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conceded to the Latins by the from Count Nesselrode to Baron former, was clearly recognised by Brunnow, the Russian Ambassador the terms of the latter; and yet in London, dated January, 1853, this now became the chief subject he said, “ The efforts of the French of dispute, the Russian Envoy en- Embassy have triumphed at Condeavouring to prevail upon the stantinople. Not only has the Porte to withhold the key from firman, sanctioned by the Sultan's the monks of the Latin Church. hatti-scheriff, not been executed It is painful to record such squab- at Jerusalem, but it has been bles, but they were the small be- treated with derision by His Highginnings of mighty events. A ness's (the Sultan's) Ministers. quarrel between ignorant monks To the indignation of the whole in Palestine has ultimately in- Greek population, the key of the volved the most powerful nations Church of Bethlehem has been of Europe in war.

made over to the Latins, so M. d'Ozeroff, the Russian En- publicly to demonstrate their revoy, who had succeeded M. de ligious supremacy in the East.” Titoff at Constantinople, now in- It is difficult to understand the sisted that the firman should be meaning of this last complaint. openly read at Jerusalem, and a The firman itself—the non-procommissioner, Afif Bey, was spe. mulgation of which Count Nesselcially sent by the Porte in Novem- rode alleged as a grievance—disber for that purpose. It is of im- tinctly asserted that the Latins had portance to notice here, that it ap- a right to a key as well as the pears from the despatches relative Greeks, and no religious supremacy to this dispute, which have re- could be conferred by the possescently been laid before Parliament, sion of a symbol which was held that at this period M. d'Ozeroff by each of the rival churches. made a formal declaration to the In order to give force to his French Ambassador at the Porte, representations, the Emperor of that Russia, by virtue of the treaty Russia ordered a large body of of Kainardji in 1774, claimed to troops, at the close of last year, to protect the orthodox—that is, the advance towards the frontier of Greek religion in Turkey. The Moldavia, which is separated from validity of this claim will be sub- the Russian province of Bes. sequently considered; it is suffi- sarabia by the river Pruth. In the cient at this part of the narrative meantime the firmau was publicly to call attention to the fact, that, read at Jerusalam, but disputes so early as the month of Novem- between the Russian and French ber, 1852, Russia did assert her Envoys at Constantinople respect right to a protectorate of the Greek ing the Holy Places still conChurch throughout the dominions tinued, which involved the Porte of the Sultan, a claim which, in in serious embarrassment. We do the following year, led to such not propose to go into the details momentous consequences. Some of the squabble, but we may men. delay took place in the promulga- tion, that one of the complaints of tion of the firman at Jerusalem, the Russian Minister at this time and this was attributed by the was, that the Latins claimed to Russian Government to the in- have the Tomb of the Virgin one fluence of the French Ambassador day exclusively for themselves, at Constantinople. In a despatch which he said would produce much

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discontent amongst the Greek pil- and several Russian naval and grims; and that M. de Lavalette military officers. He was received took credit to himself for not de- on the 2nd of March by the Grand manding that the Latins should Vizier, when he made use of pehave lamps and images in the remptory language, and being intomb, as he contended they were vited to call upon the Foreign entitled to have. The Turkish Minister, Fuad Effendi, he refused Government was all this time to do so, declaring that he would placed between two fires, and, as not do so, as M. d'Ozeroff, the was stated by Colonel Rose, the Russian Minister at ConstantiBritish Chargé d'Affaires at the nople had to accuse him of breach Turkish capital, in a despatch to of faith. In consequence of this Lord John Russell on the 7th of insult Fuad Effendi resigned his March this year," from the time office, and Rifaat Pasha was apM. de Lavalette threatened to bring pointed Minister for Foreign up a French fleet to the Darda- Affairs in his place. At this nelles, and M. de Titoff menaced period we had no ambassador at instantly to quit Constantinople Constantinople, Lord Stratford de with every member of his mission, Redcliffe not having yet arrived ; if their respective and entirely di- but, on the 8th of March, Colonel vergent demands were not com- Rose sent a despatch to Malta, plied with, the Porte had, under addressed to Admiral Dundas, who the pressure of that and subse- commanded the British squadron quent coercions, committed a series there, desiring him to sail for the of lamentable contradictions." mouth of the Dardanelles. The

In consequence of the threaten- Admiral, however, did not feel ing aspect of the quarrel, the warranted by his instructions in British Government, in February complying with this demand, and this year, directed Lord Stratford the fleet remained stationary at de Redcliffe, who had been for Malta. But the French Governsome time absent from Constanti- ment, on receiving intimation of nople, to return to his embassy, what was going on from M. charged with special instructions. Benedetti, then Chargé d'Affaires About the same time an important at the Turkish capital, immediately actor appeared upon the scene. ordered the Toulon squadron to Prince Menschikoff was ordered by sail for the Greek waters. the Emperor of Russia to proceed In a despatch from Lord Clarento Constantinople as Ambassador don to Sir G. H. Seymour, the and Plenipotentiary, ostensibly on British Minister at St. Petersthe ground that the rank of a burg, dated the 23rd of March, chargé d'affaires, who had been he expressed the regret of the for some time at the head of the English Government “ that the Russian mission there, did not alarm and irritation which pregive him the weight which was vailed at Paris should have inrequired in affairs of such gravity duced the French Government to as were then pending.

order their fleet to sail for the Prince Menschikoff arrived at waters of Greece ;” but he ad. Constantinople at the end of Fe- mitted that their position was in bruary, accompanied by Count De many respects different from our mitri Nesselrode as his secretary, own, and said, that the zeal of their late Ambassador at Con- should enjoy the exclusive right of stantinople (M. de Lavalette, who interfering for the effectual prohad been recalled) was still the tection of all members of the cause of much embarrassment to Greek Church in Turkey, and of the French Government. * About the interests of the churches themthis time, Colonel Rose received selves; that the privileges of the information that it was the inten- four Greek Patriarchs should be tion of Prince Menschikoff to pro- effectually confirmed; and that the pose a secret treaty for the accept- Patriarchs should hold their preance of the Porte, and that he had ferment for life, independently of endeavoured to exact a promise the Porte's approval. He also from Rifaat Pasha, before he made proposed a list of articles for the known to him the nature of his settlement of the question of the mission and demands, that the Holy Places. By this time M. de Turkish Government would not la Cour had arrived as Ambassareveal them to the representatives dor from France, and he strongly of England or France. This pro- objected to the articles of arrangemise Rifaat Pasha declined to give, ment which the Porte was disposed and his refusal no doubt occasioned to yield, while it resolved to reject the delay that took place in com- the proposed treaty. municating to the Porte the real The first formal and public deobject of Prince Menschikoff's em- mand made by the Russian Ambassy.

bassador was in the shape of a On the 5th of April, Lord Strat- Note addressed by him, on the ford arrived at Constantinople, and 19th of April, to the Minister of on the following day he wrote to Foreign Affairs of the Porte. In Lord Clarendon, and said that, at it he made use of very perempan interview he had had with the tory language, and said, The deGrand Vizier and the Minister for lays which have been occasioned Foreign Affairs, they informed hitherto in adopting a final decihim that, “ since the arrival of sion on the proposition of the AmPrince Menschikoff, the language bassador of Russia oblige him to held by the Russian Embassy to demand from the Porte a categorithem had been a mixture of angry cal reply, which he can await complaints and friendly assur- no longer. He demands, conseances, accompanied with positive quently :-1. An explicative firrequisitions as to the Holy Places man, the form of which is to be in Palestine, indications of some agreed to, concerning the key of ulterior views, and a general tone the Church of Bethlehem, and the of insistance, bordering at times silver star placed on the Altar of on intimidation.” Prince Mens

the Nativity in the subterranean chikoff now proposed secretly to part of the same Sanctuary; the Rifaat Pasha a series of demands, possession of the grotto of Gethto the effect that a treaty should semane by the Greeks, with the be concluded, providing that Russia admission of the Latins to exercise

* The language of M. de Lavalette had therein their worship, but yet been very indiscreet. He had threatened

maintaining the precedency of the that a French fleet would appear off Jaffa ;

orthodox, and their priority for and hinted at a French occupation of Jerusalem, " when," he said, "we shall have

the celebration of Divine service all the sanctuaries."

in this Sanctuary: and, in fine, in what relates to the common pos- Places ; but, with respect to the session of the Greeks with the latter, it ultimately, at the beginLatins of the gardens of Bethle- ning of May, issued two firmans hem, and the whole according to for the definitive settlement of the the bases discussed between His quarrel. By these it was deterExcellency Rifaat Pasha and the mined that the key of the Great Ambassador.

Church at Bethlehem and a key “ 2. A supreme order for the of each of the two gates of the immediate repair by the Ottoman Grotto should remain as of old” Government of the cupola of the in the hands of the Latins. Other Temple of the Holy Sepulchre, concessions were made to the with the participation of the Greek Greeks, and the Porte undertook Patriarch, without the intermed- to repair, subject to the approval dling of a delegate of any other of the Greek Patriarch, the cupola worship, for the walling up (cloture of the Church of the Holy Semurée) of the harems having a pulchre. This seemed likely to view on the Sanctuary, and for the remove every subject of complaint, demolition of the harems conti- and the question which had so guous to the cupola, if the possi- long created such difficulty would bility of that demolition be proved. now have been finally set at

“The Ambassador is charged rest, if the Russian Ambassador with obtaining on these points a had been sent to Constantinople formal assurance and notification.

for that purpose alone, and not " 3. A Sened, or Convention, for with concealed and ulterior views. the guarantee of the strict status Now, however, the full scope and quo of the privileges of the Catho. object of the mission of Prince lic Greco-Russian worship of the Menschikoff were openly made Church of the East, and of the known. On the 5th of May he Sanctuaries which are found in presented an ultimatum on behalf possession of that worship exclu- of his master, in the shape of a sively, or in participation with Note, accompanied by the draught other rights at Jerusalem.

of a proposed Convention or ar“ The Ambassador must repeatrangement which the Porte was to in this place, to the Minister of sign within five days, under a Foreign Affairs, that which he has threat of serious consequences if a already had occasion to express to longer delay took place. The him many times—that Russia does Note was written in the third pernot demand from the Porte politi- son, in the name of the Ambascal concessions; her desire is to sador, and the material part of it tranquillize the consciences of the was as follows:devout by the certainty of the “ The Note of His Excellency maintenance of that which is, and the Minister for Foreign Affairs, of that which has always been dated the 26th Redjib (April 23– practised up to our times.” May 5) accompanying the certified

The Porte remained firm in its copies of the two sovereign orders resolve not to accede to the pro. as to the Sanctuaries and the cuposed Convention, which embraced pola of the Holy Sepulchre, only questions of more importance than reached the Ambassador to-day. any which had hitherto heen raised He considers that communication in the dispute about the Holy as a compliance with the first two

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demands made in his note of April difficulties expressed on different 7 (19,) and he will make it his occasions by His Excellency Rifaat duty to place those documents be- Pasha and some of his colleagues fore his Government.

have been taken into consideration, “ But not having, up to the pre- as His Excellency will see by the sent time, obtained any answer draught of a sened which the Amupon the third and most important bassador has the honour to annex point, which requires guarantees to the present note. for the future, and having very re- “ The Ambassador flatters himcently received orders to redouble self with the hope that the just his exertions for the immediate expectations of his august master settlement of the question which will not be disappointed, and that, forms the principal object of the laying aside all hesitation and all solicitude of His Majesty the Em- mistrust, by which his dignity and peror, the Ambassador finds him- bis generous sentiments would be self constrained no to address aggrieved, the Sublime Porte will His Excellency the Minister for no longer delay to communicate to Foreign Affairs, strictly confining the Imperial Ambassador the sove his demands on this occasion to reign decision of His Majesty the the orders which he has received Sultan in reply to the present nofrom his superiors.

tification. “The bases of the arrangement In the hope that this will be which he is instructed to obtain the case, the Ambassador begs His are substantially the same. Excellency Rifaat Pasha to be good

“ The orthodox Eastern religion, enough to let him have that anits clergy and its possessions, shall swer by Tuesday next (April 28% enjoy for the future, without any May 10). He cannot consider a prejudice, under the protection of longer delay in any other light His Majesty the Sultan, the privi- than as a want of respect towards leges and immunities which are his Government, which would im. assured to them ab antiquo, and, pose upon him the most painful upon a principle of perfect equity, duty. shall participate in the advantges The proposed Convention acaccorded to the other Christian companying this note was in the sects.

following terms:“ The new explanatory firman “ His Majesty the Emperor and respecting the Holy Places of Jeru- Padishah of the Ottomans and His salem shall have the force of a Majesty the Emperor of All the formal engagement made with the Russias, being mutually desirous Imperial Government.

of maintaining the stability of the At Jerusalem Russian monks orthodox Greco-Russian religion and pilgrims shall enjoy similar professed by the majority of their privileges to those enjoyed by other Christian subjects, and of guaran. foreign nations.

teeing that religion against all mo" These points, here briefly lestations for the future, have stated, shall be the object of a namedsened, which shall attest the reci- “ His Majesty the Emperor and procal confidence of the two Go. Padishah of the Ottomans vernments.

and His Majesty the Emperor of all “ In this act the objections and the Russias who, after having


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