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ship then went into details in times, the present measure had reference to the proposed measure. been introduced as a first step toHe thought that we should only wards the improvement of our leave as subjects for transportation penal system. those who were now liable for

Lord Campbell supported the fourteen years and upwards, in- second reading, but said, when he cluding cases of receiving stolen agreed to this Bill, it must be ungoods, outrages, assaults on the derstood to be without prejudice to person, attempts to do grievous the Government efforts still to bodily barm, house-breaking, bur- continue transportation. At the glary, cattle-stealing, and matters present time they would only have of that sort. The only remaining Western Australia, but he thought question was, what should be sub- new places might be found. He stituted as a punishment for the was told by those conversant with remainder ? He thought that the subject, that there were other those who would have been trans- spots on the great continent of ported for seven years should Australia to which they might adhenceforth be kept in penal servi- vantageously send convicts, and it tude for a term of four years; might be done to the Falkland those transported for ten years Islands. He hoped the Governundergo a penal servitude of six ment would use their best efforts years; those for fifteen, one of to continue transportation in that eight; and those above fifteen, one way. of ten years.

The Marquis of Clanricarde Earl Grey declared that expe- hoped that there would be some rience had proved that transporta- clearer statement as to what was tion, as formerly carried out, had to be done with the convicts to proved one of the most effectual whom promises had been made, preventives of crime, and com because he understood that from plained that the Lord Chancellor 800 to 1200 would be let loose had not sufficiently developed the upon society in this country. system of secondary punishments The Bill was then read a second which it was proposed to substitute time. for transportation.

In Committee, the Lord ChanLord Brougham regretted that cellor explained the proposed systransportation was about in any de- tem for dealing with convicts, and gree to be abolished. He thought several noble Lords made obserinfant training-schools and a good vations on the measure,

which was police the best preventives of subsequently read a third time and crime.

passed. The Duke of Newcastle ex In the House of Commons, in pressed his entire acquiescence in Committee on the Bill, upon the the regrets expressed by Lord 9th of August, Lord Palmerston Grey and Lord Brougham at the gave an exposition of the views of cessation of transportation. The the Government upon the subject excuse, however, for that cessation of secondary punishments. The was to be found in its absolute ne- question, he observed, was one of cessity, and, with a view to meet extreme difficulty. The object of the altered circumstances of the punishment was to make it a

penalty to the offender and an porting criminals would be no example to others, without shock- longer incurred, there would be a ing the feelings of the community, very considerable annual saving and at the same time to com- of expenditure. The whole system bine reformation with punishment. must be considered in a great deHitherto our colonies had enabled gree experimental; but he believus to make transportation beyond ed that this was the best mode the seas one of our secondary pu- that could be devised to meet the nishments, but this resource hav- great change to which he had reing now failed—the feelings of the ferred. colonists revolting against being Mr. Walpole concurred in the brought into contact with our scheme as a whole, but differed on criminals, and a great event hav. two points. By the second clause, ing changed the condition of our transportation for a shorter period Australian colonies—the system than 14 years was abolished: it must be altered. The first result would be better to give the Crown to which the Government were power to commute all sentences of led was the necessity of ceasing to transportation for periods of penal transport offenders to the colonies, servitude. As the Bill stood, no except a small number to Western convicts but those who had comAustralia, and the Bill proposed mitted the gravest offences could to empower the courts to alter the be sent to the colonies; but some sentences. It was proposed that colonists might desire our convicts, after a certain period of prelimi- and if the Bill were altered as he nary imprisonment the offender suggested, that would enable the should be capable of receiving a Crown to send convicts to any ticket-of-leave in this country, colony desiring it. He also sugliable to be revoked. He thought gested, that where a man, after rethat, with regard to a great por- mission, again commits an offence tion of those who were sentenced similar to that for which he has to transportation, reformation was already been punished, he should by no means a hopeless object, receive the next higher punishand every effort would be made to ment. If they looked to the reaccomplish it. When those per- ports upon the subject they would sons who had conditional tickets- find that the system of employing of-leave were to be released, the criminals upon public works had grave question arose, where were not only proved highly beneficial they to go, and how were they to to the convicts themselves, but be employed? He had every had also contributed to the lasting reason to believe that means would advantage of the country. The be found of giving all these per- cost of transportation was little sons employment upon the public short of 200,0001. a year, includworks, apart from the convicts, at ing the expenses incurred in the suitable wages, from which occupa- colonies; the cost of the prisoners tion, without a stigma, they might at home was also very great, but slide into the ordinary avocations the works at Portland paid themof honest industry. The charge selves at the present moment, befor providing additional accommo sides producing a noble harbour; dation would be borne by the and he was satisfied that if similar public, but, as the cost of trans- works were prosecuted in other

parts of the kingdom, great public men, capable of contracting obligood would accrue to the country, gations, would be yet in the anoand great progress would be made malous position of being liable to in the improvement and reforma- have their liberty abridged at the tion of criminals. In the year will of a Secretary of State. This 1849, the profitable labour at the part of the plan, he observed, works at Portland produced up- superseded the constitutional funcwards of 17,0001.; in 1850, it pro- tions of the judges, whose senduced 14,0001.; in 1851, 20,541l.; tences the Secretary of State would during the past year the earnings have the jurisdiction of revising. of the convicts had exceeded the So far from deterring from punishcost of the establishment, and ment, this would produce an opthere was no reason to doubt that, posite effect. He thought these wherever the same facilities ex- clauses required more consideraisted for the employment of of- tion, and that they should form a fenders, the same results would separate Bill, to be introduced follow.

next session. Sir John Pakington complained Lord Palmerston assured the of the course taken by the Go House that this matter had revernment in bringing forward this ceived the most deliberate conmeasure at a time when it could sideration from persons competent not be discussed. There should to deal with the subject, who had have been a full discussion. He thought the system would be athoped Ministers had not been too tended with considerable advanprecipitate in abolishing trans- tage. It was believed that, after portation; he had intended to con a period of preliminary imprisontinue it until 1854. The Bill ment and employment upon public bore evident marks of haste, but works, the hope of obtaining a on the whole he agreed with its ticket-of-leave would tend to proprovisions, and should offer no duce reformation and good conduct opposition.

in order to merit this indulgence. Mr. Adderly approved of the As transportation had ceased, it plan, condemned transportation as was very desirable, with a view to à punishment, and expressed his reformation, to inspire and keep preference for the present pro- alive this element of hope. Imposition over that of Sir J. Paking- prisonment and forced labour would ton.

be sufficient for the purpose of Several other Members ap- example, and, as far as the secuproved, and no one opposed, the rity of the public went, the proBill, which passed through Com- posed system afforded additional mittee.

safeguards. The liability of the Upon the 12th of August, on party to have his ticket-of-leave rethe order of the day for the third called in case of misconduct, and reading of the Bill, Mr. Keating to be cast back upon the prison or adverted to the novel and, as he public works, would teach him considered, objectionable principle habits of self-control. No new of granting to convicts tickets-of- principle was introduced; no new leave, which would introduce, he power was conferred upon the said, in the country a new class of Secretary of State. The Crown persons, who, although quasi free- possessed at present the power of

not only remitting, but of mitigat- insisted, however, upon the essening or commuting sentences. tial importance of holding out, as

Mr. Walpole concurred in the a part of the scheme, a severer plan of punishment laid down in punishment to those who should the Bill, and believed that it would abuse the indulgence conceded to be beneficial. He was convinced, them. he said, and he showed that there After a short discussion, in were ample grounds for this con which Mr. Spooner, Mr. J. Philliclusion, that the employment of more, Mr. Barrow, Mr. T. Chamconvicts, in the manner proposed, bers, Mr. Newdegate, Mr. Ewart, upon public works, would not only Mr. Hume, and Sir J. Pakington have a reformatory influence upon took part, the Bill was read a them, but would in time reduce third time and passed; it subour convict expenditure to a com- sequently passed the House of paratively trifling amount. He Lords, and became law.

CHAPTER VI.

India Bill:—Sir C. Wood, on the 3rd of June, in a Speech of Five

Hours, introduces his Bill for the Government of India-His Speech -Mr. Bright criticises the Measure, and it is debated for three nights -Mr. J. G. Phillimore condemns the Policy and Proceedings of the Directors-Sir J. Hogg replies and defends them— The debate is continued by Mr. Blackett, Mr. 7. Baring, Sir H. Maddock, Mr. Danby Seymour, Mr. Archibald Hastie, and Mr. Hume-Upon the Second Reading Lord Stanley moved an AmendmentHe advocates delay until further information is obtained --He is answered by Mr. Lowe A long and important debate ensues, which is continued by adjournment for four nightsSpeeches of Mr. Phinn, Sir R. Inglis, Mr. Baillie, Mr. Herries, Mr. Hume, Mr. Macaulay, Mr. Blackett, Lord Jocelyn, Mr. Otway, Mr. Adderley, Mr. Mangles, Mr. Colden, Sir J. Graham, Sir H. Maddock, Mr. J. G. Phillimore, Mr. Monckton Milnes, Mr. Hardinge, Mr. Bright, Sir J. Hogg, Mr. Rich, Mr. Cumming Bruce, Mr. Marjoribanks, Mr. Napier, Mr. J. Macgregor, Mr. Digby Seymour, Sir C. Wood, Mr. Disraeli, and Lord John RussellAfter a division the Amendment is rejected by 140 against 522In Committee upon the Bill various amendments are proposed by Mfr. Phinn, Lord Jocelyn, Mr. Vernon Smith, Mr. Bright, Mr. Hume, Sir H. Maddock, and Mr. Monckton Milnes.-An anecdote is related by Mr. Bright illustrative of the alleged Corruption of the DirectorsSeveral new clauses are proposed to be added by Sir H. Willoughby, Mr. Hume, Mr. Rich, Mr. J. G. Phillimore, Mr. Bright, and Mr. Vernon Smith-Upon the Bill being considered as amended, Sir J. Pakington moves the insertion of a clause putting an end to the salt monopoly-This gives rise to a debate in which Sir C. Wood, Mr. J. G. Phillimore, Sir J. Hogg, Mr. Hume, Mr. Lowe, Lord John Russell, Mr. Disraeli, and others, take part-Upon a division the clause is carried against the Gorernment by 117 to 107-- After the addition of clauses moved by Mr. Wigram and Sir C. Wood, and the rejection of others moved by Sir C. Wood, Mr. J. G. Phillimore and Mr. Bright, the Bill is passed.In the House of Lords the question of the Future Government of India is discussed on several occasions during the Session-Upon the 13th of June a motion by the Earl of Ellenborough for the production of certain correspondence, occasions an important debate-Speeches of the Earls of Ellenborough and Granville, Lord Monteagle, the Duke of Montrose and Marquis of ClanricardeThe Second Reading of the Bill is moved by the Earl of Granville-After a debate, in which the Earls of Malmesbury, Aberdeen, and Ellenborough, Lord Monteagle, the Duke of Argyl, Lords Ashburton and Wharncliffe,

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