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the United States and Europe, forming a body of teachers who compare favorably in essential points with those in any State. Their efficiency, with that of local school boards, is seen in the fact that during the last year, whe the increase in school youth was 5,557, that of enrollment reached 4,056; that of average attendance, 3,281. Considering the condition and extent of the territory over which the schools are scattered, this school work is remarkable. Graded schools have increased from 15, in 1883, to 24, a very creditable number, and, in quality, will compare favorably with those in tho larger cities on the Atlantic coast.

ADMINISTRATION. The chief school officers continue to be a territorial superintendent of public instruction, appointed by the governor for a 2-years term, and confirmed by the legislature; a board of education, appointed as above, and for the same time, composed of the superintendent and one suitable person from each judicial district; a county superintendent for each county, elected annually by the people for a 2-years term. The county superintendent and 3 persons in the county, holding the highest grade of certificates, constitute a board of examiners. Districts are coatrolled by a board of 3 directors elected for 3 years, with a change of 1 each year, and a district clerk. Women are eligible to school offices, and may vote at district school meetings. To entitle districts to apportionments of school money, schools must be taught by qualified teachers at least 3 months of the year, must be free to all residents 5 to 21 years of age, and give instruction in the common branches of an English education, including physiology and hygiene. During the catire course, attention must be given to the cultivation of manners, morals, lairs of health, and ventilation and temperature of school-rooms. Nothing of an infidel, partisan, or sectarian character may enter into the instruction of any public school, or be admitted into any public school library. Districts must take an annual census of school children in the district and report to the county superintendent. School days must be 6 hours, but teachers may dismiss scholars under 8 years of age after an attendance of 4 hours. The school year begins July 1st and ends June 30th.

SCHOOL FINANCES. The public schods continue to be sustained by an annual tax of 2 to 6 mills on $1 of taxable property, and the proceeds of certain special taxes, fines, and penalties, all to be apportioned to each district according to the number of school youth in it. Districts may raise funds by special taxation, not to exceed 10 mills on $1, to purchase additional school facilities.

SCHOOL SYSTEMS OF TOWNS WITH 7,500 OR MORE INHABITANTS. Seattle, with a population of 12,000 to 15,000 in 1884-'85, had 3 public schools, conducted by an able superintendent and an eficient corps of teachers and assistants. For thcse schools there were large and commodious buildings, erected in convenient and sightly localities, and constructed with reference to the health and comfort of the pupils, with a liberality of outlay characteristic of its citizens. Besides these, there were said to be excellent private schools.

From other places than the above there are, as yet, no statistics reported to this Bu

rean.

PREPARATION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.

GENERAL TERRITORIAL REQUIREMENTS. County boards of examiners issue 3 grades of certificates, the first valid for 3 years, the second for 2, and the third for 1 year. Those holding first-grade county certificates who have been teaching 3 years, are eligible to examination for first-grade territorial certificates.

TERRITORIAL NORMAL TRAINING. The only territorial normal training yet provided is given in the teachers' normal course of the University of Washington Territory. It offers a 3-years course to those wishing to fit themselves for teaching in the public schools. The demand for welltrained teachers becoming more pressing every year, it is intended 'o give more prominence to this department. A primary training-school is addei to give lessons in the art of teaching, government, discipline, etc. Students in the former, 17; in the latter, 0.

Whitman College also offers a 3-years course of normal training. Students completing ii receive diplomas, or are given certificates on completing the first 2 yeors. Students, i 3.

For further statistics of these departments, see Table III of the Appendix; for a sumsaary, see tho report of the Commissioner preceding.

TEACHERS' INSTITUTIS. The territorial law reqnires ench superintendent of any county containing 500 census children to hold, once a year, a county institute of not less than 3 days, nt which instruction shall be given in the hest methods of teaching the branches required by law to be taught in the public schools. The county commissioners may appropriate for expenses a sum not exceeding $100 annually. All teachers in the county where the institute is held are required to attend, on forfeiture of $1 for each day of unnecessary absence.

In 1884 two territorial institutes were held: one at Dayton, August 4th to 7th; the other at Tacoma, August 18th to 21st ; both well attended.

In 1885 the eastern and western divisions united at Vancouver, with a good attend. ance by teachers from both sides of the mountains. Much good work is said to bare been done. These institutes have exceeded the provision of law, and have taken, to a larye extent, the form of pornial schools. They have increased from 7, in 1883, to 18, in 1885. They are usually held during the holidays, and continue from 1 to 5 weeks. The teachers all over the Territory are becoming more and more enthusiastic in their behalf, in one county paying from their own purses several hundred dollars to secure emipent educators from the East as instructors; in another county, spending 5 weeks of vacation in county institutes or porinal study, devoting the time usually spent in recreation to fitting themselves for better work in their school-rooms.

SECONDARY INSTRUCTION. PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS AND OTHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS. There seems to be no legal recognition of high schools in the Territory; but the law provides for graded schools, preseribing that no other than the English language, nor mathematics higher than algebra, shall be tangbt in them.

These schools are reported to have increased fronı 15, in 1883, to 24, in 1885, many of them comparing favorably with those of the Atlantic coast.

SUPERIOR INSTRUCTION.

INSTITUTIONS FOR YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN.

The University of Washington Territory, Seattle, offered in 1884-'85 a preparatory course of 2 years; classical and scientific courses of 4 years each; a porinal one of 3, and a business one of 2; an academy, pormal training-school, and departments of music and arts. There was a total of 259 students in all departments.

The university, organized in 1862, is a part of the public educational system of the Territory, under the care of a board of regents appointed by the governor, and is supported in part by legislative appropriations. It confers the degree of A. B. on completion of the classical, and of S. B. on that of the scientitic course. The library contains 2,500 volumes, and is said to be largely increasing.

The territorial report says that the university is in a flonrishing condition. It offers to deduct from the traveling expenses of students who come a long distance, thus hoping to save to the Territory more than $10,000 annually paid by those who go abroad for a higher education.

This central university at Seattle is naturally for western Washington, while I hitman College, its branch, is at Walla Walla, for eastern Washington, with a classical course of 4 years; scientific and literary courses of 3 years each; and academy courses of 3 years for preparatory, normal, and commercial training. This college graduated its first class in June, 1884. Its courses of study are said to be well up with other new institutions. College students, 15; academy, 127; total, 142.

During 1884-'85 Yesler College, Seattle, is reported to have been founded by Hon. Henry L. Yesler, mayor of Seattle, wbo, it is said, will richly endow it.

For full statistics of the 2 colleges, see Table IX of the Appendix; for summaries of same, see the report of the Comprissioner preceding.

SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION.

SCIENTIFIC.

The territorial university, in its 4-years scientific course, includes geometry, conic sections, trigonometry, mensuration, surveying, analytical geometry, chemistry, and calculus.

Whitman College, in its scientific course of 3 years, has goometry, chemistry, trigonometry, analytical geometry, geology, and calculus.

PROFESSIONAL. MEDICINE.—The medical department of the University of Washington Territory was organized in 1885, with a faculty of 9 professors, a 3-years course of study, a winter and a spring term. No lectures will be given uutil 1896. It is intended to make the course a graded one, and attendance of 3 full years compulsory.

For adınission applicants will be required to show evidence of a fair general education by examination or otherwise.

CHIEF TERRITORIAL SCHOOL OFFICER. Hon. R. C. KERR, territorial superintendent of public instruction, Port Townsend.

(First term, January 9, 1884, to January 9, 1896.) To be succeeded by Hon. J. C. LAWRENCE, whose term is to be from January 1, 1886, to January 1, 1888.

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a United States census of 1880.

c Uinta county not reporting. b Johnson county not reporting. (From reports of Hon. John Slaughter, territorial superintendent of public instruction for the years indicated, the figures coming through the report of the governor for 1885, and his message to the legislature for 1886.)

TERRITORIAL SCHOOL SYSTEM.

GENERAL CONDITION. Much fuller information of the educational status of this Territory in 1885 is presented in the last reports received than has come to the Bureau since 1879-'80. All its 8 counties are reported in statistics that show a great advance in the elements of a good school system. What yet remains to tell the world how far and how fast it is advancing is apparently an imperative requirement of complete compliance with the territorial calls for full and uniform statistics, according to settled forms.

ADMINISTRATION. The territorial librarian is ex-oficio superintendent of public instruction, with general supervision of all the district schools, making report biennially to the governor. County superintendents are chosen biennially for visitation and stimulation of the territorial schools. District boards of 3 members include a director, treasurer, and clerk, one of them liable to change each year. Women may vote for either of these elective officers, and may, if chosen, hold county or district school offices. With the approval of the county superintendent, 15 or more colored children in a district may have a separate school and teacher. Parents or guardians are required to send their healthy children or wards, 7-16 years of age, to school at least 3 months each year, on penalty of $25 fine. High grade schools are provided for, in case of need for them.

SCHOOL FINANCES.

As the territorial school lands are not available till the Territory shall become a State, provision for the support of public schools is made, meanwhile, by a tax of 2 mills annually on $1 of all taxable property, and of $2 on each taxable poll; besides which, each annual district meeting may vote such a taxas is thought to be necessary for teachers, school-houses, fuel, books for indigent scholars, and a library or libraries, if needed.

CITY SCHOOL SYSTEM.

LARAMIE CITY. This flourishing city sends evidence of doing good school work in 1885, reporting 11 schools, graded from primary to high, with 563 registered pupils, 410 in average befouging, 427 in average daily attendance, and 241 perfect in attendance.

PREPARATION AND QUALIFICATIONS OF TEACHERS.

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS. Persons proposing to teach in the public schools must obtain certificates of qualification, either from the territorial superiutendent of public instruction or from the superintendents of schools in the counties in which they propose to teach. Examinations for these last must be competitive, if possible, and the certificate given must indicate the ifrade attained.

To aid in giving the instruction needed for obtaining such certificates, a territorial teachers' institute is required to be held annually from 4 in 10 days, the territorial superintendent presiding, and the several county superintendents, with all the principals of graded schools that can be present, aiding as turas may be. To make sure of the attendance of these principals, the territorial superintendent is authorized to provide for the payment of their traveling expenses.

CHIEF TERRITORIAL SCHOOL OFFICER. HON. JOHN SLAUGHTER, territorial librarian, and ex-oficio superintendent of public instruction, since 1873.

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