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EDUCATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES.
AUSTRIA-HUXGARY.-Q. Austria, constitutional monarchy: arca, 115, 903 square miles ; population
(December 31, 1880), 242,144,244. Capital, Vienna; population, 1,103,857. Minister of public instraction, Conrad von Eybesfeld.
The following statistics are taken from the “ Oesterreichische Statistik," B. IX, Heft I, and “Statistik der Unterrichts-Anstalten" for 1882-'83, published in 1885.
Higher instruction.—The number of teachers at the different Austrian universities in the winter of 1882-'83 was 969, of whom 322 were at Vienna; 133 at Grätz; 89 at Innsbruck; 159 in the newly established German section at Prague, and 61 in the Bohemian section, 220 in all ; 62 at Lemberg; 105 at Cracow; and 38 at Czernowitz. Of the total number, 326 were regular or ordinary professors; 148 were extraordinary; 249 were Privat-docenten; and the rest were assistants, special teachers, otc. The theological faculties had 73 professors, the law faculties 135, the medical 347, and the pbilosophical 414. These figures show an increase in the teaching force at all the universities of 27 persons since the previous year. The students during the winter semester numbered 11,467, and 10,667 in summer, against 10,594 and 9,766, respectively, the previous year. Of the 11,467 in the winter semester, 5,000 were at Vienna, 965 at Grätz, 686 at Innsbruck, 2,750 at Prague (1,695 in the German, and 1,055 in the Bohemian universities), 985 at Lemberg, 811 at Cracow, and 270 at Czernowitz. As to nationality, 9,472 were from the different provinces of Austria, and 1,995 from other countries. As to native language, 5,315 were German, 2,198 Czech-Slavonians, 1,670 Poles, 511 Ruthenians, 175 Slovenians, 315 Croatians and Servians, 377 Ital. ians, 160 Roumanians, 628 Magyars, and 118 others. As to religious belief, 8,744 were Catholics, 321 were Oriental Greeks, 352 Evangelicals, 21 Unitarians, 1,997 Jews, 13 belonged to other confessions, and 19 were without religious connections. The number of thoso receiving stipends in the winter semester was 1,381, and they received 237,836 golden ($93,469). In the summer these figures fell to 775 students and 111,547 golden ($13,838).
The six higher institutions for technical instruction had 337 professors and teachers, 2,785 students in the winter semester and 2,578 in summer. They have faculties of engineering, architecture, mechanical engineering, chemistry, and technology. The technical institute at Vienna had 92 professors and teachers and 1,282 students; that at Grätz 53 professors and 217 students; the German technical institute at Prague 49 professors and 338 students, the Bohemian 59 professors and 612 students; the institution at Brünn had 38 professors and 119 students, and that at Lemberg 46 professors and 217 students. Of the 2,785 students, 2,376 were Austrian, and 409 from other countries; 1,327 were of German origin, 794 were Czech-Slavonians, 333 were Poles, and the rest of different nationalities. As to religion, 2,039 were Catholics, 567 were Jews, 112 Evangelicals, and 58 Oriental Greeks. There were 304 stipendiaries in the winter semester of 1882–83, who received 52,710 gulden ($20,715). The numbers fell in summer to a total of 2,449 students, of whom 154 were stipendiaries, with 23,355 gulden ($9,178). The superior agricultural institution in Vienna had 39 professors and teachers and 508 students in the winter semester.
Tho mining academy at Leoben had 21 professors and teachers and 172 students, and that at Pribram 8 professors and 21 students, at the end of the year 1882–83. The ten art schools bad 35 teachers and 453 students. The forty-five Latin-Catholic theological schools had 228 professors and teachers and 1,666 students, of whom 240 were stipendiaries, receiving 19,619 gulden ($7,710); the Greek-Catholic school at Przemysl, Galicia, had 5 professors and 28 students; the Armenian-Catholic school at Vienna had 1 professor and 1 student; the Greek-Oriental school at Zara, Dalmatia, bad 5 professors and 18 students, of whom 16 were stipendiaries, receiving 2,270 gulden ($892); the evangelical seminary in Vienna had 6 professors and 27 students, 10 of
whom were stipendiaries, receiving 750 gulden ($295). This makes a total of 245 professors and teachers in the 49 theological institutions, and 1,740 students (at the end of the year), aside from the theological faculties of the universities.
Secondary instruction. There are 131 Gymnasien, with 2,601 teachers of all kinds and 42,191 students at the end of the school year; the Realgymnasien numbered 35, with 669 teachers and 9,702 students; the Realschulen 80, with 1,419 teachers and 15,236 students. The male teachers' seminaries numbered 42, with 593 teachers and 5,783 students, and those for females numbered 28, with 385 teachers and 3,009 students.
Of the 42,191 students attending the Gymnasien, 41,083 were Austrians, and 1,108 foreigners of different nationalities. As to native language, 19,142 were Germans, 9,276 Czech-Slavonians, 7,911 Poles, 1,699 Ruthenians, 1,465 Slovenians, 539 Servians and Croatians, 1,573 Italians, 332 Roumanians, and 169 Magyars. As to religion, 34,627 were Catholics, 6,020 were Jews, 945 Evangelicals, and 564 Oriental Greeks. There were 2,414 stipendiaries, receiving 289,654 gulden ($113,834).
Of the 9,702 students of the Realgymnasien, 3,099 were of German origin, 5,757 Czech-Slavonian, 535 were Poles, and 263 were Ruthenians, the rest being insignificant in numbers. The Catholics numbered 8,225, the Jews 1,186, and the Evangelicals, 280.
Of the 15,230 students in the Realschulen, 9,030 were German, 3,942 Czech-Slavonian, 945 were Polish, 779 Italian, and the rest were Slovenians, Servians, Magyars, etc. The Catholics numbered 12, 263, the Jews 2,237, and the Evangelicals, 641. The stipendiaries numbered 367, and received 39,872 gulden ($15,670).
There were 65 business or commercial colleges in Austria in 1882-'83, with 475 teachers and 7,956 students, and 407 technical-industrial schools (Gowerbeschulen), with 1,993 teachers and 36,154 students. The latter schools were divided into special schools for art industry, building, machinery, etc.; drawing and review schools; and schools for special subjects, such as goldsmiths' work, basket-making, wood-working, weaving, watch-making, glass-working, etc. The singing and music schools numbered 197, with 558 teachers and 10,534 students. There were 68 farming and forestry schools, with 389 teachers and 2,209 scholars; 5 mining schools, with 10 teachers and 95 students; and 3 naval schools, with 25 teachers and 78 students. The veterinary institutions numbered 4; with 26 teachers and 469 students, and the schools of midwifery 14, with 22 teachers and 713 students. There were 213 schools for teaching female work, with 410 teachers and 12,539 students; other educational institutions for giving instruction in special subjects numbered 236, with 2,267 teachers and 14,069 pupils.
Elementary instruction. The public elementary and burgher schools numbered 15,944, with 52,314 teachers and 2,557,747 pupils. There were also 944 private schools with 84,102 pupils. In 6,733 of the 15,944 public elementary schools German was the language of instruction, in 4,018 Czech-Slavonian, in 1,364 Polish, in 1,611 Rutbenian, 868 Italian, 476 Slavonian, 306 Servo-Croatian, 53 Roumanian, 3 Magyar, and 492 were mixed.
If we add together the number of students in the various grades of instruction, we have for superior instruction of all kinds 16,064, for secondary instruction proper 75,921, for business, technical, and other special institutions of various kinds 84,816, for public elementary instruction 2,557,747, and for private elementary instruction 84,102, making a total of 2,818,650 persons receiving instruction at the close of the scholastic year 1882–83. The number of students attending the universities was 10,667, and of those attending the superior technical institutions and mining academies 2,771. The number at the Gymnasien was 42,191, and at the Realschulen 15, 236. The number attending gymnasial studies in the Realgymnasion would increase the number of those taking a humanistic course.
These figures give an idea of the relative importance attached to liberal and technical education in Austria.
The Bureau is indebted to Mr. Edmund Jussen, U. S. consul-general at Vienna, for the following statistics of Vienna schools and for a copy of that part of the Austrian budget for 1885-86 which relates to educational affairs, from which the appropriations given below are taken.
There were 70 public elementary schools for boys, 72 for girls, and 24 for both sexes, or mixed schools, in Vienna in 1884'85. The attendance was 76,884, and the teachers numbered 1,530 (1,059 male and 471 female). The expenditures for these schools amounted to 3,001,980 florins ($1,179,778), of which sum 1,774,908 florins ($697,539) were paid for teachers' salaries and the hire of servants.
The state appropriation for education in Austria for 1885–86 was 12,936,836 gulden ($5,084,176), distributed as shown in the following table:
Total for secondary instruction
9,078 580, 647
50,933 643, 897 75,060 38,447
The budget also contains statistics later than the official statistics of education published in 1885, and are as follows:
Superior instruction.-In 1884-'85 the attendance at the universities was as follows: Vienna, 5,421; Grätz, 1,110; Innsbruck, 740; Prague (German, 1,447; Bohemian, 1,757), 3,204; Cracow, 918; Lemberg, 986; Czernowitz, 269; total, 12,648. In the winter semester of 1885–86 the totals were, at Vienna, 5,157 ; at Grätz, 1,175; Innsbruck, 797 ; Prague (German, 1,518; Bohemian, 1,955), 3,473; Cracow, 1,025; Lemberg, 1,005; Czernowitz, 263; total, 12,895. The superior technical institutes (technische Hochschulen) were attended by 2,173 students in 1884–85, and 1,972 in 1885–86.
Secondary instruction.--Gymnasien and Realgymnasien.-The attendance at these in