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through the Affghan expedition, by reclaiming and civilising even which was not an Indian, but a wild and ferocious tribes, he deEuropean war. Mr. Bright had tailed the progress of education, asserted that the Indian Govern- of ecclesiastical establishments, ment borrowed money to pay the and of moral and religious facilities dividends of the proprietors of throughout British India. He then East India stock, whereas those concluded with expressing, on the dividends were by law made a first part of the Court of Directors, an charge upon the revenues of India. earnest wish and anxious prayer With reference to the Indian land that the Supreme Disposer of tenures, Sir James observed he events might so direct the counsels had heard not a single argument of that House that it might select or objection upon this subject the form of government for India which he did not find had been best calculated to advance the in. better put forward in minutes and terest and happiness of the people reports at the time when
differ- of India and the honour and glory ent settlements were first made, of this great country. and he justified the non-introduc At the end of this speech the tion of the village system, adopted debate was adjourned until the 9th in the north-west provinces, into of June, when the first speaker those of Madras and Bengal, it was Mr. Blackett, whose speech being a rude system, suited only was mainly a reply to Sir J. W. to a primitive state of society. Hogg and to that part of Sir C. The state of the cotton cultivation, Wood's address which defended he argued, was not to be attributed the past. He insisted upon the to the Government; the need of strange anomaly of vesting the foreign capital and Manchester patronage of India in the hands energy, the demands of the home of a private corporation, governing market, the interests of the culti- 150,000,000 of Asiatics by the vators, who found that grain was a machinery of a joint stock commore remunerative crop, and espe- pany, some of the most expecially the want of railroads, tended rienced Indian statesmen being to check the growth of good cotton. practically excluded from its direcAfter a passing allusion to the salt tion by the intolerable humiliation and opium monopolies, Sir James attending a canvass of the constiadverted to the subject of public tuency. He urged various objecworks, reading statements of the tions against the manner in which number of those works already the patronage had been dispensed completed, and the sums expended, since the Act of 1833, the excluand he then replied to the allega- sion of natives of India from covetion of Mr. Phillimore, that na nanted offices being contrary, he tives of India were not sufficiently argued, to the spirit and intention employed, showing that they adju- of that Act. He dwelt upon the dicated 96 per cent. of the causes, matter of patronage, because it that they were appointed deputy was the only point in which the collectors and deputy registrars at Court had exercised an absolute high salaries. After describing in and unlimited control, and which, glowing language the social revo he said, the Directors had distrilutions accomplished in Mairwara, buted in a manner most calculated Candeish, and the Khond country, to benefit their own family con
nections, and least calculated to ment, but he could not see why economise the resources of this a scheme might not be framed country and to strengthen the so- whereby it would be avoided; at cial institutions of India. He ob. the same time he admitted that the jected to the Bill, because it pro- Government plan was, in several posed to continue the double Go- respects, an improvement on the vernment, cripple the executive, existing system. There was, he neutralise responsibility, and con- said, one important omission in the tinue the East India Company as Gorernment scheme—that it did a permanent organ of administra- not propose to admit natives of Intion.
dia into the Legislative Council. He Mr. T. Baring thought there had not the slightest hesitation in were evils in delay, and that im- saying, that if there was any posimediate legislation was the duty tion which would gratify distinof Parliament. He admitted that guished natives, it was that of the present system of Indian Go- sitting to legislate for their fellowvernment was an anomaly, but it countrymen, and he believed there had the advantages of having pre- · were many Hindoo and Mohameserved the connection between dan gentlemen fully competent for India and England, and of having the office. saved the former from internal Mr. Danby Seymour declared discord and foreign invasion. He he had never heard such a combidesired to see the government nation of misrepresentations as of India in the hands of the were put forward in the speeches Crown, not as our colonies were, of Sir C. Wood and Sir J. Hogg, the control of which was ban- and he read documents and quoted died from one side of the House authorities in refutation of various to the other, but in conjunction statements made by them. The with a body so constituted as to present Government, he said, had be independent of political influ- dealt partially with this great ence, and not consisting wholly of question, and he complained that persons educated in the Indian the Indian Committee was service. Whatever might be the fairly constituted, and that witdefects of the present system, nesses known to be adverse to the it would not be denied that Company had not been examined. the result had been to produce From a great variety of authorities men of whom any country might he elaborated a very dark picture be proud, and his strong feeling of the Company's rule, reproachwas in favour of the existing ma- ing Sir C. Wood with softening chinery, which would continue to its shadows, and with omitting all exempt this grand question from reference to the condition of the the blasting influence of party natives of India, which had been strife. He complained of the described as “universal pauperdelay in granting a code, but he ism" and the “ lowest state of approved of the distribution of degradation;" and he deduced patronage.
from the Cawnpore statistics the Sir H. Maddock advocated the fact, that in the most favoured postponement of legislation, at districts, described as the paradise least, until next year.
of India, the allowance to the culopposed to the double Govern- tivators was but 2s. 11d. monthly VOL. XCV.
per head. After touching upon an end to, while the Board of the subject of irrigation, he read Control being composed of permany testimonies as to the imper. sons unacquainted with India, and fect qualifications and the exces its institution Auctuating with sive emoluments of the covenanted the vicissitudes of parties, India civil servants, and concluded by would be made a political football. recapitulating his charges against He wanted a reponsible minister the Company as affording him for India with the Court of Direcground for asserting that their tors as a real check and publicity, government had not been a good and he protested against this hasty
measure, as an injustice not only Mr. Archibald Hastie said, the to the Court of Directors, but to East India Company had been the people of India. He proabused, and all its doings decried, tested against the Bill as premabut before the House destroyed a ture and unstatesmanlike, and he system which had benefited the thought it ought to be opposed at people of India, and the manu every stage. No wise man would factures of this country, they propose such a measure; and if it should be prepared with a substi- be, as I believe it is, a mad act, tute ; but no one who had expa- then it is the act of a madman." tiated upon the evils of the Com- (Laughter.) pany's government had suggested Leave was then given to bring anything of the kind.
in the Bill. Later in the evening Mr. Hüme was of opinion no it was brought in by Sir C. Wood, evil could arise from postponing read a first time, and the second legislation. He wanted to know reading fixed for the 23rd of June, whether the financial difficulties when upon the order of the day of India were to be attributed to for the second reading, Lord Stanthe Court of Directors or to the ley, in a very thin House, moved Board of Control, which now a resolution that further informasought to get rid of the check tion is necessary to enable Parliaimposed by the Court. Ever since ment to legislate with advantage the year 1838 there would have for the permanent government of been a surplus revenue had not India; and that, at this late period the Board of Control ruined the of the session, it is inexpedient to country by wars. The Court of proceed with a measure which, Directors managed affairs in an while it disturbs existing arrangeadmirable manner without ex ments, cannot be considered as a pense; yet this system was to be final settlement. His motion, he swept away without mercy. The observed, did not profess to deal Secret Committee and the Board with the question how the governof Control had caused all the ment of India was to be carried evils, and they were to be re on, or to express approbation or tained. He believed that the censure in respect to its past adspirit and intention of the Court ministration; the whole scope and
to govern India honestly, tendency of the resolution was to wisely, and for the benefit of the affirm the proposition that now, people; yet this body which he before the public opinion in India would strengthen instead of weak. could be ascertained, and before ening, was now virtually to be put public opinion in England was
matured, and before the parlia- be given to local reforms. Lord mentary committees had termi- Stanley then reviewed the three nated their inquiries, it was not main provisions of the Governexpedient or advisable, or at this ment plan. With respect to the Jate period of the session possible, non-renewal of the lease of govern. to legislate permanently upon this ment, he thought it would be subject. On previous occasions of better, in an experimental scheme, renewing the Charter Act in 1813 to take a fixed term of years. He and 1833, ample time had been objected to leaving so large a share allowed to Parliament for consider- of the patronage as the plan proing the reports of the Committees, posed in private hands; and, aland for the discussion of the Go- though he approved of the prinvernment plan. When a measure ciple of the system of disposing of of this kind was proposed, affect the civil appointments upon the ing the interests of the civil and Chinese, plan of competition, he military services in India, it would could not help thinking that some be wilfully to sacrifice a great ad- practical difficulties would be envantage if the opinion of these countered, and that it would be classes was not enlisted in favour better to distribute a portion of of the new scheme of administra- these appointments among the tion. He argued at great length principal educational establishagainst the probability that delay ments. The proposed change in would cause agitation or insurrec- the Home Government he minutely tion in India, and insisted that examined, observing that it was the provisional character of the neither a measure of reform, nor Bill would place a premium on a simple continuance of the existagitation. On former occasions, ing system. Lord Stanley next when the form of Indian govern discussed the subjects of the ment was in a transition state, no foreign policy of the Indian Godisturbance had arisen in India, vernment, the wars in which it and he did not see that there had been engaged, and the kindred could be reasonable ground of ap- topic of Indian finance; public prehension now. No insurrec works-in respect to which no tionary elements existed in India, one, he said, had attempted to and if there was an inclination for justify the Indian Government, insurrection, there was no leader, looking at the proportion of the and it could not be supposed that, revenue expended upon this obbecause a change was contemplated ject; the judicial system, and eduin the manner in which the go cation. Upon the last point, as vernment was to be carried on well as other points, he thought a matter of which the great mass the conduct of the Indian Governof the natives of India knew no ment had been such as to demand thing—there would be an insur- a strict and searching inquiry berectionary movement. The pro fore any portion of the power they bable result of continuing the now possessed was left in their present form of government a little hands. longer would be, that the Com Mr. Lowe replied to Lord Stanpany's servants would work under ley. He criticised the terms of an increased sense of responsi the amendment, and showed that bility, and that a stimulus would the first part had nothing to do
with the question before the Mr. Phinn complained that the House, while the second offered Whigs had departed from the prinno adequate reason for delay. ciples of Mr. Fox in not placing Lord Stanley, he said, made the India under the direct government provisional character of the Bill of the Crown. This, he said, was matter of objection, and then con a half-and-half measure, unworthy tended that it was too late to pass of a strong administration, from å permanent measure. He ob- which a large, liberal, and subserved, that the Bills of 1813 and stantial measure was expected. 1833 were of a far more compli- There would be a constant agitacated character than the present, tion against the English Governso that the argument derived from ment it created, to which he should analogy was against the noble prefer a prolongation of the existLord. Delay was not likely to ing system, until Parliament could increase the information of the consider dispassionately what form public at home upon a question of administration was best adapted respecting which few persons would for India. He then reviewed the pronounce a decided opinion; and past history of India under the as to India, ample evidence had Company, chiefly in refutation of been collected from all the ser Sir J. Hogg's statements.
He vices. Waiting for two years enlarged upon the constituency of would not solve the chief question the Court of Directors, drew an -that of the double or single unfavourable picture of the state Government. Immediate legisla- of the natives, and condemned the tion was desirable, for there was conduct of the Company towards commotion from one end of Asia the native princes. In Committee to the other, from China to the he should propose that the goBosphorus, and it was our duty to vernment of India should be admake our government as strong ministered in the name of the and as much respected as possible, Crown. whereas by suspending legislation Sir R. Inglis felt objections both for two or three years we might to the Bill and to the amendment. impair the prestige of that govern- He objected to the Bill, the indement, and thus weaken our hold finiteness of its duration; that it of India. He then took up and not merely did not provide a peranswered the objections of Lord manent system of government, but Stanley one after the other. He it destroyed much without supplyjustified the experiment proposed ing an adequate substitute; that to be made in the disposal of the it contained too large an infusion patronage, from which he anti- of the monarchical element, which cipated a great improvement in the greatest statesmen had rethe intellectual standard in the garded as a great evil; and that civil service of India, which would it altered the constitution of the beget a sympathy between the Home Government. To the amend, European functionaries and the
ment he objected, because it would natives. Upon the whole, he leave everything uncertain for two thought, Lord Stanley had made or three years. He believed that no case for a delay, which would the Home Government of India paralyse the energies of the Indian had not been wanting in the fulGovernment in every department. filment of its duties, and that the