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thirds were held in joint accounts, tax, to consider the case of the lifeby persons not in their own right. annuitants—the desolate widow, the

Briefly touching on schedule D, orphaned daughter, the defenceless as respects professions, he found woman, whose right it is to expect that, including certain amphibious justice, tenderness, protection. half-trading classes, the proportion Would they lay the higher tax on of the whole payment by profes- these, in order that they might put sional persons is about 300,0001.; the lower tax on bankers, brewers, but, taking out the mixed cases, the physicians, and lawyers ? professions pay 250,0001., or one After having vindicated the Gotwenty-second of the whole Income- vernment from any sbirking of the tax. He would not at all deny that question, which, he said, had been the case of professional men appeals turned over with an earnest desire to the sympathies; and that is one to consult public feeling, Mr. Gladof the reasons which indicate that stone examined the case of the the tax ought to be temporary. terminable annuitants, and asked, “But I hope the Committee will if an exemption were made in their pause before it rushes to the con- favour, why not in the case of perclusion that on account of the case sons with life-interests in the funds, of the professional men they will and life-interests in leaseholds, lifeproceed to such a labour. I will renters, and successors to entailed not call it an Herculean labour, estates. There were distinctions because an Herculean labour means between each of those, but when a labour that Hercules could ac- they came to be treated complish, and this I am persuaded broad grounds, there is not one he could not; but to such a labour of them to whom the arguments for as that of breaking up and recon- exemption might not be applied. structing the Income-tax.” Mr. These were the views of the GoGladstone described how difficult vernment regarding the Incomeit would be to exempt professional tax, that it was an engine of giganmen without exempting so many tic power for great national purothers—including land-agents and poses, but at the same time there auctioneers—who nestle within the were circumstances attending its professions. Then as to the clergy, operation which made it difficult, it would be extremely offensive to perhaps impossible, and in the opireconstruct the Income tax on be- nion of the Government undesirhalf of professional men, and yet able to maintain it as a portion of make the clergyman with 1501. or the permanentand ordinary finances 2001. a year pay the higher rate. of the country. The public feelBut if he were let in, it was not ing of its inequality was a fact certain the same favour would be most important in itself. The inextended to the dean and the quisition it entailed was a most bishop. Persons holding salaried serious disadvantage, and the frauds offices, not public servants, and a to which it led were evils which it large class of retail-traders, have a was not possible to characterise in much worse tenure than profes- terms too strong. One thing he sional men. But the Committee hoped the House would not do, will have the greatest difficulty namely, nibble at it, and try one when they come, in the midst of experiment after another. Whattheir breaking up of the Income ever was done with it, should be

bold, intelligible, and decisive; taxes up to the present time, and parting with it would jeopardise was likely to profit largely by the one of the most valuable of our further remissions about to be profis al resources. What the Go. posed. If that country had spevernment aimed at was to put an cial burdens, let them be specially end to the uncertainty with respect considered; but the Government to the tax, next to lay the ground saw no reason why the Income-tax for Parliament, if it should deem should not be extended to Irelaud. fit, at a given period, to part with He estimated that this would yield it. They proposed to introduce 460,0001. a year. Another means certain mitigations, to extend the of equalising the burdens which principle of compositions, and to are said to press too heavily upon act in connection with the general intelligence and skill as compared system of taxation, upon the sen with property—of equalising them timent that the tax bore too hard in a manner that would be safe, upon intelligence and skill as com- honourable, and efficacious—would pared with property. They pro- be the settlement of the Legacyposed to renew the tax for two duty — (Loud cheers). Denying years from April, 1853, at the pre- that it was an odious class question, sent rate of 7d. in the pound, for but admitting that the present artwo years more from April, 1855, rangement was not just, he proposed at 6d.; and for three years more to extend the duty to all successions from April, 1857, at 5d. ; so that whatever; retaining the present the tax would expire on the 5th of scale of consanguinity, except as April, 1860. While they proposed regards sons-in-law and daughters. to renew the Income-tax, they in. in-law, whom he proposed to place tended to accompany this renewal on the footing of blood-relations. with a relief from taxation. But But all descriptions of property with a surplus so small, larger ought not to pay the same rate. means were required for an exten. There is a great mass of taxation sive and beneficial remission of which attaches to what may be taxes. If the Income-tax was to called “ rateable property," inbe continued, should it be ex- cluding along with real property, tended? The view of the Govern- leasehold, copyhold, and so forth, ment was, that the late Adminis- subject to taxation by land-tax, intration was right in thinking that come-tax, and in a less degree, by if the Income tax was to be main extra charges on the transfer of tained, the exemptions must be property, and a great weight of narrowly considered. The persons local taxation. This property is whose incomes were below 1501. subject in both ways to legacy and had been materially benefited by probate duties, and all the burdens the large remission of taxation, incident to real property; and Goand the Goverument proposed that vernment proposes to give to this incomes between 1001. and 1501. property whatever special exempshould pay 5d. in the pound for tion or partial advantage shall be the whole time the tax continued. given to real property. The perAnother great question was the son who succeeds to personal proexemption of Ireland, which had perty will pay according to his in. received a great portion of the terest, abolishing the effect of setbenefit attending the remission of tlement; if he succeed to capital,


he will pay on capital; and if to a “And now," said Mr. Gladstone, less interest, he will pay on the " that I have done with the most value of that interest. The duty offensive part of my task, the imwill be leviable in eight half yearly position of taxes, I feel as it is instalments; and the new duty will said men are wont to feel, and as not be charged upon any succession some of us have felt, when they anterior to the period when the have come an up-hill journey to Committee shall adopt the reso- the top of the Alps; now I have lution. Mr. Gladstone reckoned got to the downward road, and the on not more than 500,000i. for plains of Italy are before me.” 1853-54 from this source; but by He now came to the remission of the year 1856–7, he reckoned it taxation. First, he proposed the would add 2,000,0001. per annum entire abolition of the duty on to the permanent revenue of the soap, involving a net loss of country. (Cheers.) “And I must 1,111,0001. revenue, the duty to remind the Committee, this will be remitted from the 5th of July, leave wholly untouched the intelli- giving a credit to this year of gence and skill of the country; 340,0001., and net loss of giving more than the relief aimed 771,0001. Next he would reduce at by the reconstruction of the what " is called a tax on prudence" Income-tax, without the danger -the tax on life-assurance from attending that reconstruction." 28. 6d. to 6d.: relief, 29,0001. (Cheers.) He did not propose to He proposed an entire change in deal with the Probate-duty, be- receipt-stamps, which would be recause he had not the means at pre. duced to a uniform rate -a "penny sent.

head" as the stamp. He proposed He then proposed to make an to reduce the duty on indentures addition to the duty on Scotch spi- of apprentiship, from 20s. to 28. 6d. rits of 1s. per gallon, and on Irish Next came the case of the attorof 8d., and to allow a drawback for neys: he proposed to reduce the waste upon-spirits in bond, and in charge for annual certificates, from announcing this concession, he con- 121. to 8l. for Metropolitan solicigratulated Lord Naas upon having tors, and from 91. to 6l. for country achieved a triumph which would solicitors; and to reduce the charge relieve the distiller, and likewise for articles of apprenticeship, from the time of the House. He pro. 1201. to 801. With regard to news. posed an increase on the licences paper-advertisements, he trusted of brewers, dealers in tea and cof the Committee would not consider fee, tobacco and soap, amounting it disrepectful to the majority who in all to 113,0001. He had pro- voted against him last week, that posed to charge Ireland with the their view had not been adopted : Income-tax and the duty on spirits, the plan he was about to propose but the Government had come to had already been adopted by Mithe determination to relieve her nisters, at the time of the debate from the Consolidated Annuities, on Thursday last. But it might amounting to 4,500,0001., which be said, “ Why did you not say so ?” would cease from and after the Because Government felt, that if 29th of September last, all arrears the Executive is to discharge the up to that date to be paid, and all function of the initiative in respect sums received since to be returned. to finance with advantage to the

country, “it is absolutely necessary on dogs--a duty of 14s. and one that the strictest silence should be of 88.; and these it is proposed to observed—nct in contempt of pres- unite at a sum of 12s.

With resure, yet notwithstanding pressure, gard to post-horses, it is proposed till the time arrive when the views to adopt the plan of the postof the Government shall be dis- masters, and to levy the bulk of closed." He proposed to reduce the tax in the form of licences. the advertisement-duty from 1s. 6d. “Another change, under the head to 6d.; and to repeal the ld. and of assessed taxes, is proposed, with d. stamps on supplements used the view of giving greater facilities for advertisements, which by ope- for the redemption of the land-tax. rating as a check on the multipli- The present provision of the law cation of advertisements, would for the redemption of the land-tax, counteract the reduction he pro- is very stringent, and its operation posed.

is exceedingly limited. You may Continuing his statement of re redeem a tax of 11., levied on the ductions, he proposed to reduce land, by transferring to the Comthe duty on hackney carriages from missioners for the Reduction of 1s. 5d. to 18., contingent on a bill the National Debt, 22s. a year in to be introduced by Mr. Fitzroy. the funds; but these are extremely

Then came a proposal for a unfavourable terms; and, instead reform of the assessed taxes, in- of recovering 10 per cent. more volving the abolition of progressive than the amount of the tax, we duties, compositions, and vearly of propose to reduce it by 17} per exemptions; with a substitution of cent., to take 7} per cent. less than rates and taxes, few, simple, and the same amount of stock in land. nearly as possible uniform. He The Committee should be aware, proposed a uniform rate of il. 1s. that any change made with relation on servants above 18 years of age, to these matters, cannot come into and 10s. 64. on servants under operation during the present year; that age, instead of the present and if at a future period of the rates, running up from a minimum session we should ask the House of 11. 11s. 6d. through a variety of to pass an act called the Assessed rates. Upon private carriages, in- Tax Act, we shall then fix the stead of such charges as 61. 12s., date for 5th October, 1853, and 41. 153. 6d., and 31. lls. 6d., to not for 5th April, 1853.". charge 31. 108., A., and 158. The The next subject which came duty on carriages let for hire, such under review was wine; but on as post-chaises, will remain at 31.; this he could propose no change but the particulars relating to this at present. Then came tea. It subject wiil be inore explicitly would be idle to discuss the reasons stated in the resolutions. The duty for reducing the duty. He agreed on horses, beginning at 1l. 11s. 7d., with Mr. Disraeli, that it would be runs up to a great variety of rates. unwise to make the reduction to He proposed that trade-horses shall 1s. at a single leap: he proposed remain as now; that the duty on to reduce the duty at once from ponies shall be 108. 6d., and on 28. 2 d. to 18. 101., and then to other horses 218. Aricultural proceed more rapidly than was horses to remain exempt. There proposed by Mr. Disraeli. " We are two rates of charge at present shall take the duty from the date


when the House, if it coincides whenever it can be done, to take with us in opinion, shall adopt the the mode of substituting rated duresolutions. To the 5th of April, ties for duties ad valorem, and to 1854, it will be ls. 10d.; to the get rid in every case, except in a 5th of April, 1854-5, it will be few instances where it is important 1s. 6d.; to April, 1855-6, 1s. 3d.; on account of revenue, of the 5 per and from April, 1856, it will be 1s. cent. customs-duties made in 1810, (Cheers.) The whole time occupied which, besides raising duties, in effecting the descent from greatly complicate the transactions 28. 21d. to 18., will be less than of business. We propose, in many three years.” He proposed some instances, where there are at prething like a new revision of the sent differential duties in favour tariff, and to apply the following of British possessions, to sink those general rules · First, to abolish differential duties altogether, by altogether the duties which are lowering the foreign article to the unproductive, except in

level of the colonial; but where we where there may be some special are not able to lower the foreign reason on account of their relation article to the level of the colonial, to other articles; and, in the next we have not thought it would be place, to abolish, as far as con- considerate in any case to raise the siderations of revenue will permit, duty on the colonial article. Lastly, duties on articles of manufacture, we have been desirous to lower the except such as are in the last stage, duties that press on foreign articles and commonly connected with hand- of food which enter largely, if not labour, in regard to which cases we into the necessaries of life, at any have thought it more prudent and rate into the solace and comfort of proper to proceed in the mode not the people. Now, the application of abolition but of reduction; and of these rules is this :-first, as in these cases we have endeavoured to articles of food, we propose to to fix the duties in such a way that lower the duty on a number of they should not reach, as to any articles, of which the principal are class of goods, higher than 10 per as follows: apples, from 28. a cent. on their value. As I have bushel to 3d. ; cheese, from 58. to referred to 10 per cent., I may 2s. 6d. per cwt.; cocoa, from 2d. state that we have not thought it to 1d. per pound; nuts, from 2s. right to propose a reduction in the to 1s. per bushel; eggs, from 10d. silk-duties, which are 15 per cent. to 4d. per 120; oranges and The question of the silk-duties is lemons, to 8d. per bushel ; butter, mainly a question of revenue, and from 10s. to 58. per cwt. ; raisins, in regard to it, we do not think it from 158. 9d. to 10s. per cwt. The an article that has the strongest produce of these articles to the claims upon our consideration; for, revenue, at the present moment, is in so far as it is an article into the 571,0001.; the immediate relief manufacture of which protection given by the reduction on the same enters, the protection has mainly quantity would be 262,0001., but, reference to certain classes of ope- with the allowance which we think ratives, with respect to whom it may be made for an increase of would be the disposition of Par- consumption, the probable net loss liament to proceed carefully and will be 185,0001. Besides these cautiously. We desire further, articles of food, which are 13 in

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