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ferent hygienic problem, that of the maximum time that should constitute a schoolday of actual work; or, put in another form: What is the maximum time per week that should be spent in actual work in public schools by pupils in order that they may he most benefited by the schools? The question could be stated in another form: What is the maximum number of hours per week for which schools should be maintained by public taxation?

In thus bringing clearly into view the problem that has developed from the no-recess plan, the committee have rendered an important service to the public.

Many reasons, however, still remain for keeping before the attention of teachers and school officers the injurious effects of prolonged sessions of study and recitation without due intervals for recreation and refreshment.

This matter has not been overlooked by Dr. Hertel in his discussion of “Overpressur in the high schools of Denmark.” “We must not,” he says, “lose sight of the fact that one long spell of work is far more exhausting to the child than the same number of hours would be if divided by a considerable interval.”

In this connection Dr. Hertel gives the following report of a discussion of the distribution of school hours before the Swedish Medical Society, Stockholm: By the Education Act of 1878 it is enacted that in the five youngest classes in all the Swedish high schools the pupils must not be worked for more than two hours at a time, after which an interval of two hours is enjoined, though half an hour of this may be devoted to singing or gymnastics. This arrangement was introduced because Swedish pedagogues thought that longer spells of work must fatigue the children. The resuļt of this was that on some days the school hours were divided into three sections, e. g., in summer, from seven to nine, from eleven to one, and from three to four. In many places this splitting up of the time proved rather a disadvantage, particularly if any of the pupils lived far from school, because the home work was interrupted thereby. Several schools, therefore, applied for permission to extend the limit to three hours at a time, with an interval of two hours, confining the work, however, as much as possible to the early part of the day. Before granting this request the Government demanded the opinion of the Medical Society, of which the following is a résumé: Three hours' consecutive work is permissible if an interval of ten minutes be allowed for every hour, and one hour of the three set apart for easy work, such as singing, writing, or the like. After that there must be two hours' complete rest, not mere nominal restdevoted to singing or gymnastics, partly to allow the children plenty of time for lunch and recreation, partly to admit of the class-rooms being properly ventilated. After these two hours the work should be recommenced, so that it may be over before the dinner-hour, leaving the afternoon for preparation.

Dr. Hertel's commenton this opinion deserves our attention. "Such an arrangement," he says, “appears to entirely correspond with pedagogic and hygienic demands for a proper distribution of work hours, and its main features may well be taken by us as a model. The extreme care with which all such questions are treated in Sweden, and the fact that no change is ever made without the opinion of medical men being taken as to its probable influence on the health of the children, contrast strongly with our educational legislation and regulations, which are committed entirely to the hands of pedagogues, without any such provision on behalf of the children's health as consultation with medical men would insure. The result is that hygienic considerations are with us completely overlooked.”

SCHOOL LEGISLATION. During the year the legislatures of the several States have given a fair degree of attention to school interests.

The following particulars of legislation in New York are from a full and interesting statement, for which the Office is indebted to Mr. F. G. Mather. Every year the judicial powers of the department of public instruction become more and more evident. According to a recent decision these powers extend to the control of the tax-lists.

The most important enactment of the New York legislature of 1885 relative to educational matters was the amendment to the general school law of 1864, which, after

deducting certain amounts, divides the remainder of the State school money into two equal parts; one-half of such remainder is divided equally between the school districts and cities (instead of one-third to the districts and two-thirds to the cities, as formerly) from which reports have been received in accordance with law.

The rural districts thus receive one-sixth more than before, and that one-sixth is taken from the city districts.

The Act is of the greatest consequence to the smaller and poorer school districts of the State, for it strengthens the 9,000 weak rural districts at the expense of the urban districts; this benefit to the rural districts is brought about with a smaller tax levy than that of 1884; in that year the $3,018,000 for the free-school fund included the usual appropriation of $2,750,000, $18,000 for the normal schools, and appropriations for teachers' institutes and for the salaries of school commissioners. The rate of the tax levy was 1.055 mills. In 1885, on an equalized assessment, $3,000,000 will be raised at the less rate of 1 mill.

Another very important amendment to the general school law of 1884 provides that (instead of a salary of $500 to be paid out of the United States deposit fund) after October 1, 1885, every school commissioner shall receive an annual salary of $1,000, payable quarterly out of the free-school fund appropriated to this purpose or to the support of common schools, and that whenever a majority of the supervisors from all the towns composing the school commissioner district shall adopt a resolution to increase the salary of their school commissioner beyond the $1,000 payable to him from the free-school fund, it shall be the duty of the board of supervisors of the county to give effect to such resolution, and they shall assess the increase stated therein upon the towns co

composing such commissioner district ratably according to the corrected valuations of the real and personal estate of such towns.

There were also amendments relative to teachers' institutes, of which the following are of most general interest:

An amendment directing the trustees of every school district to give the teacher or teachers employed by them the whole of the time spent by such teacher or teachers in attending any regular session or sessions of an institute in a county embracing the school district or a part thereof, without deducting anything from his or their wages for the time so spent. The law formerly authorized the trustees in their discretion to give the whole or any part of the time spent, etc.

An amendment providing, in addition, in order to secure to teachers the full exercise of this privilege, that after August 20, 1885, all schools in school districts and parts of school districts not included within the boundaries of an incorporated city shall be closed during the time a teachers' institute shall be in session in the county in which such schools are situated; that in the apportionment of public school money the schools thus closing in any school term shall be allowed the same average pupil attendance during such time as was the average during that part of the term when the school was not thus closed; that any school continuing its sessions in violation of the above provision shall not be allowed any public money based upon average pupil attendance during the days the school was thus kept in session; and that trustees and boards of education in such school districts and parts of school districts shall report in their annual reports to the school commissioners the number of days and the dates thereof on which teachers' institutes were held in their counties during the school year, and whether the schools under their charge were or were not closed during such days.

According to a recent decision of the department of instruction the particular cause of the absence of a papil cannot be demanded of a parent. It virtually declares that the teacher can only find out whether or no the absence was with the consent of the parent. If it had such consent that is the end of the matter.

The powers of State boards of education, or of the chief executive officer of the department, have been extended in several States. In North Carolina, by an enactment of 1885, county boards of education are directed to obey the instruction of the State superintendent and to accept his construction of the school law.

The school law of Nevada, as amended in the same year, increases the power of the State board of education in respect to the examination of teachers and to the granting and revoking of certificates, and gives to the State board appellate jurisdiction over all questions relating to schools and referred to the county superintendents.

The school law of Wisconsin requires that every school district shall vote a tax sufficient to sustain a school for six months each year, instead of five months, as heretofore.

THE NEW ORLEANS EXPOSITIOX. The stimulating influence of the educational exhibits and conferences that formed a feature of the New Orleans Exposition is manifest in almost every department of education. As this Office has in preparation a special circular of information respecting the Exposition, no further reference will be made to it in this Report. The circular will include the paper on the subject of school hygiene referred to in my last Report.

INSTRUCTION IN PHYSIOLOGY AND HYGIENE. As a result of the efforts made in respect to instruction in physiology and hygiene with special reference to the effects of stimulants and narcotics upon the human system, the subjects have been added to the list of required studies in 18 States and 1 Territory.' AMERICAN OFFICIAL CORRESPONDENTS OF THE OFFICE WHO FURNISH STATISTICS.

The following summary gives the number of correspondents of the Office at the head of systems and institutions of education in our country who furnish the official information contained in these reports. Statement of educational systems and institutions in correspondence with the Bureau of Educa

tion in the years named.

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48

333

306

335

217

456

677 2,730

296

394

393

107

156 1

174

States and Territories

48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 48 Cities..........

239 241 258

351 351 312 306 306 Normal schools

152 166 179 242 252 273 278 278 Business colleges.....

150 157 103 191 197 280 305
1

279 293 Kindergärten

149 177
322 385

535 539 563 Academies

1,550 1,650 1,665 1,848 1,869 2, 113 2,363 2,314 * 2, 416 Preparatory schools

114 123 125 138 146 158 178 174 190 Colleges for women...

252 264 277 294 297 290 290 278 284 Colleges and universities

381 385 389 402 402

3961

376 387 Schools of science.....

76

80 86 88 91 91 88 94 Schools of theology

125 127 129 146

158 166 162 166 Schools of law

42 45

53 53 51 53 49 54 Schools of medicine.....

102 106 112 125 126 137 143 137 156 Public libraries

2,275 2,440 2,578 2,678 2,874 3,031 4,067 4,936, 5, 384 Museums of natural history

55 55 57 57 Museums of art

31

37 37 37 37 37 37 Art schools.

30

37 38 39 38 37 37 Training schools for nurses...

11 15 17 28

36 Institutions for the deaf and dumb.. 43 45 52 57 62 63 63 59 67 Institutions for the blind

29 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 32 Schools for the feeble-minded

11

11 13 13 15 15 14 17 Orphan asylums, &c....

533 540 088 641 651 601 616 621 685 Reform schools

63 3 78 79 83 79 77 76

56

16-4 6. 438

54

57

32

17 702

Total

6, 449 6, 750 7, 135 7, 869 8,231 8,774 10, 128 | 10,863 11,663

13, 291

i The following is the list of States, with the year in which the action was taken :

Vermont, Michigan, New Hampshire, 1892; New York, Rhode Island, 1883; Alabama, Kansas, Nebraska, Nevada, Wisconsin, Maine, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, 1831; Iowa, Connecticut, Mary. land, Oregon, Texas, and District of Columbia, 1835.

[By an Act of Congress approved May 20, 1836, instruction in the gubjects referred to is notv required to be given in the public schools of the Territories and of the District of Columbia, the Military and Naval Academies, and Indian and colored schools in the Territories.]

GROTVTH OF EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.

Statistical summary of institutions, instructors, and students, as collected by the United States

Bureau of Education, from 1875 to 1885 (1883 omitted).

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City schools ....................

(a) 22, 152 1,180, 880 Normal schools

137 1,031

29, 105

131 Coramercial and business colleges...

131 591 26, 109 137 Kindergärten.

216 2. E09

130 Institutions for secondary instruction .....

1, 143

108,235 1,229 Preparatory schools

102

12,934 105 Institutions for the superior instruction of women...

2, 405 23, 795 225 Universities and colleges...

335

53, 834 356 Schools of science...........

7.1 758

7, 157 75 Schools of theology..

123 615 5, 234 124 Schools of law

43 221 2, 677 42
Schools of medicine, of dentistry, and of pharmacy.. 106 1, 172 9, 971 102
Training schools for nurses.........
Institutions for the deaf and dumb....

203 5,087 42 Institutions for the blind

29 498

2,054

29 Schools for feeble-minded children...

9 317 1,372 11 Orphan asylums, industrial schools, and miscella 278 1,789 54, 204 385

neous charities, Reform schools

678 10, 670 51

3,999

33,921
25, 234

4,090
106, 617
12, 369
23, 856
56,481
7,614
4, 208
2,664
10, 143

5,999

736
2, 104
3,920

793
580

218
1, 201

312

580
318

5, 209 2,083 1,560 47, 439

3,197

800

12,037

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City schools..

(c) Normal schools

152 Commercial and business colleges

131 Kindergärten.

129 Institutions for secondary instruction........ Preparatory schools....

114 Institutions for the superior instruction of women... 220 Universities and colleges

351 Schools of science....... Schools of theology..

124 Scbools of law

43
Schools of medicine, of dentistry, and of pharmacy. 106
Training schools for nurses.........
Institutions for the deaf and dumb..

43 Institutions for the blind

30 Schools for feeble-minded children.......

11 Orphan asylums, industrial schools, and miscella

ncons charities. Reform schools........

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a 177 cities, each containing 7,500 inhabitants or more, reported in 1875; their aggregate population

was 8,804,651.
6192 cities, of 7,500 inhabitants or more, reported in 1876; their aggregate population was 9,128,955.
c195 cities, of 7,500 inhabitants or more, reported in 1877; their aggregate population was 9,039,025.
d 218 cities, of 7,500 inhabitants or more, reported in 1878; their aggregate population was 10,224,270.

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City schools........

(a) | 28, 903 1,669, 899 Normal schools

207

40,029

220 Commercial and business colleges

144 535 22,021 162 Kindergärten

195 452 7,554

232 Institutions for secondary instruction.......

1,236 5,961 108,734 1,264 Preparatory schools ....

123 818 13,561, 125 Institutions for the superior instruction of women.. 2,333 24, 605 2:37 Universities and colleges............

364 4,241 60,011 364 Schools of science.......

81 884 10,919 83 Schools of theology.

133 600 4,738 142 Schools of law

49 224 3,019 48 Schools of medicine, of dentistry, and of pharmacy. 114 1,495 13,321 120 Training schools for nurses...

11
51

298 15 Institutions for the deaf and dumb....

379 6,391 56 Institutions for the blind

30 599 2,213 30 Schools for feeble-minded children...

13 491 2,231 13 Orphan asylums, industrial schools, and miscella 411 4,004 75,020 430

neous charities, Reform schools

67
1,066

14,216 68

29,264 ' 1,710, 461 1,466 43,077

619 27,146 524

8,871 6,009

110,277 860

13,239 2,310 25,780 4,160

59,594 953 11,584 633 5,242

229 3,134 1,660 14,006 59

323 418 6,657 532 2,032

486 2,472 4,217 59,161

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26,041

City schools ...........

(C) 30, 155 1,738, 108 (d) Normal schools

225 1,573 48, 705

233 Commercial and business colleges...

202 7794

34, 414 217 Kindergärten ..........

273 676 14, 107 348 Institutions for secondary instruction

1,336 6,489 122, 617 1,492 Preparatory schools

130 871 13,275 157 Institutions for the superior instruction of women.. 226

2,211

227 Universities and colleges...

362 4, 361 62, 435 365 Schools of science..

85 1,019 12, 709! 86 Schools of theology.

624 4,793 145 Schools of law .....

47 229 3, 227 48 Schools of medicine, of dentistry, and of pharmacy.. 126 1,746 14,536 134 Training schools for nurses..........

17 84

414 23 Institutions for the deaf and dumb..

57 431

6,740 57 Institutions for the blind..

80 593 2,148 Schools for feeble-minded children...

14 490

2, 490 Orphan asylums, industrial schools, and miscel 439 4,211 62, 317 | 472

laneous charities. Reform schools....

1,161
15, 626

67

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a 240 cities, of 7,500 inhabitants or more, reported in 1879; their aggregate population was 10,891,814. 6 244 cities, of 7,500 inhabitants or more, reported in 1880; their aggregate population was 10,700,500. c251 cities, of 7,500 inhabitants or more, reported in 1881; their aggregate population was 10,757,645. d263 cities, of 7,500 inhabitants or more, reported in 1882 ; their aggregate population was 10,918,€38.

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