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the Sultan according to a special shall remain within such a dismode concerted for this occasion tance that they can immediately between the two Courts, in order re-enter them in the event of to confide the administration of serious circumstances arising in these provinces to the most the Principalities again calling for worthy candidates, and those who the adoption of that measure. Inenjoy the highest renown among dependently of this, care shall be their fellow countrymen. For this taken to complete without delay time also, the two Hospodars shall the re-organisation of the native only be named for seven years, the militia, in such a manner that it two Courts reserving to them. may by its discipline and effective selves, one year before the expira- strength offer a sufficient guarantee tion of the term fixed by the pre- for the maintenance of legal sent arrangement, to take into order.” consideration the internal state of The Principalities had been the Principalities, and the services after this treaty entirely evacuated which may have been rendered by by the forces of the Emperor and the two Hospodars, in order to the Sultan, and the only case in consult together on ulterior mea which either were to be permitted sures.
to enter them again, was “ in the “ Art. 4. The disturbances which event of serious circumstances have recently agitated the Princi- arising in the Principalities "palities having shown the neces that is, to repress internal dissity of furnishing to their Govern- turbances. Of course this did not ments the support of a military give Russia the shadow of a preforce capable of promptly repress- text to occupy the provinces as a ing any insurrectional movement, measure of coercion to compel the and of insuring respect for the Sultan to accede to her demand of established authorities, the two a convention. It was an act of Imperial Courts have agreed to violence which threw infinite diffiprolong the presence of a certain culty in the way of further negopart of the Ottoman and Russian tiation, for it roused the national troops who now occupy the coun- feeling of Turkey, and evoked a try: and more particularly to pre- spirit of resistance and patriotic serve the frontier of Wallachia ardour on which neither the Emand Moldavia from aggression peror nor the rest of Europe had from without, and it has been de- calculated. cided that there shall be left there When the news reached Confor the present from 25,000 to stantinople that the Russian forces 35,000 men of each of the two had crossed the Pruth, the populaPowers. After the re-establish- tion there became much excited, ment of tranquillity on the said and at the instance of the Serasfrontiers there shall remain 10,000 kier(Commander-in-Chief) Memen of each until the completion hemet Ali, who was at the head of the work of organic improve- of what may be called the war ment, and the consolidation of the party in the Turkish Councils, the internal tranquillity of the two Sultan dismissed from the Miprovinces. The troops of the two nistry Reshid Pasha and MusPowers shall afterwards completely tapha Pasha who were strongly opevacuate the Principalities, but posed to any precipitate measures
which might effectually compro- inadmissible, for the reasons just mise the interests of peace. Owing, now explained; while, on the other however, to the active interference side, it became without any real of Lord Stratford, the Sultan was object, on account of the solemu induced to reconsider the step he guarantees spontaneously given by had taken, and the two displaced the Sovereign bimself in the face Ministers were recalled and rein- of the whole world. These inconstated in their posts.
testible facts suffice to absolve the The Ottoman Porte now drew Sublime Porte from all obligation up a formal protest against the to explain further on the subject invasion of the Moldo-Wallachian of the religious privileges. It is provinces, and issued it from the incontestibly evident that the inForeign office on the 14th of July. dependence of a sovereign State is The following are the most impor- null if among its attributions is tant passages of the document: not preserved that of refusing,
• It is seen by the official com without offence, a demand which -munications which the Sublime is unauthorised by treaties, and Porte has made to the Great whose acceptance would be at the Powers, that she does not hesitate same time superfluous as to the to give sufficient assurances, capa- ostensible object, and not less ble to dispel the doubts which have humiliating than injurious to the led to the discussions relative to high party which declines it. the rights, to the spiritual pri Nevertheless, the Sublime vileges, and to the other immuni- Porte does not in any way retire ties which thereunto belong, and from its friendly and profoundlyin the possession of which the sincere desire not only to fulfil all Greek churches and the Greek its engagements towards Russia priests are placed by His Majesty with the most scrupulous exactithe Sultan. Far from thinking of tude, but further, to give it such withdrawing any part whatever of entirely new proof of its cordial these privileges, or even of re- dispositions as is compatible with stricting their enjoyment conse the sacred rights of its sovereignty, crated by use, His Imperial Ma- and with the honour and the fundajesty glorifies himself in confirming mental interests of its empire. them publicly; and, faithful to the “ The Sublime Porte is even maxims of justice and clemency, prepared to reiterate the assurplaces them in a position of safety ances promised in the letter of the from all prejudice, by means of a 4th (16th) of June, written in reply solemn act confirmed by his hatti- to that of his Excellency Count scheriff, and which has been com- Nesselrode, bearing date the 19th municated to all friendly Govern- of May (O.S.); and it is still disments. Such being the case, it posed, if an arrangement of a would be useless to encumber the nature to satisfy Russia can be question with a mass of details. arrived at without prejudice to the It will suffice here to state, that, sacred rights of the Sultan, to on one side, the demand of the send an ambassador extraordinary Russian Ambassador, notwith- to St. Petersburg, to seek, in constanding certain modifications, cert with the Russian Cabinet, the whether as to terms or whether means of arriving at that end. as to form, remained at the end * As regards the passage in the
letter of his Excellency Count policy towards the Powers, it preNesselrode relative to the eventual fers reserving them in the expectainvasion of the Ottoman territory, tion of a spontaneous return of the Sublime Porte has already de- Russia to a line of action more clared that it cannot accept it; and conformable to its declarations. as that letter, as well as the reply It is with a view to remove every of the Ottoman Ministry, was at obstacle to that return that it reonce communicated to the Powers stricts itself at present to protest that signed the treaty of 1841, it against the aggression of which it evidently becomes needless to has just right to complain. It enter into details on so painful a thinks thereby to offer to the question.
whole world an additional proof of " The fact is, that this aggres- the moderation of the system it sive proceeding on the part of has adopted since the commenceRussia cannot in principle be con- ment of this affair. It abstains sidered in any other light than a from any hostile act; but it dedeclaration of war, giving to the clares that it in no manner conSublime Porte the incontestible sents to the entrance, from time right of employing military force to time, of troops into the proin return. But the Sublime Porte vinces of Moldavia and Wallachia, is far from wishing to push its which are integral parts of the rights to the extreme. Strong in Ottoman empire, regarding them the justice which regulates its as a house without a master.”
Russo-TURKISH War continued.—Manifesto by the Emperor of Russia
- Pretext for the Invasion of the Principalities exposed by Lord Clarendon and M. Droun de Lhuys— Conference of the Four Great Powers at Vienna—The Vienna Note--Its acceptance by Russia and rejection by Turkey - Modifications proposed by the Porte-Count Nesselrode's examination of those Modifications—Lord Clarendon's Despatch on the same subject – Excitement at Constantinople—Declaration of War by the Porte - Letter from Omer Pasha to Prince Gortschakoff, the Russian Commander-in-Chief - Diplomatic Negotiations at Olmütz -- Entry of the Combined Fleets of England and France into the Dardanelles—Diplomatic Circular of Count Nesselrode-the Czar issues a Manifesto of War-Examination of the Manifesto in the “ Moniteur”—Passage of the Danube by the Turks—Battle of Oltenitza
- Political situation of the Principalities -- The Hospodars quit their respective Governments—The Turks retire from the left bank of the Danube except at Kalafat-Arrival of General Baraguay d'Hilliers at Constantinople-- Protocol of the Four Great Powers – Destruction of the Turkish Fleet at Sinope—Lord Clarendon's Despatch on the
subject— Military Operations in Asia Minor. THE Emperor of Russia having it has constantly been the object
taken the decisive step of order of our cares and solicitude. Based ing his troops to cross the Pruth, on the glorious treaty of Kainardji, and take possession of the Danubian confirmed by the solemn transacPrincipalities, published, on the tions concluded afterwards with 26th of June, the following ma the Ottoman Porte, those cares nifesto:
and solicitude have always had for “ By the grace of God, we, their object to guarantee the rights Nicholas I., Emperor and Autocrat of the Orthodox Church. of all the Russias, &c., &c.,
But, to our profound affliction, “ Make known,
notwithstanding all our efforts to “ To our faithful and well-be- defend the integrity of the rights loved subjects, that from time and privileges of our Orthodox immemorial our glorious predeces- Church, latterly numerous arbisors took the vow to defend the trary acts of the Ottoman Governorthodox faith.
ment attacked those rights, and “ From the moment that it threatened finally to destroy enpleased Divine Providence to trans- tirely the whole order of things mit to us the hereditary throne, sanctioned by centuries, and so the observation of those sacred dear to the Orthodox faith. duties which are inseparable from “ Our efforts to dissuade the
Porte from such acts have been “ Given at Peterhoff, the 14th fruitless, and even the solemn word (26th) of the month of June, 1853, which the Sultan had given to us in the 28th year of our reign. on the occasion has been vio
The Russian Government after"Having exhausted all the
wards declared that the occupation means of persuasion, and all the
of the Principalities was in consemeans of obtaining in a friendly quence of the act of England and manner the satisfaction due to our
France in sending their combined just reclamations, we have deemed
fleets to Besika Bay, near the it indispensable to order our troops
entrance to the Dardanelles. But to enter the Danubian Principali
a very slight attention to dates ties, to show the Porte to how far
disproves this assertion. On the its obstinacy may lead it. Never
31st of May, the day on which theless, even now, it is not our
Count Nesselrode wrote to Reschid intention to commence war: by the occupation of the Principalities weeks the Russian troops would
Pasha, announcing that in a few we wish to have in our heart a
cross the Pruth, the English fleet pledge which will guarantee to us
was at Malta, and the French fleet in every respect the re-establish
at Salamis; and it was not until ment of our rights.
the 2nd of June that instructions We do not seek conquests : were sent to Admiral Dundas to Russia does not need them. We
proceed to the neighbourhood of demand satisfaction for a legiti
the Dardanelles. Similar orders mate right openly infringed. We
were about the same time issued are ready even now to stop the
by the French Government to movement of our troops, if the their fleet. Now information of Ottoman Porte engages to observe these instructions did not arrive at religiously the integrity of the
St. Petersburg before the 17th of privileges of the Orthodox Church.
June, so that the intention of But if obstruction and blindness
Russia to take temporary possesobstinately desire the contrary, sion of the Principalities was then, invoking God to our aid, we
avowed by her Chancellor more will leave to his care to decide our
than a fortnight before the act difference; and, placing our full hope in his all-powerful hand, we “ It is there that our ancestors received will march to the defence of the the holy baptism which rescued them from Orthodox faith.*
the darkness of idolatry. There is the
sanctuary of our faith. It is there that The feeling with which the war is the chalice of salvation restored them to regarded by the Russians as a holy enter life. prise against infidels guilty of oppression
“ The mother of orthodox Russia, Kiew, towards the members of the Greek holy and sublime city — is she not the Church, is exhibited in the following trans goddaughter of Constantinople? Those lation of some stanzas of a popular song traditions are sacred to us. They contain which appeared in St. Petersburg about the promise and the pledge of destinies this time, called “ The Song of a Russian which are gathering strength in silence. Warrior:”—
We go forth to chastise the proud, “ From the summit of Balkan our
to avenge our altar, insulted by the imbrethren stretch out their hands to us with pious. Burst forth, then, holy war! hope and prayer. Their sufferings are not let our cry, the precursor of victory, be unfelt by us. Russia has compassion on raised! That cry is—' All for the God them, and goes forth to combat for them. of Russia—for the Czar of the Russians.'” Vol. XCV.