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; here it is plain that, by lopping n
furniture, such as his bow and arrows, or his knife, in taste inducing the nation to alter these rough to
for “a man,' is r which was originally drawn
, symbols to denote sounds. So that the simplicity of this mode of writing might suggest the probability of off some of the limbs of this rude representative of the its being the first resorted to, without alluding to the human species, we leave something like the form of hieroglyphics yet remaining on the Egyptian tombs, the present character, though it would appear, that a which, from our want of acquaintance with the long succession of ages must have polished the rough manners, customs, and general objects with which material to the improved shape which it now posthe Egyptians were conversant, are very difficult to sesses. Again, the character to denote ‘ the ear,' was decipher, if we may judge from the learning expended in explaining them. As a modern specimen of this formerly drawn which is now softened into kind of writing, it may not be uninteresting to describe a letter which M. Martinez received from the present form, thus • A range of hills,' or an inhabitant of the Caroline Islands, in the Eastern Ocean. The following is the drawing of the letter
'mound,' at first drawn
has now become te. alluded to, and the description is taken from FREYCINet and ARAGO's Voyage.
' O is now The reader's ingenuity may be exercised and amused, and he will be enabled to see how far the preceding remarks are wellgrounded, if we present him with a few of the original drawings, placed side by side with the characters into which they have been gradually altered, and which are now in general use.
The numbers one, two, three, and four, remain the sonra
same, being the simplest form which can be devised,
“ This was written to M. Martinez, at Rotta, who the human
<<<< sort of shells the Carolinian had sent to M. Martinez,
雨 the tongue in In the column on the right, are placed the objects he
the midst of desired in exchange; namely, three large fishing
the mouth. hooks, four small ones, two pieces of iron of the shape of axes, and two pieces a little longer." This
the eye. E
In order to save a multiplicity of characters, a This is, perhaps, as clear an instance as can be single one is often placed in various positions, to confound, of the mode in which an unlettered people vey ideas which it would be very difficult, and often would endeavour to convey the expression of their impossible, to express by a simple drawing of the wishes to their friends at a distance, and forms a object : for instance, how could the idea of' a corpse' striking contrast to the elegant though complicated be represented on paper ; the figure of a man, it is process of our own method of writing.
easily seen, is not sufficient, since we cannot tell, from In the written language of the Chinese, a great looking at a picture so unfinished as the rapidity of proof of its having originated in this picture-writing, writing would demand, whether the breath be in or may yet be seen by a little attention to the forms of out of the body; they, therefore, take the figure for their characters, and is, perhaps, the only language man we have before seen, and lay it prostrate, thus now generally in practice, in which these early symbols are discernible, though some have attempted
The figure to represent a rock
supto explain the Hebrew language in the same way, by maintaining that the letters composing the Alphabet posed to imply a rock jutting over, and affording were at first characters or drawings of things. In
shelter, and from this was formed the following to the modern Chinese, however, much of the early rude denote 'a stone,' , that is, as it were, a portion formation of the characters has been altered, arising, probably, in some degree, from a greater improvement cut out of the rock; hence, to imply a heap of
« moon' are placed together.O
stones, the form would readily suggest itself.
The histories of all nations show that, in the inOn the same principle it would be very difficult to fancy of society, man has few wants. Food for the describe hail in a sketch ; but, by considering it (if sustenance of life, clothing for the covering of his we may be allowed the term) as hardened water,
person, and a habitation to shelter him from the wind they add to the character denoting rain the appear, and the storm, form the chief objects of his desire ; ance of solid drops falling ; thus, ' rain' is expressed and these he is easily enabled to supply from the rich
storehouse of nature, which the bountiful Creator has by and “hail' thus În representing the furnished for his use. The earth has never ceased to
reward the industry of man; and his daily necessities forms of animals, or things, no further accomplish- being thus provided for, his future worldly wants ment was necessary than accuracy of eye, and skill occupy but a small share of his thoughts. in delineating the various shapes; but much greater As mankind multiply and associate together in ingenuity is required in order to represent intangible cities and towns, their attention is directed to other or invisible substances, such as light, air, &c., or the
means of procuring the necessaries of life. Trade, qualities of things which we call by the term adjec- manufactures, and commerce offer ample opportutives, such as those implying strength, weakness, or
nities for the exercise of talent and industry; and various actions, as to walk, to stop, to eat, to desire, the simplicity and contentment of rural life are ex&c., in fact, all kinds of verbs. This difficult matter changed for a more artificial state of society. The is generally accomplished by the union of two or accumulation of property henceforth becomes an more simple forms, placed together in such a way, object of general pursuit, and the busy mind of man that their combination may suggest the idea required. is occupied in forming and digesting plans to ensure To express brightness, the figures of the sun' and such a result. Should prosperity attend his under'
In the character takings, and crown his labours with increase, he will
not be slow in acquiring a taste for additional comwhich they employ to denote the adjective' aspiring', fort and enjoyment, which his improved circum
Thus the a man's breath is represented as going out of the stances have placed within his reach.
wants of man increase with his means of satisfying body and ascending To hanker after or desire them. They are no longer confined to the simple
necessaries of life, but embrace those elegancies and earnestly, is represented by this character of breath luxuries which owe their origin to the increase of combined with water, corresponding, in fact, with wealth, the refinement of education, and the interour somewhat common phrase "mouth-watering course of society. Surplus capital thus finds ample
and ready means of occupation in ministering to the The rather difficult character of a king is growing wants of the community. Various trades,
arts and professions are introduced, which open up described by one,'
new sources of employment; a stimulus is given to ;
and the character for land industry, and the powers of the mind are brought I, or united F, implying the feudal idea of into operation to diffuse information and instruction
through the land. Thus national wealth, education, sovereignty, all the land belonging to one. The and refinement advance together; and the riches adverbs above' and · below' are very simply ex- which found entrance in one direction, find their way, pressed, the former being, and the latter T. through various channels, to every ramification of Crafty and intriguing finds its corresponding cha- society, as the blood which flows from the heart cir
culates through every part of the human system. The idea So long as surplus wealth thus extends, and pro
motes a nation's prosperity, it is legitimately emof a family is very happily and prettily expressed ployed. But there are certain limits within which it by the symbol of a “house,' under which three ought to be confined. The morality, intelligence,
and industry of the people are the bulwarks of nahuman beings are sheltered Many more in- tional greatness ; and if, by the introduction of any
article of luxury or common diet, these barriers are stances, and some very remarkable ones, might be weakened or thrown down, and the flood-gates of adduced of this mode of representing complex ideas, immorality, ignorance, and idleness opened, their by the union of two or more characters for simple dark tide will begin to flow, and threaten the best objects. In fact, most of the words, perhaps, in com- interests of the country. This result is shown by mon use in Chinese writing, might be divided, and the histories of all those nations which reached the subdivided, till the original simple ideas had been summit of wealth and power by the exercise of temtraced out, and the reason of their formation dis- perance, and whose downfall was hastened by their tinctly shown ; but the progress of time and refine- intemperance, producing idle and licentious habits, ment, has so moulded and altered even the most discord, effeminacy, and a spirit of dependence. simple characters in the language, that considerable Such were the Persians, the Greeks, and the Romans. research would be required to perform such a task Though there are distinctions of rank and station so many ages after their original formation. The in- in society, there is a mutual dependence throughout ventor of this species of writing amongst this sin the community at large, similar to the connexion gular nation is said to be Tsang-hëě, of whom tradi- existing among the members of the human body; tion or invention has preserved the portrait; and, in
“ The eye cannot say unto the hand, I have no need order to convey to the mind of the spectator some
of thee; nor the head to the feet, I have no need of idea of his depth of intellect, and extent of mental you." The man whom wealth has exempted from vision, they have expressly chosen to represent him
the common lot of humanity, “ in the sweat of thy as enjoying the privilege of four eyes, instead of the face shalt thou eat bread," is as dependent on the number possessed by ordinary mortals.
cultivator of the soil, the manufacturer, and the S. B.
mechanic, as they are upon him. Hence all in their
racter in the little crooked symbol
several stations are equally the guardians of the
A DEVONSHIRE SKETCH. peace, happiness, and prosperity of the nation to
BY THE LATE REV. JOHN MARRIOTT, 07 BROADCLYST. which they belong; and it becomes both their duty | Ye green hills of Devon! I love to lock o'er ye ; and their interest, either to prevent the introduction The glow of your verdure refreshes my sight! of any traffic of an injurious character, or to expel in the wild and majestic let Westmoreland glory; that from the land which may have been found to
But yours is the palm of more tranquil delight. have such a tendency.
Not that robes of rich beauty, in which Nature dresses The facility with which ardent spirits are obtained to him who could deem so, deep Lymouth's recesses,
Her features of boldness, your limits disown; in this country, cannot but be regarded as the cause
And Dart's rocky borders, must all be unknown. of those habits of intemperance which deface the fair page of our moral history. Drunkenness prevails to But your own proper boast is the Combe, neatly rounded,
Which preserves through all seasons its emerald hue; à lamentable extent throughout the land, and is the Whilst the dews, o'er the uplands by which it is bounded, fruitful source of idleness, poverty, immorality, and Impart, in soft contrast, the mist's tender blue; crime. So far from being diminished, it seems rather Not deserted, though lonely: the vale in its centre, on the increase; and the fearful change which it has Girt with Barn and rough Linhay, encloses a farm ; wrought in the character of our artisans and labour. And o'er the warm nook of its deepest indenture, ing population, calls for the adoption of some measure
The orchard's fair bloom sheds its fugitive charm. to arrest its course.
An eye little used to such leafy profusion, Ardent spirits are destructive of health, property, Might fancy yon hedge-row one wide-waving wood; and morals; unfit to be used by persons in health, And furze and plumed fern, as to aid the illusion,
Here and there on the tameness of culture intrude. being destitute of any nutritious quality; and the traffic in them is injurious to the prosperity of the But wildest the mixture of shrub, bush, and bramble, country. Besides the misery which the use of them where the birchen-banks mark the stream's devious ramble,
And sweetest the scent which the wild flowers breathe, inflicts on individuals and families, it greatly aug
And the ear drinks its musical murmurs beneath. ments the national expenditure. It increases the poor's rates by increasing pauperism; it enhances the How soothing the sense of serenity stealing
O'er the mind, whilst on plenty and peace thus we gaze! expense of judicial proceedings by promoting crime; Less grateful, perhaps, though more lively, the feeling and our hospitals and lunatic asylums are indebted Awaken`d by prospects that awe and amaze. to the same cause for by far the greater proportion If in those we acknowledge the symbols of greatness; of their wretched inmates. If the money wasted in If earth's pillars its Maker's omnipotence prove ; the purchase of this worse than useless superfluity, In these let us hail Him, “whose clouds distil fatness," were spent on articles of real utility, a stimulus would And who crowneth the year with his goodness and love be given to trade, manufactures, and commerce.
Such being the consequences of the traffic in THE MOCKING-BIRD. (Turdus polyglottus.) ) ardent spirits, as proved by incontrovertible evidence, The Mocking bird is a species of thrush, not unthe welfare of the nation calls for its suppression.
common in many parts both of North and South This must be accomplished, not by an appeal to the legislature for an Act of Parliament to abolish the does not exceed the European song-bird, and per
America and the West India Islands. In size, it trade, but by enlightened public opinion. If the community be convinced of the noxious qualities of haps is not equal to it in the beauty of its plumage;
it is, however, far from being an inelegant creature, ardent spirit, and the vicious and immoral conse
but it is better known for the peculiarity and amazing quences to which habits of drinking lead, they will cease to buy, and the traffic must come to an end. power of its voice. Although not gifted with any But this object cannot be attained till the nation rise powerful weapons of self-defence, these birds display
extraordinary courage in defence of their eggs and as one man to crush this enemy to its happiness. This is the result which the institutions called young, and will fearlessly attack any animal which TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES aim to accomplish. The may approach their haunts, even their greatest enemy,
a species of black snake. means they employ is simply the diffusion of information through the land, with a view to correct public author), “ we may add that of a voice full, strong,
“ To these qualities" (says Wilson, the American opiuion, and unite men and women in the practice of total abstinence from distilled spirits as an article of from the clear mellow tones of the wood-thrush, to
and musical, and capable of almost every
modulation, ordinary use. They act upon the well-established
the savage scream of the bald-eagle. In measure maxim that prevention is better than cure; and their first solicitation is to gain the countenance and sup-force and sweetness of expression, he greatly ex
and accent, he faithfully follows his originals. In port of the sober, temperate, respectable, and influ
ceeds them. In his native groves, mounted on the ential classes of the community, whose combined
top of a tall bush, or half-grown tree, in the dawn example may operate upon the mass of the popula- of dewy morning, while the woods are already vocal tion. * Such' being their principle and object, they with a multitude of warblers, his admirable song deserve the support and assistance of every friend to
rises pre-eminent over every competitor.
The ear humanity, and every lover of his country.
can listen to his music alone, to which that of all the In most quarrels there is a fault on both sides.- A quarrel others seems a mere accompaniment. Neither is may be compared to a spark, which cannot be produced this strain altogether imitative. His own native without a flint, as well as a steel; either of them may notes, which are easily distinguishable by such as hammer on wood for ever, no fire will follow.
are well acquainted with those of our various
song-birds, are bold and full, and varied seemingly Learn of the little Nautilus to sail,
Spread the thin car, and catch the driving gale.- Pope. beyond all limits. His expanded wings and tail, To this little fish we are said to be indebted for one of the glistening with white, and the buoyant gaiety of his grandest and most useful inventions since the world began. action, arresting the eye as his song most irresistibly It is thus described :-It swims on the surface of the sea, does the ear, he sweeps round with enthusiastic ecstacy. on the back of its shell, which exactly resembles the hull He mounts or descends as his song swells or dies of a ship; it raises two feet like masts, and extends a
away. While thus exerting himself, a bystander, membrane between, which serves as a sail; the other two feet are employed as oars. This fish is usually found in the destitute of sight, would suppose that the whole Mediterranean.
feathered tribes, had assembled together on a trial
of skill, each striving to produce his utmost effect;
ANNIVERSARIES IN JULY. so perfect are his imitations. He many times
MONDAY, 15th. deceives the sportsman, and sends him in search of 1685 Execution of the Duke of Monmouth, after his defeat at
St. Swithin's Day.-See Saturday Magazine, vol. 1., p. 14. birds that perhaps are not within miles of him, but Sedgemoor. whose notes he exactly imitates; even birds them- 1815 Napoleon went on board the British ship Bellerephon, Captain
Maitland, after his defeat at Waterloo. selves are frequently imposed on by this admirable 1817 Died, at Paris, the Baroness de Staël, the daughter of M. mimic, and are decoyed by the fancied calls of their Necker, and author of several political works, which enjoyed
considerable popularity while the events of the French Revomates, or dive with precipitation into the depths of
lution, with which the name of M. Necker is so intimately thickets, at the scream of what they suppose to be connected, were recent. Her works evince much knowledge the sparrow-hawk.
of the human heart.
TUESDAY, 16th. 622 On this day the flight of the impostor, Mohammed, from
Mecca, took place, and from it his followers date the events of their history. This epoch is called, from the Arabic word,
which signifies to fly, or to leave one's country, the Hegira. 1377 Richard 11. only child of Edward the Black Prince, was
crowned at Westminster. He did not inherit the warlike genius or the talents of his father and grandfather, but seems to have been of a mild, amiable disposition, and may truly be said, in the words of Shakspeare, to have been “a man
more sinned against than sinning." 1546 Ann Askew, a young lady of great merit and beauty, (con.
nected with most of the ladies of the court, and with the Queen, Catharine Parr,) was burned at Smithfield, for deny
ing the doctrine of the real presence. 1800 Died, at his seat near Southampton, Bryan Edwards, the Author of the History of the West Indies.
WEDNESDAY, 17th. 1674 The remains of the two Princes, Edward V. and his Brother,
were discovered in the Tower, and, by order of Charles II.,
removed to Westminster Abbey. 1761 Peter III., husband of Catherine II., was murdered. The
unfortunate Emperor was strangled with a towel, and the next day his body was exposed to the populace, and his death attributed to that disease we now call cholera.
THURSDAY, 18th. The mocking-bird loses little of the power and 371 B. C. The Battle of Leuctra, in which the Lacedemonians energy of his song by confinement. In his domesti- were defeated, and their general, Cleombrotus, slain. cated state, when he commences his career of song,
1100 Death of Godfrey de Bouillon, the most celebrated leader
among the princes and nobles who went on the first crusade: it is impossible to stand by uninterested. He when Jerusalem was taken, he was unanimously chosen king. whistles for the dog-Cæsar starts up, wags his tail, 1374 Petrarch, one of the earliest, as well as the most elegant,
among the Italian poets, whose romantic attachment to the and runs to meet his master; he squeaks out like a beautiful Laura has rendered his name familiar, even to those hurt chicken—and the hen hurries about, with hang- who are wholly ignorant of Italian literature, was found dead ing wings and bristled feathers, clucking to protect 1796 Louis XVII. compelled to leave the army of the emigrants,
in his library on the seventieth anniversary of his birth. its injured brood. The barking of the dog, the and place himself in the hands of the Austrians. mewing of the cat, the creaking of a passing wheel- 1812 A Treaty of Peace between England and Sweden was signed
at Ærebo. barrow, follow, with great truth and rapidity. He
FRIDAY, 19th. repeats the tune taught him by his master, though of 365 B. C. Rome was taken and pillaged by the Gauls, who put to considerable length, fully and faithfully. He runs
the sword the senators and old men, who alone remained in
the city. over the quiverings of the canary and the clear 64 Nero, for his amusement, caused Rome to be set on fire in whistlings of the Virginia nightingale, or the red- various places. This conflagration was attributed by him to
the Christians, and all who could not escape or conceal thembird, with such superior execution and effect, that
selves, were put to death with the most cruel torments; the mortified songsters feel their own inferiority and among others, St. Peter and St. Paul suffered martyrdom. become altogether silent, while he seems to triumph
1333 The Battle of Halidown Hill, in which the Scots were de
feated by Edward III. in their defeat by redoubling his exertions.
1588 The Spanish Armada arrived in the British Channel. This “Both in his native and domesticated state, during
formidable fleet consisted of 130 vessels, carrying 2630 pieces the solemn stilness of night, as soon as the moon
of brass cannon. It was fitted out by Philip II. of Spain,
and blessed by a special nuncio from the Pope. Its approach rises in silent majesty, he begins his delightful solo; spread terror and dismay; but Elizabeth took advantage of and serenades us the livelong night, with a full dis
the panic to excite her subjects to defend their country with
out draining her exchequer, and while nobles and citizens play of his vocal powers, making the whole neigh- fitted out ships at their own charge, the lower orders flocked bourhood ring with his inimitable melody.”
to man the vessels and defend the coasts. The armada, however was dispersed by a tempest, and, while still in disorder,
attacked by the English under Lord Effingham, and comA LOVER of natural history cannot I think be a bad man,
pelled to seek safety in flight. as the very study of it tends to promote a calmness and
SATURDAY, 20th. serenity of mind, favourable to the reception of grateful | 1620 A massacre of the Protestants in the Valteline, a fertile valley
of . and holy thoughts of the great and good Parent of the 1819 Died, at Edinburgh, John Playfair, a celebrated mathemauniverse. He cannot be a cruel man, because he will be tician and geographer. unwilling wantonly to destroy even an insect, when he per
SUNDAY, 21st. ceives how exquisitively each of them is contrived, and SEVENTH SUNDAY AFTER TRINITY. how curiously it is made for the station it is destined to fill 1403 Battle of Shrewsbury. In this engagement the Prince of in the animal world.- JESSE.
Wales, afterwards Henry V., made his first essay in arms.
this battle still more memorable. Many methods have been suggested for saving life in cases 1683 The execution of Lord Russell, for high treason, took place of accidents on the water : the following was stated to me
in Lincoln's Inn Fields. as an experiment actually made by the relater; he had thus
1704 Taking of Gibraltar by the English. supported himself in the sea, at Plymouth, for twenty
1796 Died, at Dumfries, in his thirty-eighth year, Robert Burns,
the poet. minutes, and could have done it much longer. As danger of overturning or of sinking appears, have your hat in readiness, and place it under your chin, holding it with your
LONDON: hands in the same position upon the water as on the head. JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. The air in the crown will prevent the water from rising,
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The venerable fortress of Conway Castle stands in timber, lead, iron and other materials. He did not, a picturesque situation a short distance from the however, reap the fruits of this Vandal order, for the mouth of the river Conway, at the northern extre- vessel in which the materials were being conveyed to mity of the county of Caernarvon. It was erected in Ireland, was wrecked, and all the property lost. 1284, by command of Edward the First, as a security Thus unroofed and unprotected, the Castle has against the insurrections of the Welch. Soon after suffered much from wind and weather, but it still its erection, the royal founder was besieged in it, and presents a fine specimen of an ancient fortress. It the garrison almost reduced by famine to a surrender, is in the form of an oblong square, and stands on the when they were extricated by the arrival of a fleet edge of a steep rock, washed on two sides by an arm with provisions. At the commencement of the Civil of the river. The walls are all embattled, and are Wars, it was garrisoned in behalf of King Charles, ten or twelve feet thick. They are flanked by eight by Dr. John Williams, Archbishop of York, who, in vast circular embattled towers, each of which for1645, gave the government of it to his nephew, merly had a slender machicolated tower rising from William Hookes. Two years afterwards, the arch- the top. On the side towards the river, one of the bishop was superseded in the command of North towers has been rent asunder by some of the inhabitWales by Prince Rupert, at which he was greatly ants of the town quarrying the foundation for slates : offended. He endeavoured to gain some redress part of it stands erect, and part hangs in a slanting from the King, but without success, and enraged at direction, forming altogether a singular ruin. The the injury, he joined Mytton, the Parliamentary interior consists of two courts, bounded by the general, and assisted in the reduction of Conway. various apartments, all of which are in a lamentThe town was taken by storm, August 15th, 1646, able state of decay, though still bearing strong but the Castle held out till the 6th of November. marks of former magnificence. Few buildings in
The superiority of the fortress seemed to inspire the kingdom have more frequently called forth the respect, for while the Parliament forces dismantled talent of the artist; it has been made the scene other castles, they did not destroy this. It was of dramatic representation, and has often been the afterwards granted by King Charles to the Earl of theme of the poet. Conway and Kilulta, who had scarcely obtained The Iron Suspension Bridge, which crosses the possession, ere he ordered an agent to remove all the l river exactly opposite to the Castle, is a structure of Vol. III.