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other direction made greater strides than in this. Twenty-five years ago thero was no examination for admission to any one of our professional schools; to-day preliminary training that covers the equivalent of a good high-school course is required by all our professional departments.

Then the term of both the law and the medical schools was six months for two years, and the instruction was given chiefly by lectures. Now our medical schools require a registration of four terms of nine months each, and set a standard for graduation that is as high as that of any medical school in this country, while the law school has lengthened its course to three years of nine months each, and has signally raised its standard of graduation. In all these departments the old style of instruction has been materially modified or superseded by modern methods, in which laboratory practice and scientific research hold the most prominent place.

The year before your induction into the presidency the doors of the university were first thrown open to the admission of women. What was for a time a bold experiment has become an established success, and hundreds of young women who have worthily enjoyed the full privileges and advantages of the university on absolutely equal terms with young men are glad to bring you their tribute of gratitude for your just and wise administration, by which the interests of women in this university have been made secure.

The entire life and spirit of the university during this period which we pass in review have been marked by a steady growth in good order and decorum, in friendly relations between pupils and teachers, and in all that makes for a wholesome intel. lectual and moral atmosphere.

That amid much and necessary diversity of interest there has been so much harmony and unity in our councils as a senate and in the ditterent faculties is due in no small measure to your impartial conduct of affairs, your broad and generous views, your charitablo spirit, and your gracious courtesy. That the university has safely passed through many crises, has gained respect and influence throughout our State and the entire land, is to be attributed in large degreo to your skillful management, your experience in educational work, and to your high character as a citizen and as a man.

We congratulate the university, Mr. President, upon the reputation you have justly earned for her—a reputation not bounded by the seas, but cherished also in the fair Orient and in the centers of European learning as well as at homo. We recall with feelings of highest pride how our own National Government has thrico summoned you to high servico in diplomacy and council. We are glad also to remember that in the discussion of the great educational problems of our day your words are over welcomed as those of ono who has anthority to speak.

But most of all, we who have been associated with you theso many years admire and esteem you for what yon have been to us and to this boloved university. The cheerful and serene temper in which you have borne the heavy burden of your duties, the kind and gracious manner in which you have helped us to fulfill our tasks, the spirit of hopefulness for the future of this institution with which you have inspired us, the numberless tokens of personal kindness you havo shown to us all-it is these daily ministrations of your life-if you will pardon what Plato would call too much downrightness of speech-that endear you to us all. Our memories thrill to-day with sacred recollections of the past, and we fancy, wo hear mingling with our words of greeting voices from the silent land of those boloved colleagues who twenty-five years ago stood here to bid you welcome to this post of honor, but who are with us now only in memory and in spirit, to join with us in these expressions of our esteem and praise.

In closing these congratulations, Mr. President, the members of the senate are cheered by the hope that the same bond which has united ns all these many years in common work and interest may be cemented still more firmly by future years of companionship in the great work in which we are engaged. May that divine Providenco that has blessed you so abundantly in tho past still attend you and prolong your days of fruitsul servico to this university, to which so much of your life has been given, and may the blessing of heaven be vouchsafed to her who during all this time has devontly stood at your side to aid yon, and who by her deeds of kindness and helpfulness has made herself the friend of all our university community.

Whatever be the future of this university, your work in its behalf shall be an abiding possession of good influence and power, and shall constitute one of the chief elements of its greatness and renown for all time.

Resolutions of the State Teachers' Association. Whereas this year completes the twenty-fifth anniversary of President Angell's connection with the University of Michigan;

Whereas during that time the growth of the university has been marked not only by a large increaso in the number of its students, but by the wisdom and enlightenment of a most liberal educational policy;

age of the Board of Reged
de iation: I beg to returi

To greet me on this the t
3 gratitude is mingled with
2. Thor estimate of the valne

your friendship has aseri og is most dear to me, and ait has been my rare good sa from my memory for the

sats. Flich have sometime ce to believe that those who

La below their ideals an and the university and of the Sta

God has bestowed on me, I have mali I hope of wish in return f Series, than the nssurance from yo as been encountered and the resu su been altogether fruitless. liell fail to do justice at once t thasten to say that all my efforts w Salud aasisted by so true and faitht

The fidelity with which regen og professional duties have given The been an indispensable element be been better cared for by its offic o thank the present members of the


kindness and helpfulness to me. share served on the board with me suiversity has had a more choice coi Smarter of a century than this! It is juhat it is. In my service and com

nories of my life. Alas! that i en stered by death. Out of the or

Sen yere here when I camo. You yold teacher and life-long friend, I im. How valuable were his counsels Whis death; how in our long walks w

and poper and beneficence of this alage part to his labors and influend started the university: Williams

-Donglas, Bager, Cocker, Morr

Wertans. Large as is our body

plot, in my opinion, has been of we armony and friendliness am

Whereas the high schools of the State, and through them the common schools, have felt the inspiration and uplift of a close connection with the university, hundreds of young men and women of but moderate means having thus been led to set their faces ambitiously in the direction of university life and culturo; and

Whereas in this respect no university in the country can be said to have exerted so widespread and salutary an influence upon popular education-an intluence due in no small degree to the ripe scholar and able executive who has the management of the university in charge:

Resolred, That we, the teachers of Michigan, do hereby most gratefully express our appreciation of his eminent services to the cause of popular education in our Commonwealth;

Resolved, That while we congratulato him upon the distinguished success of his administration in the past, we do also express the hope that his genial presence may be spared to the State yet many a year to carry forward the interests so dear to his heart.

President Angell's response.

Gentlemen of the Board of Regents, of the University Senate, and of the State Teachers' Association: I beg to return my sincere thanks to you for the kind words with which you greet me on this the twenty-fifth anniversary of my inauguration.

But my gratitude is mingled with a sense of humility as I consider how far, in my opinion, your estimate of the value of my services exceeds their real worth. The partiality of your friendship has ascribed to mo merit far beyond my deserts. But the friendship is most dear to me, and this touching manifestation of it from those with whom it has been my rare good fortune to labor for so many years almost obliterates from my memory for the moment my failures and shortcomings and disappointments, which have sometimes oppressed me in my work. Your words embolden me to believe that those who know me best are persuaded that however I may have fallen below their ideals and bolow my own, yet with devotion to the interests of the university and of the State, and with the consecration of whatever powers God has bestowed on me, I have striven to do my whole duty. No higher reward could I hope or wish in return for my years of toil, with all their fatigues and anxieties, than the assurance from yon, who best of all men know the difticulties that have been encountered and the results that have been accomplished, that my work has not been altogether fruitless.

But I shonld fail to do jnistico at once to the truth and to my own feelings if I did not hasten to say that all my efforts would have been in vain if I had not been counseled and assisted by so true and faithful men on the board of regents and in the faculties. Tho fidelity with which regents who had large business interests or engrossing professional dnties havo given time and thought and labor to the university has been an indispensablo element in its success. I know of no university which has been better cared for by its official guardians. I am glad of this opportunity to thank the present members of the board and their predecessors for their unvarying kindness and helpfulness to me. I remember with tender interest that nino who havo served on the board with me have died.

What university has had a more choice collection of men in its faculties during the last quarter of a century than this. It is thoy who preeminently have inade the university what it is. In my service and companionship with them is found one of the clearest memories of my life. Alas! that in so many cases the companionship has already been sovered by death. Out of the ono hundred and seventy teachers now here, only seven were here when I camo. You havo quoted from the hearty greeting which my old teacher and life-long friend, Dr. Frioze, gave me on the day of my inauguration. How valuable were his counsels; how dear was his friendship to me to the day of his death; how in our long walks wo used to dream dreams of the coming greatness and power and beneficence of this university. Many of these dreams, thanks in large part to his labors and influence, have already been realized in fact. Besides him death has snatched away how many noblo and distinguished men, who hail long served the university: Williams-good old Dr. Williams, as wo always love to call him-Donglas, Sager, Cocker, Morris, Olney, Winchell, Campbell, Walker, Wells, Watson, Palmer, Crosby, Lyster, Ford, Dunster, the brothers Cheever, Elisha Jones, and, last of all, the venerable Folch. One has only to call this roll of illustrious names to understand why students from all parts of the Union and from tho nations beyond the seas have flocked to these halls. They have been drawn hither to sit at the feet of these great teachers, and of others like them, who, thank God, are still spared to us.

I can claim no merit save that of having heartily cooperated with these learned and wise instructors. Largo as is our body of teachers, we have habitually followed one rule, which, in my opinion, has been of inestimable service, both in promoting the proverbial harmony and friendliness among us and in securing wise legislation


Report for 1896, William E. Robinson, gli

Wenggests that the doings of the
med sted other business as should be con

10 ml clearly before the sight of the
mero de made in matters which might!
ad the board, sessions of which should
1. ltcougests that no matter involsing
aterable amounts) should be determiz
**admits some vant of carefuluess

li ofers felicitations on the appro
bagh school, yet it suggests that there
28 present condicted there, and that it
The name of the words apon the subje

wit tatablish a course eliminating the

ecopis shorthand, typewriting, coin petieryday business. Out of the 30,C

er has shown us that less than 2
tu 13) erer graduate; and it seems t
are this matter of practical everyday

are oggested in other school:
alib grade of the grammar schools.
I created, but as yet there is no repo
mait apprebends that moral snasion in

The following will be more or less in

and successful administration. That rule is, never to make any important innovation on the vote of a bare majority, but to wait until we are substantially agreed on the Wisdom of a change before introducing it. So we have wrought together with one heart and one mind, and in the enjoyment of the most delightful social relations.

If I have accomplished anything here, it is mainly because my colleagues, from the oldest to the youngest, have so heartily stood by me, have been so patient with my shortcomings, have so promptly responded to every request, nay, to every suggestion, which I have made. Never was a president surrounded by more helpful and loyal associates. My heart runs out with gratitude to them for the innumerable acts by which they have lightened my burdens and made my tasks a pleasure.

Nor would I forget to-day how helpful have been the relations which the students have chosen to maintain with me. Several thousand have come and gone during these twenty-five years. My heart is bound by the tenderest ties to the great company of students whom I have seen going from those halls year after year. Nothing gives me keener joy or more pride in the university than to see them worthily occupying positions of influence and usefulness. No more pleasant experience comes to me than to receive their cordial greetings wherever I go. Their affection for their alma mater is an endowment more precious than untold treasures of silver and gold. Because we are sure of their devotion to her, wo are full of hope for the future.

I beg to assure my friends of the State Teachers' Association that I appreciate most highly their words of welcome to-day. Nothing have I had more at heart during all these years than the cultivation of the closest relations between the uni. versity and the schools. Nothing has been more helpful to the university than the cordiality with which the schools have responded to our approaches to them. I believe that thus the schools and the university have been able to render most valuable aid to each other, and so to make the Michigan system of public education worthy of tho high commendation which it has so often elicited from competent observers. Nothing could give me higher satisfaction than to know that my sincere efforts to cooperate with the teachers in this valuable work have in their opinion been of any service.

May I express my great gratification that you have invited representatives from our sister universities to be present with us to-day, and that so mauy of them have been kind enough to honor us with their presence. I have only fulfilled your desire in seeking by every means in my power to cultivate the most cordial relations with other colleges and universities. You have often heard me announce my belief that no good college or university hurts another good one. It is only the unworthy institution that cherishes envy of another. We have always tried to learn all that was profitable to us from every other university. We hope that by some wise and brave experinients we too have thrown light, which other institutions have been glad to gain, on certain problems of higher education. There is work enough for us all to do. "Great has been the revolution in college methods and administration within my recollection. We gladly send our salutations to all the sisterhood of colleges and universities, and express our ardent desire to cooperate with them in all efforts to evhance the value of the higher education for this and the coming generations.

And now, my friends, I hope it is not inappropriate for me to return my thanks to all who have evinced an interest, so unexpected to me, in the celebration of this day; to my two friends whose lofty verse and stately musio are so happily married in the ode we are about to hear; to this concourse of my neighbors from this city, my beloved home; to the many citizens gathered here from all parts of this State; to the alumni from all sections of the country; to numerous college presidents who have sent me kindly messages; to the public press of many cities and towns. I willingly believe that the interest in the celebration is inainly interest in the university. I greatly prefer that it should be so, but for the many gracious words and acts that I am compelled to interpret as words and acts of personal kindness to me I am most humbly and profoundly grateful.

I am deeply touched by the delicate but positive recognition in the address of the services of my wife to the university; for aid in unnumbered ways through all the vicissitudes of these years, especially in the social responsibilities which fall here upon the president's house, she is entitled to share with me to the full whatever honor this day can bring to me. In her name and in my own I beg to thank you.

In the course of nature the day is not remote when some other man must take the official responsibility which has for a quarter of a century rested on me and which has so greatly increased since I assumed it. I pray that he may be a stronger and wiser man than I have been. I am sure that the kind consideration which regents and faculties and students and the public have shown to me make a strong and wise man more willing than he might otherwise be to accept the high and sacred trust. If such shall prove to be the fact, the celebration of this day will have anıply justified itself. Meanwhile, for myself, allow me to make my closing like my opening words—thanks, thanks, my heartiest thanks.


w possible that the increasing nu
Do this sentimentality? I know that
14 a good sound thrashing occasid
Ha vanky Foungster than all the good
ar too many mama's pets and Lo
shes to perpetuate it. Give us more

Mertons and Tom Browns."
de contaconableness and injustice of
om la reform and refine boys upon who
{ printendent appeals earnestly for

at rant of sufficient school ace
* Humbers is 2.700. The high scho
tert alunits that the expenses in ru
tily meager results, and it recom
Spit a course of study involving som
Teert entends that a kindergarten
agring that in that case the great!

Fould be materially shorte citat of pupils for 1895–96 was 31,

lor the coming year.


Report for 1895-68, Hon. W.W. whers

' reading circles have inc any county in the State, reachi ea of issuing certificates for w Barth of school libraries has be Stas, has yet been going on con

-book system has increase

and in 1996 to 336,806. This

utata atend it to remotest and le

Faro Fears after the mal districts are loaning text

wat marked satisfaction,

to the State have fallen into li



Report for 1896, William E. Robinson, superintendent of schools.

The report suggests that the doings of the board, except the appointment of teachers and such other business as should be conducted in executivo session, should bo more often and clearly before the sight of the people in general, and that less nse of committees be made in matters which might be and should be determined in full meeting of the board, sessions of which should be weekly instead of bimonthly, as heretofore. It suggests that no matter involving expenditure of money (except when of inconsiderable amounts) shoull be determined at the session into which it is intiocinced.

The report admits some want of carefulness in the selection of sites for scliool buildings. It offers felicitations on the approach of completion of the new firmly equipped high school, yet it suggests that there is danger of overestimating education as at present conducted there, and that it should be made more practical. The following are some of the words upon the subject:

"Why not establish a course eliminating the classics and polite languages, and in its stead supply shorthand, typewriting, commercial bookkeeping, banking, anil matters of everyday business. Out of the 30,000 children at present in our schools, our experience has shown us that less than 2,000 will ever enter the high school and less than 150 ever graduate; and it seems to me that even before the high school is reached this matter of practical everyday education should be attempted."

Other changes are suggested in other schools, as for introduction of bookkeeping into the eighth grade of the grammar schools. A school for the leaf and dumb has lately been created, but as yet there is no report, The report apprehends that moral suasion in school discipline is being carried to

The following will be more or less interesting according to readers' views upon the subject:

"Is it not possible that the increasing number of incorrigibles may bear some relation to this sentimentality? I know that I am terribly heterodox in oven siggesting that a good sound thrashing occasionally would be of more benefit to a capricious, spunky youngster than all the goodly-goody talks so correctly advocated. We are getting too many mama's pets and Lord Fauntleroys, and I fear our system has a tendency to perpetuate it. Give us more good, healthy, inoral discipline; more Sanfords and Mertons and Tom Browns.” Some other very plain things are said upon the unreasonableness and injustice of exacting of teachers, by use solely of suasion, to reform and refine boys upon whom discipline at home has had no such influence.

The superintendent appeals earnestly for such added appropriations as will supply the great want of sufficient school accommodations for pupils, whose annual increase in numbers is 2,500. The high schools are specially lacking in this respect.

The report admits that the expenses in running the night schools have been followed by only meager results, and it recommends that “a few schools judiciously located, with a course of study involving some of the features of a higher education, be opened for the coming year.”

The report contends that a kindergarten department should be attached to every school, arguing that in that case the great length of time justly complained of being spent at school would be materially shortened.

Eurollment of pupils for 1895–96 was 34,756; an increase from last year of 1,919.



Report for 1895–96, Hon. W. W. Pendergast, Stato superintendent.

The teachers' reading circles have increased to the degree that they are now in nearly every county in the State, reaching even to several far outlying districts. The system of issuing certificates for work done therein has served to stimulate emulation.

The growth of school libraries has been notable, the volumes of 185,400 in 1894 having increased in 1896 to 336,806. This increase, though inost striking in wealthy communities, has yet been going on constantly in almost every county, and efforts are made to extend it to remotest and least favored sections.

The free text-book system has increased greatly in favor and production of good results.

“Within two years after the passage of the law nearly one-half the districts throughout the State have fallen into line, while at the present time not less than 60 per cent of all districts are loaning text-books to pupils free of charge, and always with the most marked satisfaction. In fact, it appears to be a matter of only a short

Te daily in the high schools, which
or .' Much

at year, of allowing the children to zatfir books, which books belong to t was it worked marvelous changes. T

e of new reading matter was grea aberetofore been starved upon a single tolis

, varsing from 6 to 15 in number. * wints were few, and came mainly from

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vidtions have been made to existing

time when all of our districts will have abandoned the custom of selling at cost and length is argued the necessity that te

- instructed in the art of teaching. be enjoying the benefits that follow the adoption of the free text-book plan." Under the system of local option it seems impracticable to establish uniformity of Syrintendent contends it is a mistake t

by the board of inspectors, bnt are these text-books, as is so earnestly desired by superintendents generally.

Teachers' institutes, after having accomplished much good, have been gradually heard who are elected for another piz giving way during the last throe years to those more energetic institutions—the il systems.

z port has some observations upon correl: summer schools. The latter tend far to supplement the normal schools, whose accom

advertee, it stops short of the extent ti modations are for numbers far below those in need of them. They bring to every

e of Herbart. It also discusses the tw county competent educators, who give judicious courses of study that are adapted to

Azals and the other toward freec the various individual and sectional conditions.

These schools have become of so serious importance, that many superintendents *** to unimportant details.
have seen fit to limit to 16 years the age of attendant she Despite severelimoualities as oois bere, as in several other Stat
attending the operations thus far, the judgment in their favoubtas become generalitical penmanship is noticeable.

a The rural schools are reported to have made much progress during the two years Teended. but serious remonstrance i last past. The report says:

“The stronger educational spirit pervading the rural portions of the State is another unmistakable evidence of progresent in Tinapondersido beautifying and enter auditions kinder furnishing free teht. stounds, improved appliancese sicer libraries and text-books, appreciation of and it is that was anthorized by this ised

A 110table increase in libraries also has gone on within this period and in books.
These now average 60 volumes in 1,853 libraries.

The report suggests that the labors of the county snperintendent in many cases are
disproportionately onerous. In some counties they have over seventy schools, visi-
tations to which require much time and considerable sacrifice.
school board to extend aid, under prescribed conditions, to village and town graded a train certain publishers whose books

Benefits are already manifest in the operation of the law empowering the highschools below that rank.

The prevalence of many small schools, it is suggested, can be remedied only by a lowever, the board thought best to adoption of the township system. As the legislature does not yet decide for this, it advantageously taught in one school, and to unite very small contiguous ones where rated. The supply, however, is far b. is recommended to “stop dividing districts which have no more pupils than can be it can be done without great inconvenience to the most distant pupils. It is fre- ang regulating appropriations, have li quently the case that those who live farthest off can be conveyed to and from school in the winter at much less expensu than that of maintaining a separate school."

Regarding the charge made by some that the high schools under the present system are mere stepping stones to the university, it is suggested that a change in their curricula be made and they do different work from that specially designed to fit for the university.

Work in the normal schools constantly grows more important. Their enrollment has greatly increased, and they are counted upon to do far more than any other class of institutions to lift the primary schools to a proper plane. They are counseled, however, not to make their instruction conform to that of the high school, tlid aims of both being entirely different. Normal schools, when rightly conducted, enable teachers to make effective the drill which will fit pupils for the high schools. An act of the legislature of 1895 providing for normal instruction in high schools has been disappointing to its advocates, only fivo having adopted it. It is claimed, however, that in these results have been satisfactory. There seems to be some defects for which the report suggests a number of changes, as that those who intend to teach without going through the university shall devote the third and fourth years of the high schools to moro training in common branches than that given in the grammar schools and that a year's work in teaching take the placo of one of the preparatory high schools.

The university grows with noted rapidity, numbering 2,467 students, with 241 professors.

Notwithstanding the praise bestowed by the report on the continually improving condition of free education it disavows entire satisfaction, admitting that in many

het been the development of the mino respects there is essential need of amendment, as in a more proper preparation of teachers, in improved methods of school supervision, in so ordering that teachers

Whabad a fine year and graduated its who are found to be competent in all points are so treated and paid that their services can be longer retained. Thoughtful suggestions are made upon meetings of

Senelementary English needs modific teachers and superintendents.

in entrance into high schools. Some

Trabance Training School, in the matt
Report for 1894-95, C. B. Gilbert, superintendent to the board of school inspectors.
It is unfortunate that, owing to the reduction in the budget by the city council,
teachers' salaries had to be somewhat lowered. Notwithstanding this, however, it

tebiet of tegebers grew to 328, and o
is claimed for them that their work has been done with undiminished earnestness
and efficiency.

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za ber of papils enrolled is 21,276, who a tales of statistics in the work of the the act avolishing the board of educat|


10 Jnly 1, 1896, is from the same part makes complaint of the great lag Dy need more material for our wol tan administered by good teachers, me sa bem for complete living, but in or

om it a considerable amount of mat peally need more books; good literatur

a little each year from the State, but bard have

decided to promise free te. supplied. Another decision is regardi ish more than ring rooms principals 1 * supervisor is appointed. seal training is doing so well that it is yeny the following extract under the h most noteworthy features of the hig Mechanic Arts School. The Clevelan ett fear and in 1897 will graduate the


tematic child study, Graduates ba
the constant demand for them.
by the lack of sufficient school accor
Bustill much more needed.

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