« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
manufactures and commerce, chiefly in the year, however, when it due to the astonishing demands of seemed that the wonderful export our Australian colonies and the trade had come to its maximum, large emigration, began about this this movement took a more serious time to produce a movement among turn. The men employed in the the labouring classes, which con- factory districts proceeded to entinued throughout the year in aug- force demands, perhaps not justi. mented power. The people em fied by the state of things—cerployed in those manufactures which tainly not by the rules of political formed the chief articles of export, economy—and - by means contrary though earning very large wages to the well-being of society. Under by the unusual abundance of em the guidance of skilful leaders, the ployment, became dissatisfied with labourers of one or two towns made their share of the “profits” of a general local turn-out or strike, trade; while skilled artisans, whose and the mills were closed, the turncalling was in greatest request, and outs being supported by contribuwhose numbers had been mate tions systematically levied on the rially reduced by the large emigra- towns and factories which remained tion to the gold-fields, which their in work. In other cases, the works liberal earnings had placed within of individual firms in certain towns their power, thought the time was were closed, their men being supcome when their demands for in- ported from a common fund. In creased pay must needs be acceded this manner it was expected that to. Under the influence of these the individual interests, or firms, feelings, and under the guidance seeing themselves about to be of men of some generalship, a plucked one by one, would seve"strike" of the working classes rally give way. The design, howbecame general. The artisans en ever, was sufficiently extensive and gaged in the woollen manufacture well supported to rouse the masterwere among the first who put for manufacturers, who entered into ward their demands ; carpenters, combination for self-defence, and railway porters, shipwrights, wag- wherever a partial or local strike gon-wrights, followed in a short occurred, the unassailed instantly time; almost every class of opera closed their works, trusting that as tives adopted the same course. In the non-employment of capital does the first instance, most of these not involve total destruction, and demands were acceded to. Owing as the cessation of labour to the to the extraordinary employment working men is a cessation of food, of shipping, seamen, especially their deeply-laid scheme would those employed in the coal-trade, prove abortive. In this, however, demanded and obtained enormous the masters were in a great degree wages. The movement spread mistaken, for the great abundance from one end of the country to of employment and the universality the other; and as the demand for of the combination enabled the labour was great, the supply re managers of the movement to levy stricted, and provisions greatly in- such large sums for the support of creased in price, the labouring the turn-outs, that the struggle classes generally succeeded in ob- “ between capital and labour" containing higher remuneration, as a tinued with unabated obstinacy matter of right and justice. Later throughout the year. Generally
speaking, this state of excitement “Huguenot” and “
"Huguenot" and “ Ophelia" of was unaccompanied by acts of vio- last year, while for truthfulness lence-except, perhaps, among the and completeness of detail, with uneducated miners—but a heated the absence of that over-truthful. controversy was carried on between ness which has been objected to the contending parties, which his school, it greatly surpassed served at least to prove the great them. The same artist exhibited advance of intelligence and power The Prescribed Royalist, 1651," among the working classes. The in which beauty of colour, and acmost prominent towns in this con curate delineation of the fairest test were Preston and Burnley. features of nature, have seldom
It is worthy of remark, that the been surpassed. Next in power “wages movement” was almost and interest were two pictures of entirely confined to those classes Sir Edwin Landseer, “Night" and who live by the labour of their “ Morning ;” the first a deadly hands; that the large body of combat of two stags,
a mistclerks, and those who live by the shrouded height; the companion exercise of their mind, though fre- picture, the rivals lying dead, with quently obtaining less pay than their horns interlaced, the mist mere workmen, and necessarily cleared away, and a fair scene of lake living at greater expense, took no and mountain lying around, while part in the movement.
a fox steals cautiously towards the slain. Sir Edwin exhibited also
a fine picture of deer, entitled MAY.
“ Children of the Mist;" and a
beautiful painting of a Scotch ewe ExhibitioN OF THE ROYAL ACA- and her lambs, with a couple of DEMY.—The absence of many cele- Newfoundland dogs; this winning brated artists was held to render picture is entitled “Twins." Mr. this year's Exhibition of less than Hunt's “ Our English Coasts, the usual interest Neither Mac- 1852," a flock of sheep enjoying lise, Mulready, Leslie, nor Frith themselves unrestrained, is a resent any work to uphold the repu- markable picture, for the sentiment tation of the English school. Dyce it develops, though without a single and Herbert were indeed there, human figure; for the studious but their names were affixed to fidelity of the design and general works so slight, that they also aspect of the landscape, and the might be considered absent. On the brilliant glow of the colour of the other hand, some painters of dis- grasses and wild-flowers of the foretinguished fame exhibited pictures ground. Nevertheless, the artist of exceeding merit, and the “Pre- has managed to avoid that hardRaphaelites" came out with a truth ness of truth which is so offensive and strength which placed them
Equal to this in high in public estimation. beauty, is Mr. Anthony's “Mo
Unquestionably, in point of at- narch Oak,” an immense space traction, Mr. Millais' “ Order of given to a single tree, but instinct Release, 1745,” held the first with nature: not less admirable place. For mastery over the ex is his “ Ivy-mantled Tower—Maxpression of complicated emotions stoke Priory." The celebrated This picture fully equalled the German painter, Overbeck, bas
to the eye.
this year honoured our walls by a been further secured by the won. fine work, “ The Incredulity of St. derful agency of the electric teleThomas"-a good specimen of the graph. On the 4th of May, an elecGerman style; but it must be con. tric cable, 70 miles in length, and fessed that the repute of our Eng- weighing 450 tons, was lish artists does by no means fade fully laid down from the South by the side of this eminent Foreland to Ostend. The im foreigner. Sir Charles Eastlake, mense cable was coiled on board a the President, exhibited a beau screw collier.
The operation of tiful “Ruth and Boaz." Of other “paying out" the cable commenced pictures, those which attracted at 6.30 a. M., and proceeded unmost attention were Ward's “ Exe- interruptedly at the rate of four cution of Montrose,” Mr. Webster's miles an hour. The vessels which “ Dame School," Mr. Stanfield's conducted the work were obliged “Affray in the Pyrenees, with to anchor during the ebb tides, but Contrabandistas ;" some fine views reached Middlekirk on the followby Roberts; Mr. Cresswell's ing afternoon. The end of the “ Happy Spring Time; three cable was got on shore and secured charming wood-scenes, by Red on the next day. Telegraphic grave; a grand painting of a “Wild messages were kept up from first Sea Shore at Sunset," by Mr. to last, proving the arrangements Danby. The portraits presented to be perfect, nor was any difficulty some fine examples of that branch experienced in bringing the teleof art, by Sir J. Watson Gordon. graph into practical operation. By
It will be seen by this selection,' these wonderful means our comthat the Exhibition of this year munication with the whole of Gerwas almost entirely deficient in many and the north of Europe are grand subjects requiring a grand expedited in a most extraordinary style of treatment.
manner, and a line of intelligence The Gallery of Sculpture was opened quite independent of the without interest, excepting, per- French telegraph. The operations haps, “ Truth unveiling Herself,” of laying down the cable were by Monti. The sculpture in the superintended by Captain WashGreat Exhibition by this artist, of ington, R.N. the “ Veiled Nun," attracted much 5. RAILWAY DISASTER IN attention from the public, and was UNITED STATES.-A most disasmuch criticised by connoisseurs, trous accident occurred between who held the effect produced to be New York and New Haven, on the a species of trickery. The figure railway which runs from the former and draperies of “Truth” are very city to Boston. Near the town of pleasing, but the artist has intro- Norwalk the line crosses a naviduced colour into the draperies, gable river, by a drawbridge, which and flesh tints on to the figure. is withdrawn to allow vessels to The effect is agreeable, but, in the pass. An express train left New judgment of artists, derogates from York for Boston, at 8.0 A.m., and the pure beauty of sculpture. passed rapidly until it had nearly
4. SUBMARINE TELEGRAPH TO reached the Norwalk Station. At BELGIUM. Our communication this moment the drawbridge was with the Continent of Europe has raised to allow the passage of a
steam-boat up the river. The Unlike the palace in Hyde Park, driver of the train, not perceiving it is not all glazed, the light being or disregarding the signal, made admitted only from above. The no attempt to stop the train, and entire design and execution of the an unparalleled disaster neces Exhibition are due to the spirit sarily followed—the engine, tender, of Mr. Dargan, a gentleman who and two passenger cars rushed has made a large fortune by his into the river! The height of the industry as a railway contractor. bridge-road is about 20 feet from The spirit which animated him to the water, but the stream is not the task was the laudable desire of great depth; the consequences to present to his countrymen the were not the less fatal—the engine spectacle of the results of industry, and cars were imbedded in mud by way of example and encourageand water, and the miserable pas ment to them. Actuated by these sengers suffocated.
motives, Mr. Dargan has advanced The bodies of 59 unfortunates no less than 80,0001., with the were recovered, but it is probable prospect of a very heavy loss, rethat that was not the full extent pudiating the possibility of gain. of the calamity. Some miraculous The Exhibition was opened by escapes are recorded, among which the Lord Lieutenant, the Earl of not the least wonderful is that of St. Germans, accompanied by the some passengers in the last car. Countess and a large train of Irish The descending weight of the train nobility and gentry, knights of St. suddenly stopped and broke in Patrick, officials and dignitaries. twain this carriage, before its for- Addresses were presented to his ward impetus could carry it off the Excellency, and duly responded line. Those who were in the fore to. The principal persons engaged most compartment perished, those in the undertaking—including, of who were seated behind escaped. course, Mr. Dargan—were intro
12. OPENING OF THE DUBLIN duced and duly welcomed. The EXHIBITION.—The beautiful build- architect, Mr. Benson, received ing erected by the patriotic spirit the honour of knighthood. Some of Mr. Dargan for the Industrial appropriate chorusses were sung, Exhibition of Ireland was opened accompanied by the bands of the this day with considerable pomp regiments in garrison; and his and ceremony.
Excellency declared the ExhibiThe edifice, which is a kind of tion open. It is stated that his minor “Crystal Palace," presented Excellency, by the authority of an elevation of much beauty and Her Majesty, offered a baronetcy skill. It occupies ground belong to Mr. Dargan, which that gentleing to the Royal Dublin Society, man declined. near Merrion Square. It is di The works within the Exhibi. vided into one large central and tion were necessarily of a very two smaller halls: the former 425 miscellaneous character; but the feet long, 100 feet wide, and 105 Irish, having been put on their feet high; the latter, each 355 metal, produced some very excelfeet long, 50 feet wide, and 65 lent examples of the capability of feet high. The whole occupies their island for manufactures, coman area of 210,000 square feet. merce, mining, and other branches
of industrial wealth. The people tory of the great emporium of the took a warm interest in the suc cotton trade, were entirely decess of the spectacle, which they stroyed by fire. These extensive considered a creditable national premises, which were the property effort, and were proud of their of Messrs. Brogden, were situated success. Large numbers thronged on the banks of the Leeds and the building daily; it was exten Liverpool Canal. The main buildsively attended from England, and ings were cruciform, and of imthe Queen paid it a gratifying mense height; and besides the visit. On the whole, the enlight- chief structure there were extenened views of Mr. Dargan appear sive cotton-sheds and out-buildto have largely met the success ings, in which were stored from they deserved; but, at the con- 12,0001. to 20,0001. worth of raw clusion, he was probably a large cotton. Upwards of 1000 hands sum out of pocket.
were employed within its walls. 14. SALE OF THE OLD EXCISE The mills had been closed on SaOffice. - The sale and subse- turday night, the people indulging quent demolition of the vast build themselves with a few days' holiday ings in Broad Street, which have at Whitsuntide. Advantage had for so many years been the chief been taken of their absence to seat of our receipt of customs and execute some repairs, and it is excise, is deserving of record. The supposed that the disaster origiold Excise Office was built upon nated in some carelessness of the the site of the college founded workmen. The fire was first obby Sir Thomas Gresham, under served about 9 o'clock P.M., in the the trusteeship of the Corporation top story, and, wafted by a strong of London and the Mercers' Com- north-east wind, spread over the pany. These unworthy guardians, building with extraordinary ramany years ago, removed the lec- pidity. The engines were speedily tureships with which this institu- at hand, but, from the rapidity of tion was
endowed, and which the flames and the height of the might well have been the founda- buildings, they could do nothing; tion of an educational establish the canal, too, had been allowed ment of vast importance, to a dark to run dry during the holidays. room in the old Royal Exchange, The
consequence was that the where they were reduced to a mere flames spread from floor to floor, farce; and then sold the site of the until the whole main building, college to the Government for an with its contents, was either coninconsiderable sum of money, and sumed or gutted. The cottona reserved rent of 5001.
per annum. shed, and the stores it contained, Subject to this rent, the buildings were preserved. The value of and site were disposed of for the buildings, machinery, and 108,0001. As the buildings are goods destroyed is estimated at to be immediately demolished, 80,0001. this vast sum was in fact given for 19. WRECK OF THE “ ARGYLE." the site and old materials.
- - Fifteen lives lost. — The ship 17. DESTRUCTIVE FIRE AT Argyle foundered at sea, near the LIVERPOOL. - The North-Shore coast of Newfoundland, while on Cotton Mills, the only cotton fac her passage to Quebec. Her pas