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lip of the bell. This bell is supposed by Dr. Clarke to have been founded in 1653, during the reign of Alexis, although the Russians for the most part
THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE.
ANECDOTE OF THE LATE BENJAMIN WEST, PRESIDENT OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY.
IN the month of June, 1745, one of his sisters, who had been married some time before, and who had a daughter, came with her infant to spend a few days at her father's. When the child was asleep in the cradle, Mrs. West invited her daughter to gather flowers in the garden, and committed the infant to the care of Benjamin during their absence, giving him a fan to flap away the flies from molesting his little charge. After some time, the child happened to smile in its sleep, and its beauty attracted his attention. He looked at it with a pleasure which he had never before experienced, and observing some paper on a able, together with pens and red and black ink, he seized them with agitation, and endeavoured to delineate a portrait; although at this period he had never seen an engraving or a picture, and was only in the seventh year of his age. Hearing the approach of his mother and sister, he endeavoured to conceal what he had been doing; but the old lady observing his confusion, inquired what he was about, and requested him to show her the paper. He obeyed, entreating her not to be angry. Mrs. West, after looking some time at the drawing with evident pleasure, said to her daughter, "I declare, he has made a likeness of little Sally;" and kissed him with much fondness and satisfaction. This encouraged him to say, that if it would' give her any pleasure, he would make pictures of the flowers which she held in her hand; for the instinct of his genius was now awakened, and he felt that he could imitate the forms of those things which pleased her sight. This happened in America, near Springfield in Pennsylvania, where West was born.-GALT's Life of West.
ANNIVERSARIES IN JULY.
1397 The Union of Caimar, by which Norway, Sweden and Den
mark, were formed into a single kingdom, under Margaret of Denmark, commonly called the Semiramis of the North." This union lasted till 1520, when Sweden became again an independent state under Gustavus Vasa. 1797 Died, at Beaconsfield, Edmund Burke.
[JULY 6, 1833.
1497 Vasco de Gama sailed from Belem, near Lisbon, on a voyage of discovery, which terminated in his finding the passage to the East Indies by the Cape of Good Hope, while Columbus was seeking the shores of Asia, by sailing continually to the West, and in so doing discovered the New World. The Portuguese navigator, by patiently pursuing the Coast of Africa, and at length doubling the Cape, which terminates this continent on the south, actually arrived on this longsought coast the 22nd of May, 1499, after a voyage of one year and ten months.
1762 Catherine II. deposed her husband, Peter III., and caused herself to be proclaimed Empress of all the Russias. 1816 The countries of La Plata and Paraguay declared themselves free, and assumed the name of the United Provinces of South America.
1212 London Bridge was nearly consumed by a fire, which broke out at both ends at the same time. In this conflagration near 3000 persons perished, the sides of the bridge being occupied by rows of houses, there was, consequently, no escape for the unfortunate inhabitants, thus hemmed in by the fire on two sides, and the water behind.
1472 The Town of Beauvais saved from falling into the hands of the Burgundians by the courage and zeal of the women, who, when the garrison, exhausted by a long resistance, were on the point of giving way, came to their assistance, led by one Jeanne de Hachette. This heroine herself threw down from the walls the Burgundian officer, who was about to plant his standard on them. Louis XI. made an honourable marriage for her, and commanded that the event should be annually commemorated by a procession, in which the females should walk first; a custom which prevails to this day. Henry II. of France died of a wound in the eye, received in
a tournament from the Count de Montgomery. In his last moments the monarch commanded that the unfortunate, but innocent, cause of his death should not be molested; but, fifteen years after, he was arraigned for the fact, and sacrificed to the revengeful feelings of Catherine de Medicis.
1708 The Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene obtained a great victory over the French at Audenard, or Oudenarde, on the Scheldt.
Death of Erasmus.-He was one of the most learned men of the extraordinary age in which he flourished. Equally courted by the Sovereigns of France and England, and by the Popes of the House of Medici, he could never be induced to abandon the learned pursuits in which he delighted, for the employments or benefices so profusely offered to him. The cotemporary of Luther, it has been said of him, that there was not an error which Luther sought to reform that Erasmus had not made the subject either of severe censure or keen satire; yet, restrained by the natural timidity of his temper, by his love of peace, and hoping that mild measures would produce a gradual amelioration of the vices he so loudly censured, he chose rather to assume the character of a mediator between Luther and the Church of Rome, than openly to join the party of the reformers. He died at Basle, in the sixty-ninth year of his age, and was interred in the Cathedral of that town.
1771 Captain Cook, in the Endeavour, returned to Portsmouth, having sailed round the world. 1788
A dreadful storm took place in France, which desolated the
1223 Died at Mantes, in the forty-third year of his reign, and the fifty-ninth of his age, Philip II. of France, called by his historians Philip-Augustus. He was the great rival of Richard Coeur de Lion of England.
1824 Riho Riho, or Tamehameha II., King of the Sandwich Islands, died in London; his wife, who came to this country with him, had died about a week before.
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tained it from the King. This prelate earnestly The first authentic mention of Lichfield occurs in endeavoured to save the monastery of Coventry, and Bede's Ecclesiastical History, where it is alluded to its fine church, from spoliation, but in this his laas the See of an Anglo-Saxon Bishop. The name is bour was fruitless, and they were entirely demolished. of Saxon origin, but its etymology has been much Little of interest occurs afterwards in the historical disputed. In the Saxon Chronicle the word is details of Lichfield, till the commencement of the written Licetfeld; in Bede, Lyccetfelth and Licitfeld. civil wars. In 1642, a troop was raised for King Some etymologists derive its signification from leccian, Charles by Sir Richard Dyott, Kt. : during this time to water (and it is well known to have abounded in the Close sustained three sieges, by which the numerous lakes and pools); others, from the verb | Cathedral was greatly injured. Preparations to conlicean or lician, to like, or to be agreeable, and siderable extent were made, 1643, to defend the Close therefore make it to signify Pleasant Field. It has against Lord Brooke, and three thousand troops. however been more frequently allowed to be derived This nobleman was a zealous opposer of episcopacy, from lic, a dead body, and consequently as signifying and had determined on the complete destruction of cadaverum campus, the field of Dead Bodies. This de- the Cathedral ; on his approach to Lichfield he prayed rivation is supported by a prevailing tradition, of the that he might be annihilated if his cause were unjust; martyrdom of a thousand British Christians on this on his return from placing his artillery, he was shot spot, at the time of the persecution (A. D. 303) under by a brace of bullets, discharged by a deaf and dumb Dioclesian, when Maximian was governor of Britain. gentleman, of the name of Dyott, who had watched
It is certain that the present diocese of Lichfield Lord Brooke's motions from the top of the cathedral. and Coventry, anciently formed a part of the Lord Brooke's body was removed to Warwick to kingdom of Mercia, which, being conquered by (the be buried with his ancestors; the armour worn by Christian King) Oswy, introduced the Christian faith him on this fatal day, and his doublet stained with into this powerful kingdom of the Saxon Heptarchy. | blood, are in the armoury at Warwick Castle. The He made Lichfield an episcopal See, by appointing gun with which he was killed remains in possession Diuma, a Scotsman, the first Bishop, A. D. 656. of the Dyott family, resident near Lichfield. After ą succession of three others, the famous Notwithstanding the check given to the rebels Ceadda, or Chad, was raised to the Bishopric A. D. 667. by the death of their leader, the garrison could not Bede informs us, that “he had built himself an long stand the siege, and were constrained to yield habitation not far removed from the church ; wherein to the Parliamentary forces. This was the first he was wont to pray, and read with a few, that is, cathedral which surrendered to them, and every seven or eight, of the brethren, as often as he had any species of havoc and profanation was committed by spare time from the labour and ministry of the word." these miscreants. The soldiers belonging to the
From this period, little is known of the history of King's party were imprisoned in the Cathedral three the See till after the Norman Conquest, when at the days and four nights without food, except what could National Council held in London, A. D. 1075, it was privately be obtained, and the inclemency of the season determined to remove the See of Lichfield to Chester, obliged them to convert the seats and desks into fuel. which was done by Peter (the first bishop appointed At this period the venerable pile became one scene of by William the Conqueror), who went by the appella desolation, the centre spire was battered down, the tion of Bishop of Chester and Lichfield. Robert de costly monuments destroyed, and amongst others, Lymesey was his successor, and removed the See to that of Lord Paget, sculptured in Italy at the Coventry, having obtained from the King, the custody enormous expense of 7001. Dugdale says, “ courts of of that Abbey (originally founded by Canute); this guard were kept in the aisles ; they broke up the edifice having been restored and greatly enriched by pavement, every day hunted a cat with hounds Leotric, Earl of Hereford, and his celebrated wife throughout the Church, delighting themselves in the Lady Godiva. Robert Peeke, chaplain to Henry the echo from the goodly vaulted roof, and to add to their First, was consecrated to this See, A. D. 1117, and wickedness, brought a calf into it wrapt in linen, was succeeded, 1128, by Roger de Clinton, who was a carried it to the font, sprinkled it with water, and liberal benefactor both to the city and Cathedral gave it a name in scorn and derision of that holy church of Lichfield. He is said to have rebuilt great sacrament, Baptism; and when Prince Rupert repart of the latter, to have increased the number of covered that Church by force, Colonel Russel, the Prebendaries, and to have appointed the first Canons governor carried away the communion-plate and linen, De Clinton restored the See to Lichfield, and styled with whatsoever else was of value.” himself Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. Until
The Close was retaken by Prince Rupert in 1643, the establishment of Chester as a separate See, A. D.
and Colonel Hawey Bagot was appointed Governor 15-12, the succeeding bishops were indifferently called of the garrison; he had the honour of entertaining Bishops of Lichfield, Coventry, and Chester, having Charles the First, after the battle of Naseby, when an episcopal residence at each place. Coventry and his majesty left Ashby-de-la-Zouch, and slept at Lichfield was the usual designation till Bishop Hacket, Governor Bagot's, in Lichfield, on the 15th of June on the restoration of the monarchy, placed Lichfield 1645; this unfortunate monarch twice afterwards before Coventry, as a compliment to the loyalty of revisited this city; but short was its period of tranthe former place. Walter de Langton succeeded to quillity, for in 1646, the Close was again taken by the See in 1295, and did much benefit to the city, the Parliamentary forces, under Sir William Brereton, forming streets, causeways, &c.; he augmented the and its walls dismantled. In 1651, by authority of income of the Vicars, expended' 20001. on a shrine the Rump Parliament, men were employed to strip for St. Chad, and rebuilt the Bishop's Palace, giving off the lead from the roof of the Cathedral, and the old episcopal house to the Vicars Choral.
break in pieces the Bells *. It may not be uninterestIn the time of Henry the Eighth, the Cathedral ing to remark on the heavy afflictions, or violent became a prey to depredation; its ornaments, sta- deaths, suffered by many of the spoliators of the tnes, shrines, and all other valuable articles were Church of those days; among others, Colonel Danconverted to the use of the crown, with the exception vers who stripped the roof, and Pickings who demoof the shrine of St. Ceadda; this was saved by the lished the bells, met with untimely ends. intercession of the Bishop, Rowland Lea, who ob- • For the History of Bells, see this Magazine, vol. i., p, 20.
We find that although the building was in this being no less worthy of notice. The external length dilapidated state, its ministers did not neglect their of the church is 400 feet, and the breadth in the duties, and Ashmole has the following memorandum. transept 187 feet. The Nave and Aisles are good “ This morning Mr. Rawlings of Lichfield told me, specimens of the simple yet exquisite taste of the that the vicars of the Cathedral had entered the architecture of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuChapter-house, and there said service; that this, ries; the clustered columns, delicately moulded with the Vestry, was the only place in the church arches, and vaulted roof, impress the beholder with that had a roof to shelter them.” On the Restoration, a solemn and pleasing effect. · Amongst the numeDr. John Hacket was happily appointed prelate: he rous monuments, we must give the first place to found the church little better than a heap of ruins, that of the Cathedral's greatest benefactor, the but, zealous in the cause of religion, he immediately good and pious Bishop Hacket: it consists of a set to work with an activity rarely equalled. The recumbent figure, and at the head is engraved the morning after his arrival, he employed his own coach following appropriate inscription; "I will not suffer
; horses to remove the rubbish, and took the most mine eyes to sleep, till I have found out a place for vigorous measures to obtain assistance; petitioning the temple of the Lord.” But the monument which from house to house for pecuniary aid, and being attracts the eager attention of all admirers of the himself a liberal benefactor. By his unwearied dili- sculptorial art, is that erected to the memory of the gence and munificence, the Cathedral in the space of two Miss Robinsons; it is considered a chef-d'æuvre eight years had nearly regained its original splen- of Chantrey's, and certainly has rarely been equalled dour, and was re-consecrated in 1669. The intrepid for beauty of design and workmanship. The remains character of this admirable man may be shown by of many celebrated characters are recorded within the following anecdote.—Hacket was preaching in these walls—that colossus of literature, Dr. Johnson, London, during the persecution of the established justly the pride and boast of Lichfield: Lady Mary Church, and although the Liturgy was proscribed, Wortley Montague, who so greatly benefited manunder a severe penalty, he continued the use of it; kind by the introduction of the art of Inoculation. at length, an armed sergeant and trooper were sent Gilbert Walmesley, Dr. Smalbroke, Dean Addison, to the church to compel his obedience, but he, with David Garrick, and Andrew Newton, who founded a firm voice and unintimidated manner, read the and endowed the noble institution in the Close, for service as he was wont to do; and when the soldiers, the widows and orphans of Clergy; for this purpose, placing a pistol at his head, threatened him with he gave, by will and donation, the sum of forty instant death, he calmly replied “Soldiers, I am thousand pounds. doing my duty, do you do yours!" then with a voice The Diocese of Lichfield and Coventry, was in equally composed, he resumed the prayers. The early times of very great extent; it is now much soldiers, awe-struck by his pious courage, left the more limited, but contains the whole county of church in astonishment!
Stafford (except Brome and Clent, which belong to From Bishop Hacket's time, the Cathedral under- Worcester), all Derbyshire, the greater part of Warwent little alteration till the year 1788, when the wickshire, and nearly half of Shropshire. It has building being acknowledged to be in a very dilapi- the Archdeaconries of Salop, Coventry, Stafford and dated state, subscriptions were raised to repair and Derby. In the reign of King John, permission was
, renovate it. Under the direction of Mr. Wyatt, the granted to the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry to external structure was put in good order, and the build a castle at Eccleshall, and this has generally internal decorations restored and embellished. The been, as it now is, the residence of the Bishop. beauty and magnificence of the edifice has since been There is also a palace in Lichfield belonging to the greatly enhanced, by the addition of some painted See; the present one was erected in 1687, by Bishop windows, from the dissolved Abbey of Herckenrode Wood, on the ground occupied by the garden of in Germany: this valuable purchase was obtained by Langton's Palace (of which there are no remains), the Dean and Chapter, through the liberality of the and was built in compliance with an order from late Sir Brooke Boothby, who made the acquisition Archbishop Sancroft, as compensation for damage when travelling on the Continent, for the small sum committed upon property belonging to the See. of 2001., and generously transferred to them his Lichfield being situated on the road between Lonbargain, estimated at 10,0001. These windows were don and Liverpool (now so much the line of compainted at the period when the art had attained its munication with our sister country), is much frehighest degree of perfection, and are considered by quented by travellers; and few places are more connoisseurs as very valuable and choice specimens. interesting to the lover of literature, having been Several modern windows of superior merit, have also either the natal spot, or home, of so many distin been inserted, by the present Dean, Dr. Woodhouse, guished for learned attainments. Every one capable and others interested in the embellishment of the of appreciating the profound wisdom and moral venerable pile. The large window at the west, energy of Johnson, must feel a reverence and respect which had been totally destroyed during the civil for the place where he first drew breath. Thomas wars, and restored by James the Second when Duke Newton, Bishop of Bristol, brother to Andrew Newof York, has been filled with painted glass, from a ton, whom we have already mentioned, and the legacy of Dr. Addenbroke, who died Dean of this learned author of Dissertations on the Prophecies, was a Cathedral, in 1776.
native of this city; as was also that famous virtuoso, Although this Cathedral cannot compete in size Elias Ashmole, the contributor of a valuable collecand magnificence with York and some others, in tion of curiosities and MSS. to the University of point of elegance it is inferior to none, and its light Oxford, now assembled in the Ashmolean Museum. and beautiful architecture is the theme of universal Here was the paternal residence of that elegant admiration. The building is in form of a cross, scholar, Addison; and in addition to the names having a large spire at the intersection of the cross, already brought forward, Lichfield could boast and two smaller ones at the west end; the pyramidal amongst its inhabitants the eccentric James Day, form of the western façade, enriched with highly author of Sandford and Merton, Mr. and Miss Edgewrought decorations and tracery, is eminently beau- worth, Dr. Darwin, of botanical celebrity, and tiful; neither must the centre porch be forgotten, several others of highly esteemed intellectual powers.
sented in the drawing. His hands being either Of which we furnish a view from the pencil of Mr. actually cut off, or severely hacked and bruised by Blore, is situated in the parish of Etton, in Northamp- the sabres of the soldiers, he quitted his hold and feil tonshire, about four miles from the city of Peterbo- into the moat underneath, desiring only to reach the rough. This building well deserves notice as an early land and die there ; but this miserable boon was and perfect specimen of English domestic architecture. denied him, as, in attempting to reach the bank, he The form of the windows is peculiar to the time of the was knocked on the head with the but-end of a first two Edwards, and the character of the mouldings musket, and drowned*. evidently points out that period, as the date of its May we never, by God's blessing, witness a recurerection. The masonry is remarkably well executed, rence of the scenes which were presented at this and the mouldings beautifully worked; those forming eventful period of our history! Our great dramatic the finish of the Tower, over the entrance, are distin- poet, who showed his patriotism, by always giving to guished by a boldness rarely to be met with. Origi- his countrymen the wisest counsel, and encouraging nally, this must have been a place of some strength; correct sentiments respecting justice and good governit was surrounded by water, excepting at the western ment, thus beautifully describes a kingdom, restored approach, and the walls are four feet in thickness. to the blessings of internal tranquillity. Though nothing remains of an embattled parapet, No more shall trenching war channel her fields, there can be little doubt but that it possessed such Nor bruise her flow'rets with the armed hoofs provision for defence, and that in this, as in other Of hostile paces: those opposed eyes, respects, it partook of the character of the mansion
Which, like the meteors of a troubled heaven, bouses of the age.
All of one nature, of one substance bred, The round bastion at the north end, represented
Did lately meet in the intestine shock
And furious close of civil butchery, in the drawing, is that portion of the building to Shall now, in mutual, well-beseeming ranks, which an interesting historical incident is attached; March all one way; and be no more oppos'd one of those events, which are the melancholy, and Against acquaintance, kindred, and allies; certain fruits of anarchy and civil war.
The edge of war, like an ill-sheathed knife, Dr. Michael Hudson, who is styled by Wood,
No more shall cut his master. Henry IV., Part I.
H. M. “ an understanding and sober person, and of great
• Sir Walter Scott, in his novel of Woodstock, has skilfully worked fidelity," was, from his sincerity, called by King this
incident into the narrative, but has departed from historical Charles the First, his “plain-dealing Chaplain.' accuracy, both in fixing the scene in Shropshire, and restoring to When the troubles of that period commenced, Hud-life the sufferer, whom he calls Albanv Rochecliffe. son, like some others of his profession, left his benefice, under an impression that his monarch demanded
SYMBOLICAL WRITING his personal aid ; and King Charles having, as we are It would seem that the earliest of all written language told, an especial respect for his signal loyalty and consisted of actual drawings of the forms of animals courage," intrusted him with some important secrets, or things; rudely sketched, indeed, by the hands of our as regarded his own proceedings. Hudson proved rude forefathers, but sufficiently plain to mark the obhimself a courageous soldier, but, being apprehended ject designed. This mode appears the more natural, by the Parliamentary forces, he suffered a tedious because the representation of sounds, which express confinement. Escaping from his prison in London, the names of things, by certain characters or alphabets, he joined a body of royalists, who had fled to which is the mode now most extensively in use, must Woodcroft House. When attacked there by the necessarily require some previous concert between Parliamentary forces, Hudson, with some of his two parties, the one of whom suggests, and the other bravest soldiers, went up to the battlements, where agrees, that a particular mark or form on paper shall they defended themselves for some time. At length be the symbol for a particular sound. But if we they yielded, upon the promise of quarter ; but suppose a savage separated from his friend, and when the rebels were admitted, they broke their wishing to communicate with him, without having engagement. Hudson was forced over the battle. had this previous consultation, and supposing that ments, and clung to one of the stone spouts repre- he has lent his distant acquaintance some articles of