length, various “factors” mentioned and enlarged upon, one of these being that while school enumeration in 1896 was 798,917, enrollment 529,315, attendance was only 392,015.


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Report for 1805 and 1896, Hon. Edmund Stanley, State superintendent of public instruction.

, Var books thns published by the urnin comparatively brief time, nu gradation is a necessity in all

panntendent urges that the standar. blues, upon such legislation as will

antaa the common school and ti

The want of normal training schools for preparing teachers is much regretted. The work of the normal institutes has been of great volume. Institutes have been held in every county during periods extending from four to ten weeks, and the competent instructors in them have brought about much improvement in the teaching force. It is desirable and so recommended that these institutes be made professional schools in order, among other things, to secure entirely satisfactory persons to presido over them. At present they are under control of county superintendents, although the conductors and instructors are selected by the board of education, and the evidences of their qualifications of every sort must be made clear under a series of requirements notably exalting.

Under the title “Management and supervision of the common schools” there are many well-considered observations, The report argues for the State's assuming entire supervision and control over all that is employed for organizing and conduct



* 12h is from E. H. Mark, esel. bert A. Stoll, president of tlio Chuwing is taken from thi Teksin iron calling attentiqiy

ing the schools, to which end the first essential is high-grade teachers. It is unfortunate that no larger per cent of the teachers can be supplied by the normal school, and that choice must often be made among those of inadequate preparation beyond mere academic work. In view of this condition the report earnestly recommends the creation of at least two additional normal schools.

Commendation is bestowed upon the work done in private and denominational schools. Regarding the latter the report says:

"Competition with the public school system canses these schools to be less dogmatic and sectarian in their work, while at the same time their existence and inflience tend to emphasize the importance of moral and spiritual development as a part of the education the child should receive in private, denominational, and public schools alike."

There are several striking observations under the head "legislation. It is contended that under the district system, as now existing, the schools are local rather than purely publie. Every district determines the length of its school terms, with little exception the tax to be levied for its support, and under certain conditions may discontinue them altogether. In existing conditions of property disposition, some districts are very far behind others in educational advantages, as to competent teachers and duration of school terms, although subjected to higher educational taxation. It appears that no district can be disorganized as long as it has more than two qualified roters, nor where there are any debts npon it. Women as well as inen being qualified electors, it is not seldom that a single family can control the organization, a fact which sometimes results in gross abuses. It seems most strango that under a show of educating one or two children a maximum levy of tax is imposeil which, under one and another pretext, acernes to a single person, who is sail, with apparently entire aptness, to be“ owner of a school district." The report makes the following recommendation:

"That in all districts having less than five legal electors the connty superintendent be given the power to appoint the members of the district board, select tho teacher, make tho levy for school purposes, and determine whether a school shall bo maintained in the district or provision be made for the education of the children in other schools and at the expense of the district."

Atmitting the difficulty of putting forth any definito legislation regarding the tenure of teachers, it is a sore evil—the too frequent changes among them and other School officials. At present both teachers and snperintendents, in some cases by the time they have become well used to their positions and familiar with their duties, are required to give place to new. The term of superintendent is two years. Such changes in si pervision are less frequent in the city.

Tho report argues that teachers' certificates should be made for a longer period, and that high grades in examinations shonkil l»e made permanent credits with their holders. Teachers' oxaminations, it is contentei, should be held about the time for opening the schools.

The present superintendent dissents from the views of his predecessor touching uniformity of text-books in all the schools of the State. In his opinion, those suited to pupils resident in cities are not always suiteil to those in villages and rural schools. Uniformity in this regard leads to sameness, which is hurtful both to training and development. The objection applies to every kind of school, graded and uugrader. There seems to be point in the following language:

“State publication is unsato as well as expensive. Should this plan be attemptel, the chances are wo shonld get a poor grade of books, and when the cost of copyright, plant for manufacturing and work in handling are taken into account (for all thesó must be paid for by the people), we most expect the same resnlts that others have experienced an expenditure of more money for inferior books than the best would cost in the open market.”

The report cites the States of California and Indiana in support of his argument; ani further, that books thus published by the State are of inferior quality, au liable to become worn in comparatively brief time.

The superintendent urges that the standard for admission to high schools should be uniform, that gradation is a necessity in all schools, and he strenniously insists, like lis predecessor, upon such legislation as will make provision for what is termed "the gap" between the commou school and the college.



Tho report for 1896 is from E. H. Mark, esq., superintendent, and is preceded by an adelress from Albert A. Stoll, president of the school board, and reports of the several committees. The following is taken from the president's address:

"I can not refrain from calling attention to the fact that in many respects it is

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