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received their reports, he thus re “ The character of these disferred to them in the following letter orderly and brutal outrages may addressed to M. Pisani, the chief be said with truth to be, in general, interpreter to the embassy : that of Mussulman fanaticism, ex

Therapia, June 22, 1853. cited by cupidity and hatred You will communicate to Reds against the Sultan's Christian subchid Pasha the several extracts of jects.” consular reports from Scutari,

And further,

, Monastir, and Prevesa, annexed to

“ Unless some powerful remethis instruction. You will observe dies be applied without further that they relate in part to those delay, it is to be fenred that the acts of disorder, injustice, and authority of the Central Governcorruption, sometimes of a very

ment will be completely overatrocious kind,

which I have fre- powered in some of the provinces, quently brought, by your means,

and that the people, despairing of to the knowledge of the Ottoman protection, will augment the disPorte. The assurances given to

order by resorting to lawless means me by the late Grand Vizier, the of self-preservation.” appointment of a more trustworthy

In a letter from the Foreign pasha at Salonica, and the order Secretary, Lord Clarendon, to for Hazzi Hussein Pasha to repair June of this year, he said :

Lord Stratford, on the 24th of forth with to Constantinople, had warranted a hope that the griev- zealously laboured to obtain for

Your Excellency has long and ances so justly and loudly complained of could at length be effec- the Christians in Turkey that tively redressed. But it is with their evidence should be received extreme disappointment and pain

in the courts of justice with the that I observe the continuance of

same consideration and respect as evils which affect so deeply the that of their Mussulman fellowwelfare of the empire, and which subjects, and that the barbarous assume a deeper character of im- distinction which fanaticism has portance in the present critical long interposed between Turks state of the Porte's relations with

and Rayahs in this respect should Russia. You will read this instruc

no longer be allowed to prevail. tion to His Highness; you will It is impossible to suppose that communicate fully the contents of any true sympathy for their rulers the accompanying extracts; and

will be felt by the Christians, so you will press upon his mind the long as they are made to expeurgency of adopting adequate mea

rience, in all their daily transacsures for the repression of crime

tions, the inferiority of their poand the protection of the Sultan's sition as compared with that of loyal and peaceable subjects with their Mussulman fellow-subjectsout further delay.”

so long as they are aware that they Again, in a letter dated July will seek in vain for justice for 4th, he said :


done either to their persons very different. The total population subject deemed a degraded race, unworthy

or their properties, because they are there to the Ottoman Porte was, in that year, to be put into comparison with the 16,050,000, of whom 12,650,000 were Mussulmans, 3,000,000 Greek Church, followers of Mahomet. Your Exand 260,000 Roman Catholics.

cellency will plainly and authorita

tively state to the Porte that this duty to represent to the Porte, is state of things cannot be longer considered probable and impendtolerated by Christian Powers. ing by some of the great European The Porte must decide between Powers." the maintenance of an erroneous And even at the close of the religious principle and the loss of present year, in which, if ever, it the sympathy and support of its might have been expected that the allies. You will point out to the Turkish Government would have Porte the immense importance of shown anxiety to redress the grievthe election which it has to make; ances of its Christian subjects, and Her Majesty's Government con- Lord Stratford felt so little satisceive that very little reflection will fied with either its performance or suffice to satisfy the Turkish Mi- its promises, that on the 31st of nisters that the Porte can no longer December he thus wrote to Lord reckon upon its Mussulman sub- Clarendon :jects alone as a safeguard against “I am further of opinion that, external danger, and that, without with a view to the condition of the the hearty assistance of its Chris- non-Mussulman communities in tian dependents, and the powerful this empire, and the development sympathy and support of its Chris- of those resources on which the tian allies, the Turkish empire Porte's independence must ever must soon cease to exist." mainly rest, it would not be safe

And in giving the Ambassador to hedge round the Ottoman emhis instructions in February, Lord pire with European guarantees, Clarendon had thus expressed him- unless the Porte engaged at the self:

same time to realise and extend “ Your Excellency will, with all her system of improved administhe frankness and unreserve that tration in good earnest.” may be consistent with prudence We attach no importance to the and the diguity of the Sultan, language of courtly flattery used explain the reasons which lead by the new Greek Patriarch of Her Majesty's Government to fear Constantinople, Anthemos, who that the Ottoman empire is now in was elevated to that dignity early in a position of peculiar danger. The November, and who, when presentaccumulated grievances of foreign ed to the Sultan, as usual delivered nations, which the Porte is unable an address, in which he said :or unwilling to redress, the mal “Your glorious predecessor, the administration of its own affairs, Sultan Mahomet II., of illustrious and the increasing weakness of memory, after conquering many executive power in Turkey, have countries, did, indeed, think proper caused the allies of the Porte lat- to adopt a system of great leniency terly to assume a tone alike novel and protection with respect to his and alarming, and which, if per new subjects; but your Majesty severed in, may lead to a general has triumphed over the hearts of revolt among the Christian subjects all your subjects, and thus you of the Porte, and prove fatal to the have conquered all your peoples. independence and integrity of the Such a victory is glorious to any empire—a catastrophe which would Government. be deeply deplored by Her Majesty's “We appreciate the grace and Government, but which, it is their favour of which every day gives

fresh proofs ; and we vow, with uncovered and tearful eyes, insubmission and devotion, to be vokes of Heaven, with the warmyour Majesty's faithful subjects. est and sincerest aspirations, a life

“The Padisha having, in the full of success and of eternal dufulness of his wisdom, been pleased ration, for his gracious, just, to consult the interests of his sub- powerful, and incomparable Majects, and to maintain the ancient jesty, the benefactor of all his privileges which the Conqueror faithful subjects, whom he makes granted to our nation, we, in our happy by a reign at once glorious turn, are in all duty bound to have and paternal.” confidence in your Majesty's ge A code of regulations called nerosity; to be obedient to all Tanzimaut, having for one of its your orders; to be grateful to the professed objects a better treatMinisters as the benefactors of ment of the Christian subjects of the subjects—to the Naibs for the the Porte, was indeed promulgated justice which they administer, to by a hatti-scherif, in November, the Vizier and the army for their 1839; but quid leges valent sine gallantry, to the Patriarch and all moribus ? It is in vain to pass the metropolitans for their mode- humane and liberal edicts, unless ration and piety.

they are carried out in the same · It is the duty of all your sub- spirit by those entrusted with their jects to remain faithful and not execution. And the testimony of to depart from righteousness and recent travellers in Turkey proves loyalty. Happy are we, under the that, as regards the rights and sublime shadow of an incomparable privileges of Christians, except Monarch, that we find protection those who have placed themselves, under the mighty wings of his as is not unfrequently the case, grace. Condescend, Sire, to re under the protection of Foreign ceive the assurances of the grati. States, by obtaining, under a systude of the Greeks, your faithful tem of passports or certificates, a subjects. The sincere expression quasi citizenship in those States, of that gratitude is a duty." the Tanzimaut has been allowed

This is the language of fulsome to become a dead letter. It is adulation, not of sincerity and laughed at by the orthodox Mus. truth. And the same remark sulmans, whose intolerant creed applies to an address presented teaches them to hate and despise about the same time to the Sultan, the rayal; and the daily infracby some of the Greeks in Con- tion of its provisions is openly stantinople, in which they ex- connived at by the Turkish aupressed their profound gratitude thorities, who give themselves no to His Imperial Majesty for the trouble to enforce a law so much favours and privileges he had at variance with their habits, and lavished upon their nation, and so little in unison with the tenets said :

of their religion. “On considering the distin It must, however, be admitted guished Imperial favour of which that, up to the close of the present our Patriarch, faithful subject of year, no symptom appeared of His Imperial Majesty the Sultan, sympathy on the part of the rayahs, has been the object, our nation, in or Greek Christians, throughout the most lively joy, with heads the Turkish empire, with the de.

signs of Russia. It would not be supposed, that where ten or have been matter of surprise, if, twelve millions of subjects have considering the many indignities great wrongs to redress, they will and oppressions to which they had espouse beartily the cause of their for centuries been subject under rulers in a war professedly underMahommedan misrule, they had taken by a foreign Power on their embraced the present opportunity behalf, unless they obtain, as an of rising against the Sultan, and equivalent for their resistance to joining the Imperial invader, whose such an interference, whatever professed object, in his demands rights they may in fairness dewhich led to the war, was the pro- mand. For centuries, and up to tection of their interests, and with the end of the present year, po whom they had a strong bond of Christian has been allowed, by the union in a common faith. But it laws of Turkey, to give evidence appears as though they dreaded in a court of justice; and this the supremacy of the Czar quite monstrous iniquity has not yet as much as they disliked the go- been removed, notwithstanding vernment of the Sultan; and they the urgent remonstrances of the looked upon the struggle not as British Ambassador, Lord Strat. a religious quarrel, undertaken ford de Redcliffe. Promises to by the Emperor on their behalf, that effect have indeed been given, but as an aggression upon their which it is to be hoped will be national rights, by hostile invasion carried out. Lord Stratford's interon the part of a great military ference, however, would in all proPower. Certain it is, that they bability have been wholly disrehave as yet exhibited no signs of garded, if the position of Turkey wishing to transfer their allegiance had been less critical, and the to Russia, or even aiding her in necessity of aid from the Western the present contest. But it is im- Powers less urgent. possible to believe, if the war con It will have been noticed that tinues, that the Christian subjects Count Nesselrode, in his note of of the Porte in Europe, who out- the 31st of May, signified to Resnumber the Moslem population in hid Pasha that in a few weeks the proportion of nearly three to the Russian forces would receive one, will continue to fight the orders to cross the frontier and battle of an infidel Power without occupy the Principalities; “not,” insisting upon and obtaining for as he said, “to wage war," but themselves concessions which will “ to obtain those material guaran. materially alter their political con- tees;" until the Ottoman Governdition; and it appears to us the ment should give to Russia the most probable of events, that, moral securities she had in vain unless the Turkish Government demanded. No time was lost in meets these demands in a large putting this threat into execution. and liberal spirit, insurrectious On the 2nd and 3rd of July two will take place, which will be more divisions of Russian troops crossed formidable to the existence of the the Pruth; one at Skoaliani, and Porte as a Mahommedan power in the other at Leovd. Prince GortEurope than anything that is to schakoff was the commander-inbe feared from the intrigues or chief of the army of occupation ; the arms of Russia. It is not to and he, at the moment of passing

the river, addressed the following any fresh charges or contributions; proclamation to the inhabitants of that the forage and rations for the Moldavia and Wallachia :

troops shall in due time, and at a “His Majesty the Emperor, my rate appointed and agreed on in august lord and master, has ordered advance by your Governments, be me to occupy your country with paid for from our military treasury. the armies the command of which “ Look tranquilly to the future! he has deigned to confide to me. Engage with security in your agri

“We come among you neither cultural labours and commercial with projects of conquest, nor with speculations! Be obedient to the the intention to modify the insti- laws under which you live, and to tutions under which you live, or the established authorities. It is the political position which solemn by the faithful discharge of these treaties have guaranteed to you. duties that you will acquire the

“The provisional occupation of best claim to the generous solicithe Principalities which I tude and the powerful protection ordered to effect is for no other of His Majesty the Emperor.” purpose than that of an immediate Here, then, was a clear and and efficacious protection in grave unequivocal act of aggression on and unforeseen circumstances, the part of Russia. Disguise it when the Ottoman Government, as she might, the crossing of the distrusting the numerous proofs Pruth was nothing less than an of a sincere alliance which the invasion of territory, which, alImperial Court has never ceased though in an anomalous relation to give it since the conclusion of in many respects to the Turkish the treaty of Adrianople, replies Government, indisputably to our most equitable proposals under the sovereignty of the Sulwith refusals, and opposes the most tan. There was nothing in preoffensive suspicions to our disin- vious treatics between Russia and terested advice.

the Porte to justify this step. The “In his magnanimity, in his most recent one that regulated the constant desire to maintain peace relations of the two Powers to the in the East as well as in Europe, Danubian Principalities, was that the Emperor will avoid an aggres- of Balta Liman, dated May 1, sive war against Turkey, so long 1849, the duration of which was as his dignity and the interests of fixed at seven years, and of which his empire shall permit him to do the following are the material proso.

visions as bearing upon the right “ On the day on which he ob- of Russia to send troops into the tains the reparation which is due territory :to him, and the guarantees which "Art. 1. In consideration of the he has a right to claim for the exceptional circumstances which future, his troops shall return have been produced by late events, within the frontiers of Russia. the two Imperial Courts have

“Inbabitants of Moldavia and agreed that, instead of following Wallachia ! I also execute the mode established by the reguorder of His Imperial Majesty in lation of 1831 for the election of declaring to you that the presence the Hospodars of Moldavia and of His Majesty's troops in your Wallachia, those high functionaries country shall not impose on you shall be named by His Majesty



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