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DIET AND DRESS.]

SYNOPSIS.

DIET AND DRESS.

HUNGER,

Suffered by Esau,-by the army of king 3aul, -by Jesus after his baptism, by Paul in Damascus and at other times,-voluntarily borne by Abraham's servant,-by Hannah,— and by king Saul in his last extremity.

FASTING IN CONNECTION WITH RELIGION,

Often observed by individuals, families, and communities, when observed to be in the right spirit of kindness to fellow-men, alms giving to the poor, etc., opposed to the fasting of the Pharisees.

FASTS BY DIVINE AUTHORITY,

Proclaimed by prophets and rulers in seasons of calamity, as in Joel, and Esther, in Nineveh, sometimes proclaimed under pretence of piety, instanced in Jezebel,

EXTRAORDINARY FASTS,

Extending to forty days, Moses on the mount, Elijah on Horeb, and Jesus in the wilderness.

FOOD THE GIFT OF GOD,

Furnished from earth in his kind providence, emblematical at the same time of Zion's provision, dependent on human industry in tilling the ground, in sowing the seed, and harvesting the products,-thanks therefore to be offered with prayer to God, that food may be blessed, as commanded by Moses, enjoined by Apostles and exemplified by Christ.

BREAD THE STAFF OF LIFE.

"To eat bread," the common term for taking food.

PREPARATION OF THE PRODUCE OF THE FIELD.

Often done in the simplest form, even eaten on the field as when the disciples plucked the corn, sometimes simply parched, sometimes grinded into meal, and baked by females and slaves.

LEAVEN.

Generally used in the preparation of bread, -in its diffusive and assimilating nature likened to malice and wickedness, to corrupt manners and customs; also to false doctrine; prohibited for specific reasons in the bread

used at the Passover.

OTHER ELEMENTS OF DIET, SUCH AS MILK,
BUTTER, CHEESE, HONEY, ETC.
[See under AGRICULTURE AND ANIMALS.]

FOOD MORE RARELY REFERRED TO

Leeks, onions, garlic, (Egyptian) beans, pottage, fruit of the carob tree, figs, raisins, veui

[DIET AND DRESS

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Principally two-the dinner, generally light, and caten in the forenoon; the supper, or principal meal, eaten at a late hour of the day; the former instanced in Joseph, and alluded to in the parable of the marriage feast-the latter in the feast in honour of Herod's birth day; postures observed in eating various, more gener ly recumbent, as exemplified by Jesus and his apostles in the Last Supper, John lying in his bosom.

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[DISEASE AND DEATH

said to be naked, as David when he danced before the ark, and Simon Peter when Jesus came to him at the lake of Tiberias.

VARIOUS OTHER PARTS OF DRESS.

The head dress, girdle made of linen, leather. silk, etc., wrapped round the loins, for the double purpose of tucking up the loose gar ments, and for strengthening the loins, which form the weakest part of the body; hence the emblem of power or strength. To gird up the loins descriptive of readiness for travel, preparedness for labour, and emblematical of preparedness for Christ's coming-shoes or sandals, generally consisting only of soles tied over the foot with a latchet, put off on entering houses, and sometimes on other occasions in token of reverence, and untying of which was assigned to the lowest servants the veil, important part of the female dress, used not only for covering the face, but for carrying objects, instanced in Rebekah and Ruth-ornaments consisting of rings, bracelets, earrings, jewels, worn by females, as were also used a profusion of perfumes of myrrh, etc.

DRESS IN MOURNING AND SORROW.

Strictly attended to, ornaments laid aside, or a rent made in the outer robe, instanced in Reuben in not finding Joseph, in Joshua and Caleb on hearing the report of the other spies, etc.,-sackcloth put on, and dust cast upon the head as in case of Job and his friends, etc.

CHANGES OF RAIMENT

Often referred to and frequently mentioned as given or sent in presents, as Joseph to his * brethren, Naaman to Elisha, etc., implying washing, instanced in Israel when the law was about to be given from Mount Sinai, also the laying up of clothing, stated to be sometimes motheaten in the wardrobe.

DISEASE AND DEATH.

DISEASE.

DISEASES VERY DIVERSIFIED.

The token of sin, often painful, as instanced in Expressed in Scripture more generally by sickJob and Hezekiah, sent by God, who gives ness and leanness, more particularly according comfort and hope under it,-afiliction some-to their specific nature as ague, boils, blindtimes not improved.

ADVANTAGES OF AFFLICTION.

The afflicted person humbling himself, opening his heart to discipline, seeing the hand of God in his trouble, being more impressed with the evil of sin and experiencing that purifiCation which is compared to silver refined in the fire.

ness, consumption, deafness, debility, demo. niacal possession, dumbness, dysentery, emerods, epilepsy, fever, fractures, gout, itch, inflammation, issue, lameness, leprosy, loss of appetite, lunacy, monomania, mortification,. palsy, plague, skin disease, ulcers, worms.

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PHYSICIANS,

Sometimes resorted to instead of the Lord, as Asa, and sometimes without any benefit, as the woman who had the issue of blood; the medicines and applications in use being balm, wine, oil, figs, etc.

OTHER MEANS OF CURE,

Miraculous power, as in the cures effected by Jesus and his apostles, praying over the sick; apart from miracle, disease sometimes incur. able as in Jehoram; often alluded to by the prophets while exposing the spiritual maladies of Israel.

RECOVERY FROM GOD,

In His hand the issues of death-sometimes bringing back from the grave.

DEATH.

THE ORIGINAL SENTENCE,

Dust thou art and unto dust thou shalt return, pronounced by God upon our first parents after the fali, has descended also upon their posterity.

SHORTNESS AND UNCERTAINTY OF LIFE, Illustrated by many emblems and comparisons-as a pilgrimage, a sojourn, a step, a handbreadth, and described as swifter than a post, a few days, a few years, grass, a flower, etc.-Its frailty appearing from many images and figures as when man is said to be dwelling in a cottage of clay, to be crushed before the moth, etc.-Teaching us to be watchful, to be redeeming the time; to be preparing for death.

DEATH THE WILL OF GOD,

body when dead-instanced in Jacob, Joseph, and old Barzilai; spiritual, having reference to a future world-instanced in all the saints.

HAPPY DEATH OF THE RIGHTEOUS, Characterized by peace, hope, confidence in God, assurance, introduction into the house of many mansions, and, finally, participation in a blessed resurrection.

DEATH A GREAT CHANGE,

Body laid in grave, food for worms, returns to dust, the individual forgotten in the house, the street and the city, cut off totally and for ever from the world; hence said to be gathered to his fathers.

PREPARATIONS FOR BURIAL

In anointing the body, as that of Jesus, or embalming it, as that of Jacob in Egypt, then wrapping it in fine linen, with spices, etc.

BURIAL,

The ordinary mode of disposing of the dead illustrated in every part of Scripture-body sometimes burned, as that of Saul and his sons-non-burial regarded as a disgrace, and sometimes a punishment.

MOURNING FOR THE DEAD,

Strictly attended to-instanced in the death of Sarah, Aaron, Moses, etc.; very frequently by hired mourners or minstrels, referred to by Jeremiah; cutting for dead forbidden; and mourning forbidden to the high-priest, or to such as were under the vow of a Nazarite.

BURIAL PLACES,

Of various kinds, in caves, under trees, in Asserted everywhere-He wounds and heals-gardens, etc.,-instanced in those of Abraham, Preparation for it, of various kinds-secular, having respect to the arrangement of worldly affairs instanced in the instruction of Isaiah to Hezekiah; solicitude for survivors-instanced in Moses on behalf of Israel; care about the

Sarah, and Christ,-those of the kings of Judah in the city of David-monuments, heaps of stones, pillows, and erections, whited at regular periods, employed by the Saviour as images of hypocrisy.

EARTH.

CREATION AND FURNITURE OF GOD.

In the beginning, arranged and beautified by Him, covered with vegetation, peopled with its numerous and diversified inhabitants, and fixed it as one of the orbs of space; illustrative of the Creator's wisdom and goodness, characterized by stability, variety, order and permanence; compared to a building Kaving foundation, and as a tent whose curtains are the heavens above.

EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS,

Often referred to, the former described as removing mountains, as carrying them into the midst of the sea, as shaking the earth out of her place, the latter represented as causing the mountains to melt, the hills to smoke, etc.

EARTHQUAKES MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE.

At mount Sinai, in the wilderness,-in the stronghold of the Philistines, -at mount

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ROADS,

Scenes of retirement for prayer and meditation; instanced in Moses, when Israel fought Variously designated, highways, byways, ancient with Amalek; scenes of observation, and paths, old ways, etc.; used by travellers, frescenes of idolatrous worship as everywhere quented by robbers, and by beggars asking illustrated.

PECULIAR SACREDNESS ATTACHED TO MOUNT

ZION,

alms.

ISLANDS,

On account of its being the place of God's those mentioned in Scripture, Chittim, Clauda, Representing in Hebrew poetry distant places, presence, hence called God's holy hill.

HILLS AND MOUNTAINS MENTIONED IN SCRIP

TURE,

Are, Abarim, Amalek, Amana, Ammah,
Ararat, Bashan, Beth-el, Bether, Carmel,
Ebal, Ephraim, Esau, Gaash, Gareb, Gerizzim,
Gilboa, Gilead, Hachilah, Hermon, Hor,
Horeb, Lebanon, Mars' hill, Mizar, Moreh,
Moriah, mount of the Amorites, Nebo, Olives,
Paran, Perazim, Pisgah, Samaria, Seir, Shenir,
Sinai, Sion, Sirion, Tabor, Zalmon, Zion,
mount of Beatitudes, mount of Transfigur-
ation, Agar, mountain of Myrrh.

VALLEYS,

Achor, Ajalon, Baca, Berachah, Bochim,
Charashim, Elah, Eshcol, Gerar, Gibeon,
Hebron, Hinnom, Jehoshaphat, Jericho,
Jezreel, Jiphtha-el Keziz, Lebanon, Megiddo,
Moab, Rephaim, Salt, Shaveh, Shittim, Sid-
dim, Sorek, Succoth, Zared, Zeboim, Zepha
thah. Valley of Vision, Fat Valleys, Valley of
Dry Bones, Valley of Haman-gog.

PLAINS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE,

Breaches, Jericho, Jordan, Mamre, Moab, Shechem, Shinar, Tabor, Vineyards, Wilder ness, Low Plain.

ROCKS,

Cyprus, Elishah, Melita and Patmos.

EARLY SETTLEMENT OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES.

Effected by the descendants of Noah, recorded in the tenth chapter of Genesis, and more particularly on the dispersion at Babel.

NATIONS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE.

Are Amalek, descended from Esau, Ammon descended from Lot, the Amorites one of the seven nations of Canaan, Arabia noted for its Nineveh, Asia a small district of Asia Minor, kings and merchandise, Assyria, chief city Chaldea sometimes named Sinar, chief city Babylon, Bashan on the east of the Jordan, sometimes named Idumea, Edom, descended from Esau, chief city Bozrah, Egypt named also Sihon, Rahab, the land of Ham, the house of bondage, Elam or Persia, Ethiopia a name given to several nations, Galilee the northern province of Palestine in the time of Christ, Gog and Magog subjects of prophecy, Grecia, chief cities in the days of the Apostles, Athens and Corinth, Macedonia, chief city, Philippi, Italy Rome, Judea the southern province of Palestine in the time of Christ, Medes and Media in the distant east, Midian, Moab descended from Lot, Ophir famed for its gold, Padan-aram or Mesopotamia;— Palestina or Philistia long the nearest and bitterest enemy of Israel, Phenice on the coast of Syria, Phrygia in Asia Minor, Samaria

Used for writing on, as referred to by Job; of the middle province of Palestine in the time shelter and refuge.

ROCKS MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE, Adullam, Bozez, and Seneh, En-gedi, Etam, Horeb, in Kadesh, Oreb, Rimmon, Sela-hamma-lekoth, Ziz; for obvious reasons Rock is a frequent name of God and Christ.

DESERT

of our Saviour, Syria, chief city Damascus, -Tarshish noted for its shipping,-Tyre famed as the mart of nations and Sidon on the north west border of Canaan.

DESTINY OF THE EARTH, Predicted by the apostle Peter to consist in its destruction by fire at the second coming of Christ, and is urged as a reason for Characterized as arid, desolate, barren, solitary, a diligent preparation for the coming of that as scenes of danger, pathless, infested by ser- day.

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