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moment the subject of constant tate and imperfect measure as a complaint. He then proceeded to substitute for a deliberate and

peranswer the general objections which manent settlement. had been taken against the Bill. The Earl of Albemarle followed The unsatisfactory state of trade to a similar effect, and the motion in India, of education, of the re was agreed to. venue and public works, with re The principal debate upon the spect to each of which he contended Bill itself occurred on the second there had been a certain amount reading, which was moved on the of misrepresentation against the 5th of August, by the Earl of Court of Directors, whose govern- Granville, who took a review of ment, upon the whole, the Duke the discussions which had preof Wellington had acknowledged viously taken place, and after to be the best and purest he had stating some of the most importever known, and the most calcu- ant provisions of the measure, as lated to secure the happiness of well as the reasons which had inthe people of India.

duced the Government to propose Lord Monteagle spoke in favour it to the House, concluded by im. of delay, and condemned the hasty pressing on their Lordships the course of the Government as with vast responsibility which rested on out precedent and without justifi- them when called to legislate for cation. He objected, also, to the the welfare of 150,000,000 human plan itself, as well as to the time beings. when it was brought forward. The Earl of Malmesbury com

The Duke of Argyll feared that plained of the delays in the prethe greater portion of those who paration of a measure which had urged delay were influenced only at length been thrust upon the by a wish to gain time in order to House at the close of the session. overturn altogether the present He regretted the unavoidable absystem of Indian Government; sence of the Earl of Derby, whose and he feared, moreover, that Lord intention, if he could have been in Monteagle belonged to that party. his place, was to have offered no He took that opportunity of de- opinion either for or against the fending the wisdom and justice Bill, but to wash his hands of it of the present system, which he entirely, leaving the whole responendeavoured to show needed no- sibility of a long-delayed and illthing to perfect it but the altera- digested measure to rest on the tions proposed by the Government, head of the Government who and compared to which a single brought it forward. system was unreasonable and The Earl of Aberdeen said, that difficult, if not altogether impos- the course taken by Lord Malmessible.

bury was most extraordinary and The Marquess of Clanricarde pot quite respectful to the House. declared he had never heard a He was surprised to hear him say more authoritative and less argu- that he washed his hands of all mentative speech than that of the responsibility in the Bill, and that Duke of Argyll. He examined its introduction had been delayed, the arguments for and against for he (Lord Aberdeen) thought it immediate legislation, and declared had been brought forward with all himself strongly against a precipi. possible speed.

The Earl of Ellenborough re which is said in the Scriptures to minded Lord Malmesbury, that attach to the service of one of them there had been ample opportunity —namely, that of despising him." for discussing almost every ques- (Cheers and laughter). He contion connected with India in that cluded with an impressive warnHouse-Lord Ellenborough him- ing, lest the change should graself, as he had been reminded by dually sap the constitution of India, Lord Granville, having spoken no and act like that Indian poison fewer than sixteen times, and thus “which gradually wastes away the having already made his speech on body, but never betrays its prethe Bill clause by clause. Lord sence but by the slow decay of Malmesbury was " not justified in every faculty.” (Cheers). throwing off from himself all the After some observations from responsibility which attaches to the the Marquis of Salisbury, passing of this measure."

Lord Monteagle said, that this Lord Ellenborough compendi- was the first instance in his recolously described the system which lection in which both Houses of the Bill established and partly re. Parliament had appointed Comnewed, as containing something mittees to inquire into a compligood and something bad. “ But, cated question, and then had been at the same time, I think that the suddenly summoned to rush into greatest part of what is bad is not legislation before either of those new, and that what is new is not Committees had pronounced an bad." Generally, it was an im- opinion. The present Bill would provement on the present system. complicate instead of simplifying He made merry at the expense of the administration of India, and the self-mutilation imposed on the he should feel it his duty, in ComCourt of Directors, and objected mittee, to propose several amend. to the continuance of the Court of ments, which he considered essenProprietors as a constituency. tial to the efficiency of the mea. What would a farmer do in a similar case? “Would he, if he were The Duke of Argyll defended in his senses, continue to breed the course pursued by the Governfrom a stock which always gave a ment, who, had they studied their bad breed? Would he, if he were own convenience, would have deasked to sell instead of breeding, layed the Bill for another year, retain in his farmyard the three but who had felt imperatively oldest, most diseased, and inca- called on to legislate immediately pable beasts of the lot, such as for the improvement of India. ought to have no place in a farmer's After some observations from establishment, and which certainly Lord Ashburton, the Bishop of should have no place in a Govern- Oxford, and Lord Wharncliffe, the ment concern?” He touched on Bill was read a second time withthe power of the directors to recall out a division. the Governor-General.

" The

The House having gone into Bible says, “No man can serve Committee upon the Bill, a numtwo masters ;' but the Government ber of amendments were moved. says the Governor-General of A proviso, to render valid and give India shall serve two masters, and authority to a letter sent to India that, too, without the condition by the President of the Board of

sure.

Control, if signed by the secretary councillors were to be appointed of the Board, was inserted in from time to time, to be chosen clause 1, on the motion of the from each Presidency, and to be Earl of Ellenborough. This was

removable. Lord Broughton prointended to obviate the inconve- tested against the whole clause, as nience of delay occasioned by the fatal to the Bill, since under it a Court of Directors in not imme- native might become acting Godiately procuring the requisite vernor-General. But the clause number of signatures.

passed as it stood, with the omisLord Ellenborough then suc sion of the word “ civil." cessively proposed amendments in Lord Ellenborough proposed clauses 3 and 4; one to enlarge two amendments in clauses 25 and the time for the appointment of 30; the former providing that nothe nominees; a second to enable thing in the Act should affect the Government to appoint “ six ” no power now vested in the Governorminees at once instead of “three ;'' General by the Act of the 3rd and and a third providing that, in case 4th William IV.; and the latter the Court of Directors neglected to make the Commander-in-Chief to select 15 from among them- of the Queen's troops ex officio selves in compliance with the Bill, Member of Council, and the ComGovernment should select 12 from manders-in-Chief of the Presidenthem and nominate six. All these cies ex officio Members of the Preamendments were negatived. sidential Councils. But both were

On clause 7, Lord Ellenborough negatived. moved that all the retired officers Lord Monteagle proposed a of the Company, civil and military, clause declaring that no naturalwho had served 20 years in India, born subject of the Queen should, should be added to the present by reason of birth, colour, or reliconstituency. This was supported gion, be incapable of holding emby Lord Monteagle and the Earl ployment eitlier in the covenanted of Harrowby, and occasioned some or uncovenanted service. Lord observations as to the corruptibility Granville did not object to the of the present constituency. Earl clause because he doubted the apGranville and Lord Elphinstone titude of the natives, but because opposed the amendment, and it it was directed against an imagiwas rejected.

Under the present On clause 13, Lord Ellenborough Bill

, any native who exhibits equal complained of the slovenly manner talent with an Englishman will be in which the clause and the oath employed. The clause was contained in it were drawn, and jected. proposed a new onth, couched in There was a brief debate on Sir stringent terms. But Earl Gran- J. Pakington's clause, prohibiting ville having promised to reconsider to the Company the sale or manuthe oath before the third reading, facture of salt, and rendering it the amendment was withdrawn. free to private enterprise. Lord

On clanse 22, providing for the Ellenborough strongly condemned addition of legislative councillors this novel interference with the to the Council of India, Lord El- financial system of India. He lenborough desired the insertion opposed it on principle; it imof words making it clear that the perilled the revenue, and would, if

nary evil.

re

carried out, render necessary the in regard to salt, and hoped that employment of an army of excise- the Indian authorities would be men. He also believed it would instructed by the Home Governnot produce to the commerce the ment to alleviate this state of benefits which were anticipated. things. India ought to be treated as a per The clause was struck out of the fectly independent country in mat- Bill, which then passed through ters of finance, and he hoped that Committee. their Lordships would strike the In the House of Commons, the clause out of the Bill.

Bill, as thus amended, was agreed The Earl of Albemarle cited to without a division, and soon statistics to show the deprivation afterwards became law. sustained by the natives of India

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CHAPTER VII.

Russia and TURKEY.The demands of the Czar upon the Sultan are

regarded with great anxiety by Parliament and the country-Discussions in both Houses upon the subject from time to time-On the 25th of April the Earl of Clarendon makes a Statement-On the 27th of May the Earl of Malmesbury asks for information- Answer of the Earl of Clarendon Observations of the Earl of Hardwick, Lord Beaumont, and Lord Brougham.In the House of Commons, Lord John Russell is questioned by Mr. Disraeli-Speech of Lord John Russell— On the 50th of May the Earl of Hardwick addresses questions to the Ministrythe Earl of Clarendon repliesIn the House of Commons, Lord John Russell declines to answer similar inquiries made by Mr. Disraeli —the Russians enter the Danubian provincesCount Nesselrode and CircularIt is commented upon with great severity by Lord Lyndhurst -On the 11th of July the Ministers are further questioned in both Houses— Next day, in the House of Lords, an important discussion arises, in which Lord Lyndhurst and the Earls of Clarendon and Fitzwilliam take part— In the Commons, Mr. Layard's motion is several times postponed ---On the 13th of July Lord John Russell explains his previous interpretation of the Nesselrode Circular, which on the 18th of July is the subject of an interesting discussion in the House of LordsOn the 2nd and 8th of August the Mar. quess of Clanricarde asks for information relative to the Danubian Provincesthe Earl of Clarendon 3-Speeches of Earls Clarendon and Malmesbury -- Further inquiries in the House of Commons —the reserve of the Government causes dissatisfaction on the 12th of August the Eastern Question is again brought before the Lords, and discussed at some length by Earls Malmesbury, Clarendon, Hardwick, Ellenborough, and Lord Beaumont-On the 10th of August it is the subject of an animated debate in the House of Commons-Speeches of Lord John Russell, Mr. Layard, Sir J. Pakington, Lord D. Stuart, Mr. M. Milnes, Mr. Muntz, Mr. Blackett, Mr. Cobden, and Lord Palmerston-Naval Coast Volunteers Bill explained by Sir J. Graham-Pilotage and Mercantile Marine Bills by Mr. Cardwellthe three Bills are passed –Minor Measures of the Session - Acts for the Suppression of Betting HousesThe better Prevention of Aggravated Assaults -- The Abatement of Smoke Nuisance, and the Vaccination Extension Act-Termination of the Session-Parliament is Prorogued by Commission-Speech of the Lords CommissionersReview of the Session-Number and Importance of the Measures passed Aspect of Public Affairs at the commencement of 1853 contrasted with that at its terminationMinisterial Crisis occasioned in December by the resignation of Lord Palmerston

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