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training, some opposed and some favored it in the schools, the main criticism being that the teaching in the public schools was not up to the needs of many pupils, and that practical studies should be emphasized. The high school was admitted to be a valuable factor for preparing for business lite. A discussion on overworking pupils in public schools was opened by J. T. Prince, of Waltham, in which he expressed bis opinion that daily marking, extra credits, and promotion examinations lead to nervous exhaustion in a few cases; but excess in eating, late hours, and parties are more frequent causes of ill health and poor scholarship. The school exhibition, he said, is a relic of barbarism ; there is as much davger from underwork as overwork. Superintendent Connell, of Fall River, introduced a resolution expressing the opinion of the meeting in favor of a law for the more permanent tenure of teachers in the public schools, which was adopted. G. I. Aldrich, of Quincy, was elected president for the ensuing year, and the association adjourned.

MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION. The second annual convention of the Modern Language Association of America was held in New York City, December 29, 1881, Franklin Carter, president of Williams College, in the chair. Some interesting letters of Jean Paul Richter were read, followed by papers on "The college course of English literature, and how it may be improved," and "The genitive in Old French.” The subject of the evening discussion was “ The practicability of substituting a modern for an anciert language in preliminary examinations for colleges." Professor Boyesen, of Columbia College, said that the advantages of the Greek language were greatly exaggerated, and offered a resolution substituting German or French for Greek. Professor Cohen, of Harvard, and Professor March, of Lafayette College, opposed the resolution, while Professor Schmitz, of the Brooklyn Adelphi Academy, and Professor Fay, of Tufts College, spoke in its favor. The resolution was laid over. Professor Brandt, of Hamilton College, read a paper relating to the extent to which purely scientific grammar may enter into the ordinary college classes, and how far the latest results of scientific research may be embodied in text books. The main reason, the professor said, of the loose and unsystematic methods of teaching modern languages is the lack of the dignity and weight which comes from a scientific basis. He was not in favor of giving up the old languages, but thought that French, scientifically studied, was worth, as a discipline, any amount of Greek and Latin. Professor Gummer, of Massachusetts, read a paper on "The place of Old English philology in elementary schools,” and Professor Joines, of South Carolina, gave a statement of the progress of the study of modern languages in the southern colleges since the War; after which President Carter was re-elected for the ensuing year, and the association adjourned.

THE NEW ENGLAND NORMAL SCHOOL TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION. The eighth annual meeting of this association was held in Boston February 6, 1885, Miss Ellen Hyde, of Framingham, presiding. The morning exercises were devoted to a paper by Principal C. C. Rounds, of the New Hampshire State Normal School, on “Professional reading." Doctor Rounds presented a valuable list of books which he had found aseful in his professional work. Other books were added to the list by Messrs. Boyden, Dunton, Hagar, and Morgan, and on motion of Doctor Dunton, the association requested Doctor Rounds to publish this list of pedagogical books, with such a review of each as he might desire.

On re-assembling in the afternoon session, officers were elected for the ensuing year as follows: President, C. C. Rounds, of New Hampshire; vice-president, T. J. Morgan, of Rhode Island; secretary, Miss Davis, of Massachusetts. The regular exercises being resumed, Prof. W. H. Paine, of Ann Arbor, presented a paper entitled “The normal school problem.” The speaker briefly outlined the aims of the founders of the normal schools in this country, reviewed their progress, and suggested lines of possible growth. The normal school, he said, is not only an essential instrument of general education, but is also a product of modern civilization, and, though in its infancy, it bas come to stay. Its proper sphere is that of a leader and a model for all public schools, both in methods and matter. It should never so train the teacher in technical methods as to deaden all ambition for general culture, the great desideratum of all true teachers. To this end, the normal school should always give prominence to the scientific aspect of edacation, the method being left to the ingenuity and resources of a well-stored mind, and this well-stored mind should be one of the great aims of the normal school. The professor further said that the outlook for broad culture in the teacher likely to diminish in proportion as the technical element is brought into prominence. By the constant repetition of a certain train of ideas, the mind seems to lose the ability to work in any other direction.

The paper was discussed by different members, and rather severely criticised by Prin. cipal Carrol, of Connecticut, who did not think it absolutely necessary that all teach

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ers should be graduates of a college or normal school, as some of the best primary teachers were only graduates of lower schools, and many of the ablest women teachers in the country had never entered a college. Other speakers, while agreeing in many points with Professor Paine's presentation of the subject, leaned to the opinion that the question of culture or non-culture in the tendency of technical instruction in methods depended largely on the presentation and handling of the subject. If the scientific and humanitarian end be constantly kept in view, the result must be a broadening and ennobling of the whole man. The discussion having closed, the association unanimously passed a vote of thanks to Professor Paine, requesting the paper for publication, and the association adjourned.

EDUCATIONAL CONVENTIONS AT NEW ORLEANS." A public reception of the International Congress of Educators, the Department of Superintendence of the National Educational Association, and the special delegation of the National Educational Association appointed at Madison July 23, 1884, was held at New Orleans February 23, 1885. Addresses were made by Hon. Charles E. Fenner, of Louisiana; Col. William P. Johnston, of Tulane University; Hon. John Eaton, LL. D., of Washington, D. C.; and Rev. A. D. Mayo, associate editor of the New England Journal of Education.

The Department of Superintendence met at Tulane University February 24th, Hon. John Hancock presiding. TIon. Warren Easton, State superintendent of public instruction, Louisiana, delivered the address of welcome, followed by papers on "School economy,'' by Hon. A. J. Rickoff; “The inner workings of the University of Virginia," by Prof. James M. Garnett; "A true course of study for elementary schools," by Hon. E. E. White; “Rise and progress of public education in Texas,'' by Superintendent W. C. Rote; “Co-ordination in instruction and in education," by Brother Noah; “Moral education in the common schools,” by Dr. W. T. Harris; and “The relation of the university to the common school,” by Col. William Preston Johnston.

NATIONAL TEACHERS' READING CIRCLE.

In securing the professional training of teachers the teachers' reading circles promise to become a most important adjunct to the normal schools and teachers' institutes.

A large number of the friends of the movement, desirous of advancing its interests by a national organization, called a meeting, which was held in connection with the Na. tional Educational Association in July, 1885. The attendance was large, speeches and proceedings enthusiastic, Superintendent John Hancock presiding. Mrs. Delia Lathrop Williams, of Ohio, gave an account of the movement in that State; Dr. S. N. Fellows, professor in Iowa University, gave the history of the circle in that State; Prof. W. H. Payne an account of the circle in Michigan; Dr. George P. Brown, an account of the movement in Indiana; ex-Superintendent Speer, of Kansas, spoke of the morement in that State; Dr. J. W. Stearus, of Wisconsin, said that his State was following the lead of Ohio, Indiana, and other States; and Prof. S. S. Parr gave an account of the movement in Minnesota. A strong desire was expressed for national recognition.

THE TWELFTH CHAUTAUQUA ASSEMBLY. At the twelfth Chautauqua Assembly, beginning July 2, 1885, it soon became apparent that the assembly of 1885 was a year's growth in advance of that of 1884. The session was divided into 4 sections: the preliminary session, the July meetings, the assembly, and the after-week. The July meetings included 3 weeks of the schools of language, and the teachers' retreat. The attendance on the former numbered 160, from 23 States. The teachers' retreat was under the control of Prof. J. W. Dickinson, of Massachusetts. The departments were manned to do the most advanced work, the pupils representing 20 States and Canada. With the schools of language were classes in elocution, calisthenics, microscopy, penmanship, phonography, type-writing, stenography, geology, forestry, and other kindred subjects.

During the meeting of the assembly new developments were announced, the most important being the completed plan for the Chautauqua University. The scheme divides the university into the departments of the assembly, the summer sessions of the schools of language, the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle, the school of liberal arts, and the Chautauqua press. Advanced plans for work in all these departments were provided. The faculty secured is said to be rich in strong names, and each section is under the direction of some eminent leader. It is also claimed that there is a true university 1 For a detailed account of the proceedings of the educational bodies which held their sessions at New Orleans during the continuance of the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exposition of 1831-85, see the Special Report of the Bureau of Education upon this subject.

breadth in the variety of study offered, while the courses outlined for the different sections are quite as exacting in their requirements as similar courses in any university known.

The problem of supplying the large constituency with prescribed books was solved by the establishment of the Chautauqua press at 117 Franklin street, Boston, Mass.

FROEBEL INSTITUTE. This institute held its annual meeting at Saratoga in July, 1885. President Hailmann, of La Porte, Ind., read his report, in which he said that the special objects of the organization were the diffusion of Froebel literature and the establishment and encouragement of kindergärten in all parts of the country; he recommended the creation of committees on statistics, finance, and the condition of training schools, especially the last, in view of the inroads of "cram” in the kindergärten of our land. The reports from Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Montpelier, Philadelphia, Grand Rapids, and Washington, D. C., were of a most pleasing character Prof. L. W. Mason reported remarkable progress of kindergärten in Japan; President Irwin Shepherd gave an account of the great influence of the kindergarten department of the Winona normal school for the last 5 years; President Hailmann, of the extensive charity work done in Chicago by the free kindergärten of that city; and Mrs. E. P. Bond gave an instructive account of the unique work in Fl ce, Mass.

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APPENDIX.

STATISTICAL TABLES

RELATING TO

EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.

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