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Majesty's Government single Russian man of-war was to have not abandoned the hope that be allowed to navigate it, and the peace may be re-established, for fleets of England and France kept they are unwilling to believe, that undisturbed possession of its waany insurmountable obstacle can ters. exist to carrying out the declared objects of Russia, in a manner com Before quitting the subject of patible with the dignity and the the Russo-Turkish war, we must independence of the Porte; and it briefly advert to the military opewould, therefore, have been a rations which took place this year, matter of sincere satisfaction to on the Asiatic frontier of the two Her Majesty's Government that Empires, where the contest was the combined fleets should have re maintained with doubtful success mained at anchor in the Bosphorus on both sides. while negotiations were pending. The mountainous range of the But this has been rendered impos- Caucasus runs in a south-easterly sible by the attack on the Turkish direction
the provinces squadron at Sinope. The inten- which lie between the Euxine and tions of the English and French Caspian Seas. To the north of Governments, which were long since this range lies the mighty empire announced to the Porte, must be of Russia; but she possesses on the firmly and faithfully executed. south the province of Georgia, For this purpose, although with which she acquired in 1798. The no hostile design against Russia, intermediate region of Circassia it is essential that the combined and Daghestan is inhabited by fleets should have the command of brave and hardy mountaineers, the Black Sea; and the necessary whom Russia has in vain attempted instructions have accordingly been to subdue, and who, under the addressed to the Ambassadors and command of a native chief, named Admirals of England and France. Schamyl, have carried on for twenty
“In making known to Count years a war of independence, with Nesselrode that such instructions marvellous success against the have been sent, you will govern whole power of Russia. The conyourself by the language of this duct of the war had for some time despatch, and you will inform His past been entrusted to Prince Excellency that, in order to pre- Woronzow, who occupied Georgia vent the recurrence of disasters with an army of about 25,000 such as that at Sinope, the combined fleets will require, and, if Three roads connect the Transnecessary, compel Russian ships- caucasian provinces of Russia with of-war to return to Sebastopol, or the rest of the empire; the first the nearest port; and it is consi. winds along the coast of the Black dered that the Turkish fleet should Sea by Anapa, Ghelendjik, and undertake no aggressive operations Souchoum Kaleh, till it enters by sea, so long as matters remain Imeritia and reaches the valley of in their present state.”
the Kour, in which Teflis lies. The result, therefore, was, The second follows the shore of so far from the Black Sea conti- the Caspian to Derbend, known nuing to be what it was often as the Iron Gates, an extensive called, a Russian lake," not a fortified position on the coast,
which was captured by Peter the directing the movements of the RusGreat when he first turned his sian army, which seems, however, arms against Persia. The third to have advanced in the direction road passes from Mosdok to Teflis he proposed. A partial success was by the valley of the Terek and the achieved by the Turks, near Bafortress of Duriel, through one of jazid, where their irregular troops the most formidable passes in the engaged a Russian regiment, and world.
remained masters of the field. When war between Russia and On the north and east of that Turkey this year was declared, the position the Turks were also victoOttoman Porte transported large rious in several engagements, and military stores from Constanti- their great object was, if possible, nople to Trebizond, on the south- to capture the strong fortress of eastern coast of the Black Sea, and Akhalsikh, which was ceded to the troops were pushed on to the river Russians at the close of the war of Phasis, where they captured the 1828-9, by the treaty of AdriaRussian fort of St. Nicholas, near nople, and which defends the line Batoum, on the south-east coast of the river Kour, and is the key of of the Black Sea. The left wing the Russian frontier at the extreme of the Turkish army, which was south-east of that empire. At one under the command of Selem Bey, time intelligence reached the west of occupied the district of Bajazid Europe, that this important fortress to the south of Mount Ararat. had fallen, but the rumour proved Prince Woronzow intended, at the to be unfounded, and up to the commencement of hostilities, to close of the year it was still in the cross the Turkish frontier, and hands of the Russians, whose loss march against Erzeroum, which is in Asia was limited to that of the the capital of a Pachalic of the same fort of St. Nicholas, a small and name, and also of Armenia, but an insignificant outpost. attackof illness prevented him from
CAPE OF Good Hope.—Termination of the Caffre War-Proclamation
by the Governor-General Cathcart-Conference with the Caffre Chiefs
— Promulgation of the Constitution at the Cape. BURMAH—Predatory Attacks by Marauding Chiefs-Failure of Expedi
tion against Mea-Toon-Successful Attack upon the Burmese in the Province of Bassein—Destruction of Mea-Toon's Stronghold—Termi. nation of the Burmese War, and Proclamation of Peace by the Governor
General of India. UNITED STATES.—Inaugural Address of the new President, General
Pierce-Meeting of Congress and Message of the President. TOPICS: Foreign Relations—Dispute with Austria-Expedition to Japan–Narigation of the river Amazon—Territorial Extension-Federal Union — Taxation–Fiscal Statement-Survey of Public Lands—Land for Railways—Judicial System-Principles of Federal System— Military Route across Isthmus of Darien- Principles of Union-Population Returns-Federative Self-Government.
NAPE OF GOOD HOPE.- contained an acknowledgment that
desultory and tedious " he had no more strength to fight hostilities,- for we can hardly dig- the English,” that he had been nify the contest with the name of driven from his country, and that war-in which we have been so he had obeyed the Governor's comlong engaged with the wild and mand by crossing the Kei. In savage tribes of Caffraria, were consequence of this intimation, happily this year brought to a General Cathcart sent Mr. Charles close by General Cathcart, who Brownlee to meet Sandilli and the succeeded Sie Harry Smith as secondary chiefs of the Gaika Governor of the Colony, and Com- tribe at a place within the termander-in-chief of our troops at ritory of Umhala, a chief who had the Cape, and who by his ener remained at peace with us during getic measures forced to submis- the whole of the hostilities. On sion the powerful chief Sandilli, Mr. Brownlee's arrival Sandilli the most active and formidable of was sent for, and appeared before our opponents. In the month of the Governor's envoy on the mornFebruary, Sandilli sent two spe- ing of Sunday, the 27th of Fe cial messengers to Colonel Maclean, bruary. The draft of the conthe British Commissioner in Caf- ditions which General Cathcart was fraria, praying for a cessation of ready to grant was then read to hostilities, and desiring to know Sandilli and the rest of the chiefs. what district would be assigned to On the 2nd of March an official him and his tribe. The petition proclamation was issued by Gene
ral Cathcart, in which he said, after Governor and the chief Commissome preliminary remarks on the sioner, Colonel Maclean, or his submission of the Gaikas,
deputies, as heretofore. “ Now therefore I do hereby “ 3. That each minor chief lately proclaim, declare, and make known, in rebellion, before he be permitted that, considering that Her Ma- to reside in British Caffraria, shall jesty's authority has been vindi- deliver up, in token of his subcated, and that sufficient punish- mission, his own arms, and bind ment has been inflicted, and with himself to obey Her Majesty's coma view to the re-establishinent of mands, conveyed as aforesaid, unpeace and good order, I hereby der the responsibility and control extend the Royal mercy and par- of the said chief Sandilli, failing don to the said chief Sandilli and which, he will continue to be held the Gaika people.
to be an outlaw, and dealt with "And I further proclaim, de- accordingly. clare, and make known, that, al “4. That the said chief Sandilli though the said chief and chieftains shall make an allotment of land and the Gaika people cannot be to each of the said minor chiefs, allowed to return to the Amatolas his dependents, who may have reand their other former lands, which turned to their allegiance, within have all been forfeited to the Crown, the country hereby allotted to bim, are now in possession of Her Ma- wherein they shall dwell under his jesty's troops, and will be reserved responsibility for their true and as Crown lands, to be disposed of loyal conduct in future. according to Her Majesty's plea “5. That the said chief Sansure, they will nevertheless be dilli shall also be held responsible permitted, under the responsibility for the security of the great high of their hereditary chief Sandilli
, road, and the property of travellers to live in peace in another portion frequenting it, in the same manner of British Caffraria further re as Pato and Siwani are bound to moved from the colonial frontier protect the high roads which pass that is to say, the country between through their country. the Kei and the great north road “ Be it, however, hereby made leading to the Windvogelberg, and known, that this general pardon bounded on the north by the Tho. will not extend beyond British mas River, and the south by the Caffraria; and that any Caffre chief, country of the chief Umhaia, on or others, who may enter and be the following conditions :
apprehended within the colony will, “ 1. That the chief Sandilli, in notwithstanding this pardon, be token of submission, shall deliver amenable to justice, according to up one hundred guns, in addition colonial law, for any crimes they to the arms stolen by the Caffre may have committed within the police, and become responsible for said colony; and, if found tresthe good conduct of the Gaika tribe. passing within the Amatolas, they
52. That the chief Sandilli and will be dealt with by summary all the people under him shall in justice under martial law. all things remain true and faithful And, lastly, I do hereby proin their allegiance to the Queen, claim, declare, and make known, and obedient to Her Majesty's that no Hottentot will be allowed commands, conveyed through the to settle within the country hereby
allotted to the said Gaika tribes country allotted us, Kreili, Umwithout special sanction being first hala, and Toise will affect to be obtained from me."
satisfied, but will regardus When these terms were notified intruders, and this will cause conto Sandilli, he complained that the stant heartburnings between us.” territory assigned to his tribe by The Governor.—“I will send the Governor was not sufficiently your words to the Queen, but I will large, and he prayed that General give you no hope of ever again Cathcart would send a petition in occupying the Amatolas, as when their behalf to the Queen of Eng. you were there you were constantly land, that their lands might be plotting mischief, and cannot be restored to them, or they “would trusted there again.” be obliged to go to war with each This ended the conference, and other for grass.
peace was now fully restored. The The conditions, however, were result to the Gaika tribe was, that accepted by the Caffre chiefs, and it was compelled to retire 200 General Cathcart had an inter- miles to the north of its former view with them on the 9th of frontier, and the Kei and Orange March, at a place called the Yel. Rivers became the undisputed low Woods, seven miles from King boundaries of British Caffraria to William's Town, which was at the north and east. How long the tended by about 150 Caffres. An lesson thus taught to the savage address to the chiefs from the chieftains driven beyond the line of Governor was read to them by an demarcation will be remembered, interpreter, and at its conclusion a remains to be seen. We have little chief named Macomo replied : hope that a treaty will be respected
“We have but one word to say, by them if they can cherish the and to thank. We thank the Go- slightest hope of violating it with vernor for taking us out of the advantage to themselves, and it bush, and for giving us a place to will be a prudent course not to live in.
allow them to be tempted by set“ When a chief errs, he is pu- tlers taking up their abode with nished and forgiven. This young flocks and herds in the vicinity of man (Sandilli) erred, and has been the boundary line; for if this is punished, and is now forgiven, but done, we may be sure that predatory the country you have given him is attacks will be renewed which will too small. Toise, who formerly involve us in another unsatisfacoccupied it, had but a small tribe. tory and inglorious contest with Sandilli has a large one, which will half-naked barbarians. not find room there."
The Constitution granted to the The Governor. “ These are Colony of Cape Town was officially things you should have thought of promulgated on the 1st of July, before you went to war. I know and this event gave the utmost that Toise has but a small tribe, satisfaction to the inhabitants. and that it never half filled the country allotted him."
BURMAH. - The chief inciMacomo.—“ We look to you to dents of this year in Burmah bespeak for us, and to represent our fore peace was finally concluded, case to the Queen. We are her were the predatory attacks of masubjects. When settled in the rauding chiefs, who, taking advan